Philosophical Reflections

(Under Revision)

An analysis of History of Philosophy, Mysticism, Metaphysics , Psychology and Modern Physics.

Dr. Abdul Lathief

 “Dedicated to my Master Vadakara Mullakoya Thangal and Master of masters Ibn Arabi-Spain”


  "This Book is inspired by The Great Classic "Fusus al Hikam" of the Greatest Master “Ibn Arabi -Spain". 




Part I: Nature of Reality

Chapter 1: The Planes of the Absolute

   I:  Absolute Being.

  II. Absolute Subject.

 III Absolute Spirit

 IV. Absolute World.

        A:    Soul World .(Space-Time)

                     i:  Universal Spiritual (Subjective) Soul.

                     ii: Universal Mental Soul .

                    iii: Universal Material Soul .

                            a:    Subtle Material soul .

                            b:    Gross Material Soul                                

        B: Material World

         i      Subtle Material Beings

                     a: Cosmic Mental Being (Cosmos-realm of Quarks)

                     b: Cosmic Imaginary Being (Galaxies-sub atom)

                     c: Cosmic Living Being (Solar system-Atom)

       ii: Gross Material Beings

            1: Celestial Beings

                i: Higher Soul Beings

                     a:   Pluto

                     b: Neptune

                     c: Uranus

             ii: Middle Mental Beings

                     d: Saturn        

                    e: Jupiter

                   f: Mars

                  g: Sun

            iii: Lower imaginary Beings




      2: Terrestrial  Beings

                   a-Fire being

                   b-Air being

                   c-Water being

                   d-Earth being

                   e: Mineral being.

                    f: Plant being.

                    g: Animal being.

                     h-Terrestrial Angels


                     J: Human beings.

                           a:    Subjective Spirit

                                        i: Soul

                                        ii: Consciousness

                                        iii: Spirit

                            b:     Objective Spirit                                           

                                         i: Law

                                         ii:  Morality of Conscience

                                          iii: Social Ethics

                            c:     Absolute Spirit                                          

                                          i: Artistic Spirit.

                                          ii: Religious Spirit.

                                          iii: Philosophic Spirit.

     V: Absolute Man

Chapter 2:         The Transcendent the Eternal and the Temporal       

Chapter 3:          Creative evolution and dissolution

Chapter 4:          The living world

Chapter 5:          Conscious evolution       

Chapter 6:          The unique human spirit 

Chapter 7:          The path of the seeker   

Chapter 8:          Wisdom, Love, Power   

Chapter 9:        World of Imagination

Chapter 10:       Life & Death

Chapter 11:     Concept of God                       

Part II: Philosophy &Branches of Philosophy.     

Chapter 1:         Philosophy.

Chapter 2:          Mysticism.

 Chapter 3:          Metaphysics

Chapter 4:          Ontology 

Chapter 5:          Epistemology

Chapter 6:        Logic.

Chapter 7:        Philosophy of Mind

Chapter 8:      Philosophy of Language

 Chapter 9:       Aesthetics.

 Chapter 10         Philosophy of Religion.

Chapter 11:      Political Philosophy.

Chapter  12:     Social Philosophy

Chapter 13:      Philosophy of History

Chapter 14:       Ethics: Good & Evil       

Part III: History of Philosophy

Chapter 1:  Introduction.

Section A: Western philosophy 

Chapter:  1         Introduction.

Division I: Ancient  Philosophy

 Chapter 1:          Greek Philosophy

i-Pre Socratic Period.

Chapter 2          Ionic Philosophy

              A:   Thales

              B:   Anaximander

              C:   Anaximenes

Chapter 3          Pythagoreans

Chapter 4          Eleatic Philosophy.

             A:     Xenophanes

             B:    Parmenides

             C:    Zeno

Chapter 5          Heraclitus

Chapter 6          Empedocles.

Chapter 7          The Atomists-Democritus.

Chapter 8          Anaxagoras

Chapter 9          The Sophists

             A:        Protagoras

             B:        Gorgias

             C:       Later Sophists..

ii- Socratic Period.

Chapter 10        Socrates.

Chapter 11:        The Socratics.

              A:      Antisthenes and the Cynicism

              B:     Aristippus and Hedonism.

             C:       Euclid and the Megarians.

Chapter 12          Plato

Chapter 13       Aristotle

iii- Post Aristotelian period    

Chapter 14:      Stoicism

Chapter 15:      Epicuras.

Chapter16:      Scepticism 

              A:  Old Scepticism.

              B:  New Academy.

              C: Later Scepticism.

Chapter 17      Neo Platonism 

               A: Philo.



Chapter:18:    Ancient Philosophy-some Concepts and their Antinomies

                A:             Absolute and relative, One and Many, Whole and Parts         

                B.             Idealism and materialism    

               C:            Freedom and Necessity, Free Will and Determinism

ision II: Medieval Philosophypter:

Chapter  1.          Introduction

Chapter:2.          Saint Augustine.

Chapter:3.           Pseudo Dionysius.

Chapter:4.           Boethius.

Chapter:5.           Scotus Erigena.

Chapter:6.           Saint Anselm

Chapter:7.           Roscelin &.Lombard.

               A: Roscelin.

               B: Peter Lombard.          

Chapter:8.         Peter Abelard.

Chapter: 9         Hugo & Bernard.

             A: Hugo of St.Victor.

              B.Bernard of clairvaux

Chapter:10.     Dominicus Gundissalinus

Chapter :11     Grossetetse & Albert.

             A: Robert Grossetetse

             B: Albert the Great.

Chapter:12.      Roger Bacon.

Chapter:13.      Saint Bonaventure.

Chapter:14         Thomas Aquinas

Chapter:15.        Duns Scotus.

Chapter:16.         William of Occam.

Chapter:17          Lully & Pompenaticus

Chapter: 18.       Scholastic controversial concepts.

                A:Realism and Nominalism.

                B: Faith and Reason.



Division III: Modern Philosophy

Chapter :1:            Introduction.

Chapter:2.            Niccola Machiavelli

Chapter:3.            Erasmus.

Chapter:4.            Sir Thomas More.

Chapter:5.           Giordano Bruno.

Chapter:6.           Jacob Boehme.

Chapter:7.           Francis Bacon  

Chapter 8:           Thomas Hobbes.

Chapter:9.           Descartes.

Chapter.10.         Geulinex & Malebranche

Chapter.11          Spinoza 

Chapter 12          Leibniz  

Chapter 13:          Empiricists       

                a:             John Locke           

                b:             Berkeley               

                c:             David Hume         

                d:             Rousseau             

                e:             Rationalism and empiricism               

Chapter 14:          Immanuel Kant  

Chapter15:          Schopenhauer and Nietzsche      

                a:             Schopenhauer     

                b:             Nietzsche              

                c:             Voluntarism: Objective & Subjective               

Chapter 16:          German Idealism           

                a:             Fichte    

                b :            Schelling               

                c :            Hegel     

                d:             Idealism: Subjective & Objective     

                e:             Idealism and realism        

Chapter 17:          The Evolutionists           

                a:             Herbert Spencer  

                b :            Darwin and Lamarck           

                c:             Henri Bergson  

iv: Contemporary  Philosophy  

Chapter 20:        Marxism and Materialism           

                a:             Marxism

                b:             Materialism: Mechanistic & Dialectical           

Chapter 21:        Croce, White head, James          

                a:             Benedetto Croce  

                b:             White head          

                c:             William James      

Chapter 22:         Heidegger and Existentialism

                 a:             Martin Heidegger and Dasein

                b:             Existentialism       

                 c:            Existence and Essence       

Chapter23:      Positivism and Logical Positivism.

                    a:          Positivism

                   b:         Logical positivism

Chapter 24:      Phenomenology           

Chapter  25:     Structuralism, Post Structuralism and Cultural Anthropology.

                 a:           Structuralism

                 b:           Post Structuralism

                 c:            Cultural Anthropology.    

Chapter 26:     Systems Theory and Autopoiesis

                a:            Systems Theory

                b:           Autopoiesis

Chapter 27:     Chaos and Complexity Theory

Chapter 28:        Modern ideal philosophies           

                 a:             Neo Thomism      

                b:             Personalism          

                c:             Neo realism 

Chapter 29:     Post Modernism and Critical Theory

                     a:           Post Modernism

                    b:           Critical Theory  

Chapter 30:     Foucault ,Derrida and Habermas

                 a:       Michel Foucault   

                  b:      Jacques Derrida

                  c:      Jurgen Habermas

Chapter 31      Other Post Modern Philosophies

                 a:           Critical Realism

                b:           Meta physics of quality 

Chapter 32      Ken Wilber and Integral Post Metaphysics

Chapter 33    Hermeneutics & Gadamer

              a:          Hermeneutics

              b:         Hans-Georg Gadamer

Chapter 34   Fukuyama and Huntington        

     a:           Francis Fukuyama and The End of History and the Last Man

      b:          Samuel  P. Huntington and Clash of Civilisations

Chapter 35   Participatory Philosophy and the Fourth World

Section B: Eastern Philosophy

Chapter 1:         Introduction

i: Indian Philosophy.

Chapter 1:          Hindu Philosophy          

                a:             Samkhya               

                b:             Kashmir shaivism  

                c:             Vedanta

                 d:            Conscious and unconscious            

Chapter 2:          Jain Philosophy 

Chapter 3:          Buddhist philosophy

Chapter 4:          Theosophy

Chapter :5:         Sri Aurabindo and Integral yoga

Chapter :6       J.Krishnamurthy

Chapter :7      Osho Rajneesh

ii: Other Eastern Philosophies

Chapter 1:          Persian philosophy: Zoroastrianism          

Chapter 2:          Chinese philosophy: Taoism

Chapter 3:         Japanese Philosophy:Shintoism    

 Section C: Abrahamic Philosophy.

Chapter 1           Introduction.

Chapter 2:          Jewish philosophy: Kabala        

Chapter 3:        Christian philosophy      

                a:             Gnosticism           

                b:             Thomas Aquinas

Chapter 4         Islamic philosophy         

                a:             Mutazilah and Ashiri          

                b:             Al kindi 

                c:             Al Farabi, Ibn Sina, and Ibn Rushd     

                d:             Al Razi & Al Ghazali             

                e:          Suhrawardi and illuminationist philosophy

                f:           Ibn Arabi

                g:          Mulla Sadra

                h:          Shah Waliyullah

                 i:             Mohd Iqbal          

                 j:             Sufism   

                    i:  Maqam and Hal

                   ii:  Emanations

                   iii: Time and Space by Iraqi

                    iv: Nafs

                    v:  Nafs,Qalb,Ruh

                    vi: Manzils

                    vii:  Fana and Baqa-Dhat,Sifat,Af'al

                    viii: Fana Af'al Baqa Af'al

                    ix:  Fana Sifat Baqa Sifat

                     x:  Fana Dhat Baqa Dhat

                   xi:  Tauhid

                    xii: Ilm ul Yaqin,Ain ul Yaqin,Haq ul Yaqin

                   xiii: Ijadiya,Suhudiya,Wujudiya Sufism

Chapter ;5    Ridwan School and Diamond approach.

Chapter :6   Perennial Philosophy and Traditionalism

                        a: Rene Guenon

                        b: frithjof  Schuon

                        c:Seyyed Hussein Nasr

Section D: African Philosophy.

 Part IV: Mind Physiology & Human Psychology

 Section-A:   Mind Physiology            

Section-B:    Human Psychology

Chapter 1:          Freud, Adler, Jung, and Berne     

                 a:             Freud and psychoanalysis

                b:             Adler and individual psychology    

                c:             Jung and analytical psychology      

                d:             Berne and transactional analysis    

Chapter 2:          Neo Behaviorism           

Chapter 3:          Gestalt psychology

Chapter  4:        Cognitive Psychology

Chapter  5:        Humanistic Psychology       

Chapter 6:        Modern trends in Psychology

                 a:           Evolutionary Psychology.

                 b:           Developmental Psychology.

                c:            Depth Psychology

                d:           Transpersonal Psychology

Chapter 7        Experimental Psychology and  James Baldwin

                  a:          Experimental Psychology

                  b:           James Mark Baldwin

Chapter 8:       Jean Gebser and Clare Graves                 

                a:           Gebser and Structures of Consciousness

                b:             Graves and Spiral Dynamics

Chapter 9        The Enneagram

Chapter 10:          Action, sensation etc.     

                 a :            Pragmatism           

                b:             Empiricism            

                c:             Emotion

                d:             Rationalism          

                e:             Intuition

Chapter 11:          Causation, Determinism, Free will           

                a:             Causation             

                b:             Determinism         

                c:             Free will

Part: V: Cosmology & Modern Physics.

 Chapter:1:  Cosmology

 Chapter:2: Modern Physics.



 Part I : Nature of Reality


Chapter 1 : The planes of the  Absolute      


Philosophy means love of wisdom. It is the study and knowledge of life and world. Wisdom here means knowledge about the essential nature of reality. So philosophy basically differs from other sciences and knowledge .Unlike particular sciences it is all comprehensive and looks into the ultimate essence or nature of things and unlike ordinary knowledge it is scientific and systematic knowledge. So Kant describe philosophy as scientific world view. Here scientific means rational or what accords to reason. According to Hegel philosophy is thinking about Thought itself. Here Notion or Mind is considered as the ultimate essence and world and history is seen as the becoming of Mind from abstract to concrete. As Mind itself is becoming from it's abstract state in nature as Being and Essence,through  in history it becomes more and more concrete as it becomes more and more self conscious of itself as Mind. Philosophy is the fullest expression of this self consciousness of that period  in pure thought. According to Heidegger philosophy is neither scientific world view nor thinking about Thought but it is the science of Being. Here Being is not another entity like other beings but the Being of beings. All these different views about philosophy can be reconciled if we remember that philosophy is the study of the nature of reality. Scientific world view is the study of the essence of the world and Hegel's view of philosophy as knowledge of Thought also is the knowledge of the nature of reality because Hegel consider Thought or Mind as the ultimate essence. Heidegger also consider Being as the ground of beings so the science of Being is also the knowledge of the ultimate nature of beings. 

        Another consideration in philosophy is about the method. Almost all western philosophy irrespective of empiricism or rationalism, idealism or materialism is based on reason. So it is a rational explanation of reality. One notable exception to this is Heidegger-more specifically later Heidegger (Heidegger II) and his 'Philosophy of Being' of that period. This is more of an intuitional philosophy than rational philosophy. Similarly when we look at eastern philosophy most of them are intuitional  than rational philosophy. Here in this book also our primary method of philosophy is intuition which we then substantiate with reason. So our primary source is intuition and reason is only  secondary source. There is a misconception among most of the western philosophers that intuition as a means of authentic knowledge is something below reason. Hegel especially equate intuition many times with immediate knowledge like sensory knowledge, unlike reason which is mediated knowledge. Now the reality is intuition is something beyond reason and not behind reason. This is because intuition is occasional glimpses from the higher spiritual plane while reason is from lower soul plane (we will explain this in detail later). It is true that intuition may also go wrong as it is not the plane of Real or Truth which is the spiritual plane but only glimpses from the spiritual plane and may be colored with reason, reflection, imagination or senses but when compared with reason and soul plane the chances of error are less. Most of the time what we receive as intuition we then substantiate with reason. This we will illustrates with  consciousness of God and self consciousness. Unlike atheism which is pure rational conviction those fortunate ones among us who have strong conviction of an higher reality called God, knows that it is an intutional experience and knowledge and not one derived from reason. All rationalising like ontological and cosmological proof comes after this intuitional knowledge so as to substantiate this knowledge. Similar is the case with self consciousness. Those who have real self consciousness and experienced their pure subjectivity  knows that it is an existential experience and not some thing derived from sensations, imaginations,or thoughts.. It is not that we have self consciousness because we are conscious of our body or discursive mind. It is not that we are self conscious because primarily we are body conscious and self consciousness derived from this body consciousness. Even in every day life when we say our body or our mind we are unconsciously stating the fact that the self as real witness is something beyond body and mind and reason or it is a form of higher mind. This means Self contains and also transcends body and lower mind. So in this philosophical reflections most of the time our primary source is intuition hence this is an intuitional philosophy.

    Another point is the central idea of a philosophy. Every philosophy irrespective of idealism, materialism, rationalism, empiricism, existentialism have a definite central idea the author try to convey to the reader. In this sense our philosophy may be called philosophy of the Unity of Being. This is Absolute Monism and is like the monism of Sankara and Hegel in essence but differs somewhat in detail which we will explain later. There is only One Being and everything is the expressions of that Being.  This differs from Dualism because neither there are two Beings nor the one Being is a Being of equal opposites. The Being as such is beyond the nature of manifested mind or matter, male or female, positive or negative, good or evil. To this Being even manifested mind is non being. In Sankara's Vedanta philosophy  this creative aspect of mind is called Maya ,the illusionary power of the Absolute.

      Whenever we contemplate on the essential nature or reality of beings we have to conceive of a logical state at which there is no consideration of any other form of beings except Ultimate Reality or The Being in Itself. What I mean by beings are not only what appear externally before the senses but also in the phenomenological sense like what ever appear in and as mind. Further here by beings meant neither human beings alone nor only living beings but all the realities to which predicates can be attributed. So this include minerals and metals like gold, iron due to their respective qualities and elementals like fire, earth etc due to their fiery and earthy natures and even simple elements and compounds. Similarly predicates like life, knowledge, imagination, love, power etc are attributes of beings like knower, lover and powerful.  This Being is the ultimate source and ground of all beings.  

     When we consider the whole knowable reality or range of beings every thing can be ultimately reduced into either mental or physical or a combination of both. Physical I am using in it's broadest sense so it includes both matter and energy. So physical includes  not only gross matter ,material bodies, molecules, and atoms but also fundamental particles like leptons, quarks, photons, mesons etc and even strings and p-branes and energy like electro magnetic waves. According to modern physics and quantum mechanics matter can be ultimately reduced to energy and the native state of energy is wave and particle state is an illusion produced by the influence of mind. In quantum physics this is called superposition. So the essence of physical is energy. Mental includes everything depending on consciousness like sensations, imaginations, emotions, feelings, passions, thoughts, reflections, contemplations, reason etc. So we have either mind or matter as the ultimate essence of all knowable realities. Here we comes to the nature of the opposites.

     The common notion about the opposites like being and non being, mind and matter, positive and negative, male and female, good and evil is that they are two separate realities or essences and they oppose each other with equal force. According to Kant and Hegel the opposites of thesis and antithesis give rise to a third category called synthesis which contain in itself equally both thesis and antithesis yet transcend both of them. This synthesis  then becomes an higher thesis which give rise to antithesis and again form higher synthesis. Earlier we mentioned that The Being(positive) contain in itself creative mind as nonbeing(negative).  Similarly here what we propose is all the realities or essences are in reality predominantly positive  which contain in itself it's opposite like  negative but contain it and transcend it so in reality there are only positive essences. Here what appear as negative and opposite is only a lower form of the positive. This means the opposites are not equal but being contain in itself non being ,positive contain negative and mind contain matter. This also means even when there is apparent predominance of negative or non being a deeper analysis of the essential nature of that subject will reveal it as containing also positive and being. Male contain female and is a lower form of male so female also contain male. This is symbolically presented in Bible as Eve coming out of Adam. So there is only positive or being because not only positive contain in itself negative but negative is only a lower form of positive .So what we proposes here is there are no two such opposing essences or duality. There is only one Essence but neither is this essence an abstract one or simple unity without opposites. Mind and Matter are in reality one and the same thing and only two different ways or views of the same thing. So when we proceed along our ideal philosophy at last we will come to the conclusion that mind and energy are not two separate essences but one and the same thing with two aspects or different points of view. In other words matter or energy is not an independent reality but is the form of mind itself.

    The  essential nature of  mind in it's internal aspect or subjective aspect is consciousness and the objective aspect or external form is energy or matter. Here consciousness is used as the essence or nature of mind as subject with predicates, subjective consciousness which include in itself objective consciousness. ,knowledge not as mere knowledge but as knower which include in itself knowledge of known, thought not as thoughts but as thinker including in itself thoughts. This means not only all forms of experiences like knowledge, thoughts, imagination, sensations, emotions, feelings, passions but everything and all realities even material objects are only different forms of mind . This can be further explained when we analyse the two forms of mind. Mind whose essence is subjectivity or subjective consciousness  has two states. One mind in its immediacy or pre reflective state- spontaneous passive mind and the other mediated or reflected or active mind. It is the nature of mind that  immediacy is prior to or precedes mediation, undifferentiated state is prior to differentiation, indeterminate state is prior to determination. The immediate mind  is prior to reflection. We have seen that energy is the form of mind. In this passive state the form of mind is energy at rest. This we call the essence of energy (passive energy). This essence of energy need some clarification. As we know matter is nothing but a form of energy and all basic particles or subatomic particles can be reduced to leptons, quarks, photons and bosons. Energy units or photon differ each other according to their quanta and frequency and vibrations. Photons with higher frequency have higher quanta and higher energy and higher temperature. Photons with least frequency have least quanta and minimum energy and minimal temperature like radio waves. Essence of energy is the initial state of energy at which it has no frequency or vibrations so beyond any definite quanta (beyond quantamisation) .. What I mean by essence of energy is energy before and beyond any definite frequency or vibrations or energy  at rest. This is also same as the strings  in String theory, but strings in an unexcited state. Strings before definite vibrations to form leptons, photons and bosons-the basic particles of both matter and energy As we have only knowledge of energy with definite frequency this external form of mind with zero frequency or rest  is unknowable.This is the passive state of mind because here there is no activity or motion of mind which results from mind reflecting upon itself or thinking of itself or becoming conscious of itself which produce particular consciousness or knowledge or thoughts. In immediacy or as pre reflective mind, mind is in it's pure state and it's internal aspect also is  prior to  universal subjectivity or universal self consciousness and so unknowable.So Mind at this state,both internal aspect and external aspect unknowable. At this state there is no thinking so there is no knowledge or thoughts. Thinking is the movement or activity of pre reflective or passive mind or thinking is active mind. Thoughts are the result of this thinking and this thoughts are knowledge.The second aspect of mind, The reflected mind has two states,one the higher internal reflected mind and the other lower external reflected mind.The external form of internal reflected mind is energy with infinite frequency and external reflected mind is energy with finite frequency. The first or highest active state of mind or internal reflective mind is as universal subjectivity or self consciousness.This subjectivity is not consciousness of a subject or self separate from it as knowledge but this subjectivity or self itself is this consciousness. This further means in self consciousness thinking or knowing is being or to think or know and to be is one and the same. This means here subject itself becomes the object of consciousness. So here thoughts are as thinker or knowledge as knower. So this universal subjective consciousness can only be experienced and lived but is never an object of thought or knowledge. So this first or highest state is when the object of subject is pure subjectivity without any predicates or content.This state in it's universal aspect,not individual aspect is called Divine Mind. This is the first active state of  mind and this universal subjectivity is prior to all other forms of consciousness. All the other states of reflective mind or in other words all other forms and activities of the mind like knowledge, observation, sensations, imaginations, perceptions, thinking, emotions, feelings are arising out of this subjectivity and are only different forms and states of this first state of  reflective mind and this universal subjectivity accompany all these other activities of the mind consciously or unconsciously. Now apart from this subjectivity which contain in itself potentially all the objects, first state of  reflective mind has no other actual contents because all actual contents are developed from this potential state by second state or other activities of the mediated or active mind by making them an object for consciousness. This is why Sartre speculating on this pure subjectivity in it's individual aspect,not universal aspect describe it as Nothingness in his 'Being and Nothingness'. This is not really the state of nothingness because this state of pure subjectivity is potentially everything and this nothingness is only an abstraction of subjectivity form everything made by the reflected mind itself by posting them as objects. This is what we mentioned as the first state of  reflective mind as pure subjectivity without predicates.

    The second  state of internal reflective mind is when the mind is subject with predicates or being in the world. In it's universal aspect,not individual this is called spiritual mind.This is as we explained earlier, there is no separate knowledge at this state or rather here knowledge of known is experienced as an aspect of knower itself or thoughts as an aspect of thinker. So knowledge of known or objects are not something alien and separate form it but this universal subjectivity contain in itself potentially the world or objects. Here there is unity of subjective and objective consciousness or knower and known or thinker and thoughts. In this second state for this universal subjective consciousness objects or the world is not an object of consciousness as external and apart and different from subjectivity but includes in itself as it's peripheral contents. So even if there is no difference there is distinction and here the other is not something completely different from the subjectivity but it's own other. This in it's individual aspect is what Heidegger means Dasein's ontological structure as 'being in the world'. Secondly as this is universal subjective consciousness it experience unity of all individual subjects..

     The second aspect of reflected mind is external reflected or mediated or active mind. This mind is the active state of mind when mind becomes conscious of itself or thinking upon itself producing knowledge or thoughts. Here there is beginning of movement or definite vibrations or frequency or activity of  reflective  mind. Here the vibrations or frequency of energy from infinity becomes definite frequencies. This active mind is in the forms of thinking, perceptions, sensations, feelings, emotions and this produce various forms of thoughts and knowledge like rational, imaginary, sensory knowledge. So due to this motion which is reflected or active mind there is knowledge or thoughts and this will result in the separation of subject and object or knower and known or thinker and thoughts. Here the potential contents of internal reflective mind becomes an object for external reflective mind. Another difference between internal reflective mind and external reflective mind is while former mind is universal subjectivity ,as the latter mind this universality is lost and limited to itself as particular or individual subjectivity. While pure universal subjectivity  is internal reflective mind this is external mind. Like internal mind there are also two states of this external reflective mind. Unconscious and conscious reflective mind. Most of the time we are thinking ,feeling and sensing without being conscious of this reflective mind. The second is conscious reflective mind where we are aware of our reflective mind. This is when we are conscious that we are thinking ,feeling or sensing. In external reflective mind there is knowledge not as knower like internal reflective mind but as knowledge due to separation of knower and known.

        The lowest state of the unconscious reflective mind is what we may call material mind. Here mind identifies or thinking itself as gross matter. This is the state of mind in which energy has least vibrations or lowest frequency. Here particular subjectivity is completely identified with matter. This is as we mentioned earlier are the material bodies and gross matter and also the natural state of infants and early childhood. The ultimate reality is prior to matter so It is beyond this unconscious reflective mind as material mind. A still higher state of the unconscious reflective mind is what we call subtle mind. Here energy as form of mind has still higher frequency. What I mean by subtle mind is not only the realm of of imaginations but also other realms of mind like sensations, emotions, feelings, passions, desires and also ordinary discursive thoughts. This is an objective realm and this can be compared in its subjective aspect with all forms of human unconscious reflective mind. The objective aspect of this subtle mind is the first higher plane reached in the way of self realisation. In normal day to day life human mind is what we describe as unconscious reflective mind. This means we are thinking, imagining, feeling and sensing without being simultaneously conscious of our subjectivity.  As we already explained earlier unlike universal subjectivity of internal reflective mind this subjectivity is particular or individual. Most of the time we go on thinking or knowing or feeling without being conscious of the fact that we are thinking or feeling. We are only conscious of the product of this thinking or feeling but never simultaneously aware of this thinking or feeling process or subject. Unlike internal reflective mind and external conscious reflective mind where subjectivity is experienced as something distinct (internal reflective mind) or different (conscious reflective mind) from object of consciousness, as unconscious reflective mind the subjectivity completely identifies itself with the object of consciousness. So here unaware of subjectivity  experience is limited to object of thinking, feeling, sensations or imagination. What we have to remember is this subtle mind is an objective realm and our subjective subtle mind is only a limited and distorted aspect of this objective realm which is much vaster and includes this subjective plane. A still higher state of the mind is what we call the conscious reflective mind. This is also called soul mind. Here energy has still higher frequency. What I mean by soul mind is the realm of ideas and thoughts arising out of self consciousness where the being is fully conscious of his individual subjectivity and every thing arising out of this subjectivity. In contrast to internal reflective mind in this conscious reflective mind there is always an object for mind set apart from subjectivity. Unlike internal reflective mind here mind  posit two independent and different realities -a subject and an object  Similar to subtle mind this is also an objective realm and is the second higher plane reached in the way of self realisation.The corresponding human subjective realm is described by the individual subjectivity of Husserl after the phenomenological reduction-first eidetic reduction. This is also what Heidegger and other existentialists calls Dasein's  existential consciousness .Conscious reflective mind is revealed by constant awareness or directing our consciousness to this thinking or knowing subject .This is in other words awareness of reflective mind or consciousness of reflective mind. .In soul mind apart from the objects of mind we are also conscious of our individual particular subjectivity. As we explained above what we have to remember here is our awareness of the individual subtle and soul mind is subjective and only a limited and distorted aspect of objective subtle and soul mental plane which are much vaster and greater and includes this human subjective plane.

        As we explained in detail earlier the highest state of the mind and it's original nature is what we called pre reflective mind. Then comes the two states of internal reflected mind.This is also called  divine mind and spiritual mind.So beyond the two forms of external reflective mind described just above there is this internal reflective mind described earlier. This is pure, spontaneous universal subjective mind. This is the original nature of mind. Unlike external reflective mind where there is duality as subject and object here there is unity because here this subjectivity itself is mind. The first difference between the subjectivity of conscious reflective mind or soul mind and the subjectivity of lower internal reflective mind or spiritual mind is in soul plane the subjectivity is individual and particular while in spiritual plane subjectivity has a universal character. The second difference is in soul plane the objects are totally different , alien and external to the subject while as spiritual mind subject includes object or objects are internal to the subject and there is no fundamental difference but only distinction between subject and object. So here object is not same as subject but other, but subject's own other.Internal reflective mind is spiritual mind where there is universal subjective consciousness and to which object is not something entirely different and external to it but include in itself as it's own other. Here there is unity of subjective and objective consciousness or here knowing is being. Spiritual mind is  this immediate awareness before and beyond subjective and objective separation. Here mind is  not as individual souls but as Absolute Spirit. What J. Krishnamurthy called choice less awareness , Osho Rajneesh silent witnessing self,  Mulla Sadra Presencial Cognition (Ilm Hudluri). This is what Hegel calls the realm of speculative reason where there is unity of consciousness and self consciousness. This is Heidegger's realm of Ereignis where there is belonging together of Dasein and Being. This is also the state attained by what Husserl calls the second or transcendental reduction where every thing (not only the essences but also all particular subjectivities including one's own) is reduced to transcendental or universal subjectivity. But unlike phenomenological method which is an intellectual or rational knowledge of this state this is an existential or experiential consciousness. Internal reflective mind is the state of pure consciousness or experiencing or knowledge where subjective consciousness, consciousness itself, objective consciousness; or experiencer, experience and experienced or knower-knowledge-known  form or in a unity. This is the state where there is no conflict or duality between subjective and objective but there is both complete unity between them and also predominance of subjectivity which includes objectivity in itself. This is the state of ecstasy of the Neo-Platonists where there is only distinction but neither difference nor separation of the knower and known. As we explained earlier this internal reflective mind has an higher  and a lower or second state. The lower state or spiritual mind is what we just explained as the consciousness of the predicates or world as subject's own object. The higher state or Divine Mind is where subject abstracts all predicates so that pure subjectivity becomes an object to itself.

      The Ultimate Reality or The Being is prior to material mind, so this must be before physical time. What I mean by physical time is time according to modern physics. Time beginning from a physical event. According to modern physics Big bang event is the point of singularity and the beginning of present serial time. According to idealists thoughts are before things, in other words mind is prior to matter.  Since this reality is also prior to subtle mind, this must be prior to subtle time. Discursive thoughts and imaginations are always in a flux or motion and there is always movement from one thought to another in succession. So there is subtle serial time. This Reality is also prior to soul  mind because soul world has a beginning as individual and particular souls. This Reality is also prior to spiritual mind or lower internal reflective mind  because spiritual plane has a logical beginning of mind as Universal Subject (Absolute Spirit). What I mean by logical priority is mathematical priority like one precedes two; two precedes three and the priority of events. This also precedes higher internal reflective mind or Divine Mind as Absolute Subject. So it means this highest state of the Absolute logically precedes even the state as  divine or internal reflective mind.

I: The Absolute Being.

    The highest plane or the first plane is the plane of the Absolute in itself. This is the Absolute as Unknowable Essence or Absolute Being  This highest state of the Absolute we call Absolute Being. Transcendence is attributed to the Absolute Being from two angles. One conforming to reason and this is as we mentioned earlier is the logical priority. In this case the Absolute Being is prior to reality as  Divine Mind or Absolute Subject  and creative mind or as  Absolute Spirit, and Absolute Subject and Absolute Spirit or internal reflective mind is a lower form of this Absolute Being. Here Absolute Spirit and Absolute world is a later development from this Absolute Being. This is not a temporal priority because time even as a concept only occur at the plane of Absolute Spirit. So this is as we explained earlier is a logical priority. This logical priority is the priority of the Absolute Being with reason and rational philosophers. Here Absolute Being exists from all eternity or without beginning . We have seen that Being is independent of Absolute Spirit and Absolute World due to logical priority. Absolute Spirit &Absolute World are creative mind itself as Subject and predicates So even though the creative or illusionary power of mind is the power  of  The Being as Unknowable Essence,it is only a predicate or attribute of Being and not Being itself and also at this state this creative aspect is dorment so Absoloute Being is also independent of the illusionary power or the effect of creative aspect of mind.. This means at this highest state Absolute Being is an Unknowable Essence. This Absolute is Being and Existence .Here being or existence is not a predicate but Essence Itself. This Being or Existence is also different from the usual implied meaning which is the being or existence of creative mind. As we mentioned else where This Being is the Sole Reality. Every other beings are the gradations or states of this Being. All subjects are lower forms of this Being. This Being has no dual nature with two opposing  aspects like mind/matter, positive/negative, male /female, good/evil  but beyond these opposites. This Absolute Being is Positive which contain in itself illusionary or creative mind as non being and negative, as a lower form of it. When compared with this Absolute Being who is Positive and Being and Existence creative mind is negative, non being and non existent. This is why it is said that The Absolute Being is independent of attributes. This is also the reason certain mystics and philosophers like Shabistari and Sankara describe the plane of Absolute Spirit and world as relative non being and non being and Savishesha Brahman (Absolute with predicates) as a result of Maya or illusion. This all stresses the character of negativity and non being of creative aspect of mind when compared with the Absolute Being. This Maya Shakti(illusionary,creative power) being not Absoulte itself but only the power of Absolute is dorment at this state ,Hence Absolute is independent of it

        Transcendence is also attributed to Absolute Being from another angle. This is conforming to intuition and this is ontological priority. Here Absolute Being always is as He was .This means not only The Being is eternally and without beginning transcendent due to logical priority but even now and everlastingly he is transcendent. Here Absolute Being contain in itself Absolute Spirit and Absolute world but always transcend it so neither limited nor defined by it. In this case there is no mere logical priority because here Absolute Being is not considered in his priority before the development of Absolute Subject ,Absolute Spirit and world alone but in it's all inclusiveness so containing  in itself  Absolute Spirit and Absolute World. We have seen that Absolute Being is independent of Absolute Spirit and Absolute World in it's ontological priority. As we explained earlier  Absolute Spirit and Absolute World are nothing but creative aspect of mind as subject and predicates and so Absolute Being in it's ontological priority is also independent of predicates or creative mind. Here as we explained earlier predicates or creative mind is related to Absolute Being only in a negative or non being way while creative mind's relation to Absolute Spirit and Absolute World is positive and being because these are reflective mind itself. .So Absolute Spirit and Absolute World depends on creative mind while Absolute Being is independent of creative aspect of mind. This ontological priority is the Absolute Being's priority with self realised man and mystics. We have mentioned earlier that ultimately there is only One Being. This  is Positive and Being. Now this positive and being is not the same as our concept of positive and being. Our concept of positive and being is opposed by negative and non being.This is because our concept of positive and being is limited by creative mind because as we as mentioned creative mind is the essence of world both in its unmanifest state as  Absolute Spirit and also in the state of manifestation as World.In the state of non existence this is negative and non being. So our concept of being as to be ,to exist is the Isness of creative mind. Similar is our positivity. So when we say The Absolute is Being and Positive this is not being of creative mind but the Being as The  Unknowable Essence. So here to say Absolute is Being or Existence is same as  The Essence. To the Being creative aspect of mind itself is negative and non being. So this Absolute which is Positive and Being contain in itself both Absolute Spirit and Absolute World as negative and non being. As we mentioned earlier the Positive and Being contain in itself it's opposite the negative and non being. Secondly as we explained this negative and non being is not the opposite of Being but a lower form of it. So apart form saying Absolute is Positive and Being which is not predicate but The Essence  Itself the essential nature remains unknowable because knowledge which is form of mind is itself only negative and non being when compared with the Being. This negativity and non being of creative aspect of mind is what Sankara calls Maya Shakti (illusionary power) and in Samkya philosophy Prakrti. So the main characteristic of this state of Absolute Being in which all the mystics are in agreement is it's complete unknowability. This means first of all even the term Being signifies only that it is a concept to which the predicate 'unknowable' is attributed. So here  we enter into the realm of intuition and speculative reason. Here speculation is used in the sense of Hegel's speculative dialectical reason and not business speculation. We have earlier explained that all knowable realities ,essences and natures as beings and subjects can be ultimately reduced to creative mind. When we say the essence of Absolute Being is unknowable this unknowability may be due to the following reasons. The first possibility is as we explained earlier due to It's ontological priority. Here the essence is something entirely different from creative mind so mind (the essence or nature of this creative mind is subjective consciousness.) is nothing, negative and non being when compared with the Absolute which is positive and being. Here creative mind is  a lower state or form of this Being. In this case Absolute Being remain unknowable because it is beyond creative mind and knowledge. Most of the mystics and philosophers hold  this view. Ibn Arabi categorically says in Fusus that 'knowledge (consciousness) is neither Essence itself nor entirely different from it .Knowledge is an attribute and The Essence is the source of this attribute. Knower is only a state of the Essence when knowledge is attributed to it'. Spinoza says Substance is higher than the attributes and both Thought (consciousness) and Extension (matter) are the attributes of the substance. According to German idealist Schelling also Absolute is an higher reality and both ego (knower) and non ego (known &matter) are its contents. The second view is that the essence of Being is Mind itself as Absolute Mind. Here the difference of Absolute Mind from the knowable mind is intensive. So the Absolute Mind is qualitatively and quantitatively differ from knowable mind due to this difference in intensity.  There are  mystics and philosophers who consider the nature of Absolute Essence as Thought(abdul karem jili of INSAN UL KAMIL), Ego (Iqbal), Will (Schopenhauer), Beauty, Love or Light (Ishraqi School). But in the final analysis it can be seen that all these are nothing but forms of mind itself .As we will see later even light is only the form of mind as essence of energy and manifested energy. As we already explained here the unknowability and infinity is not extensive but intensive. This means even though the essence of both Absolute and creation is mind the Absolute Mind is qualitatively and quantitatively different and hence unknowable because of difference in intensity  In mysticism the great mystic of kerala Sree Naryana Guru also seems to have the same view  in identifying the nature of this highest state as mind.. It is about this state that Sree Narayana Guru says in his book Arivu (knowledge)-'Ariyum mumpetenna larivellatonnu mingerepeela' (If we ask what is there before knowledge (consciousness) there exists nothing but knowledge).In Hindu philosophy one of the four MAHAD VAKYA(GREAT WORD) of vedas and upanishad is PRAJNAN BRAHMAN(consciousness itself is Brahman)  Here also Absolute Mind is different from knowable mind hence Unknowable. The third  view is that the essence of the Being is mind as infinite subjective consciousness itself but at this initial state mind exists not as consciousness but as Being. This state is prior to thinking and knowledge so mind is neither reflecting on itself as mind or not knowing itself as consciousness or as Subject. This we can compare with the initial sleeping or resting state of pre reflective mind where there is not yet dawning of consciousness but in the state of abstract being. Among others Hegel hold this view. Here also the Being is unknowable because mind has not descended into it's real nature which is knowledge or consciousness so here The Absolute is not as Mind but as Being.

       This unknowability can be further explained if we analyse what we mean by the concept Absolute Being. As we already explained ,here Absolute Being is not synonymous with creative mind.. What we call here Absolute Being is an essence entirely different from knowable mind whose essence is consciousness. Mind as consciousness is a lower form of this Absolute Being. Creative mind is negative and nothing or non being when compared with the Being. We conceive the Absolute Being as beyond creative aspect of mind and mind as a lower state or predicate of this Absolute Being due to the following  reasons. We have seen that we can reduce every knowable reality and essences as beings or subjects  into creative mind. Ibn Arabi and all other great mystics affirm that there is only one Ultimate Essence and everything is the different states, forms and manifestations or gradations of that single Essence. Since everything knowable is reduced to creative mind this means creative aspect of mind is only the predicate or lower form of this Essence but whose nature is not knowable mind but beyond it. This  means there is only one real Essence which is Absolute Being and both knowable and unknowable realities are only lower and higher forms of this Absolute Being. We can get a clear conception of the two planes of Absolute (Absolute Being and Absolute Spirit) when we compare this state with the two states of mind. We have seen that mind has two states -state of immediacy or pre reflective mind and state of mediation or reflective mind. We have already seen that mind as  internal reflective mind whose essence is consciousness  is a lower form of  Absolute Being as Absolute Spirit. So the relation of Absolute Being and creative mind is, like the relation of prereflective mind and reflective mind. When we look at the two planes of the Absolute-Absolute Being and Absolute Spirit - The Absolute in the immediate state as Absolute Being is beyond creative mind and mind here is only negative and non being  so a lower form of this Being. So this is why the Being is unknowable because here the essence of Being is not creative mind but beyond it. So this Essence always remain unknowable

       Here the Being is absorbed in Himself or Itself. So all we can say retrospectively from our limited human experience is that as Absolute Being the essence is unknowable. This is because creative aspect of mind which is the attribute or predicate of the Absolute is negative and non being at this state of Absolute Being so the Being transcend it and is not limited or defined by the mind.. Here we are using Absolute Being in it's widest meaning. Here the Being is neither synonymous with knowable mind  nor we state the objective aspect or form of this Being energy or matter like that of mind. When we look at this state, creative mind as the predicate of this Being is negative and non being  or a lower form of the Absolute and only potential at this highest state and matter (energy) which is the form of  mind is also only potential at this state and without having any vibration or frequency and at absolute rest.As we have only conception of energy or matter with definite frequency this state of rest is unknowable. As a matter of fact all the predicates as forms of mind are issuing from this Being so everything is here potentially or even actually as Absolute Spirit and World when looked from the angle of ontological priority but at this state Being remains unknowable or transcends the  predicates or mind ,as mind here is negativity and non being when compared with the Absolute as Positive and Being. So the real nature of this Being is unknowable because creative aspect of mind  being a predicate, the Being of this predicate is  always beyond it. As we explained earlier when we say the Absolute is Being and Exists ,this being and existence is not same as being or existence as mind. Here Being and Existence is beyond the realm of creative mind so synonymous with Absolute. As we explained to this positive Being mind is negative and non being. So as this Being is beyond mind  the predicates of creative mind like being and consciousness (knowledge) which are forms of mind cannot be attributed to it. (Being needs some clarification. Being is used philosophically to denote different meanings. Firstly 'The Being'  as we explained is used to denote the same Absolute Being. Here The Being and Existence is synonymous with The Essence. Plato, Neo-Platonists, Heidegger, Ibn Arabi and Mulla Sadra use Being in this sense. Here Absolute Being is considered both in His logical priority and ontological priority. This is what both Ibn Arabi and Spinoza means by saying the idea of God's Essence involves His existence and His Existence is Essence Itself. Secondly being is used in the sense we used  as existence of creative mind. Here it is used as a principal predicate of any real subject. This is a principal predicate because the idea of any entity or subject imply first and foremost. for us human beings the idea of it's being or existence. Here being means to be, to exist or Isness of the subject. This is contrasted with non being,nonexistence or nothingness.  Descartes and Hegel use being in this sense. As we have mentioned earlier and will explain in detail later  this being of the second meaning is the first form of the Absolute Spirit as subjective spirit So when we analyse this being  we can see that it is creative mind. Rather we can say this being is nothing but mind as only subjectivity or thought as only thinker or knowledge as only knower. So this being cannot be applied to Absolute Being who is beyond creative mind hence beyond this being and non being. Thirdly being is used as opposed to mind. Here it means having physical or material nature composed of either energy or matter. Descartes and Spinoza  use extension as opposed to mind in this sense and Kant use being in this sense. Here being is used as something external or independent to mind as external existence. Fourthly beings is used by existentialists like Heidegger and Sartre to denote every type of entities or subject ).Similarly consciousness or knowledge which is nothing but the other side of this being is the essential nature of creative mind itself so cannot be attributed as the essence of the Absolute Being. Now strictly speaking only The Being in the first sense denoting The Essence is applicable to Absolute Being. We have seen that being in the second sense as 'Is ness'  is nothing but mind as subjectivity which is applicable to the Absolute only  as Absolute Subject. As Absolute Being is beyond affirmation of predicates or creative mind and mind only negativity or non being at this state so Being is beyond this form of mind's being and nonbeing. At this state the Being is absorbed in Itself or Himself so that there is no revelation of any predicates or mind. Whether we look at this state from logical priority or ontological priority mind is negative and non being in this state. So we can say  creative aspect of mind is potential at this stage and they are not revealed when looked from the angle of logical priority or the Being transcends the predicates at this state when viewed from the angle of ontological priority. What ever angle we look mind is nothing or non being and the Absolute Being is independent of mind. This is the highest state of the Absolute as  Absolute Being. The start or beginning is as Absolute Being or rather The Absolute Being is beyond beginning because strictly speaking beginning is a becoming of this Absolute Being and also beginning need time as a concept ,but this state is beyond the formations of concepts. This state or aspect is Absolute in His hidden state. The unknowable Absolute. The Indefinable Being. The Undifferentiated aspect of the Absolute as Absolute Being This is the stage of The One. There is no Other at this stage. This is the stage of absolute rest. This state is actually indefinable and unknowable. Even though all the predicates and attributes issues from this state of Absolute Being nothing can be known about this state. Nothing further can be ascertained about the nature, essence, attributes or content of this Being. As this  state is indefinable and undifferentiated so this is the unknown and unknowable Being. Predicates or attributes and accidents, and the whole universe comes from this source so this is not an empty nothingness but really the source of all but at this state simply indefinable. We start or begins with this Indefinable and unknowable  Being. Unlike the second  plane (Absolute Subject) and third plane (Absolute Spirit) and fourth plane as world which are dependent planes and depends each other and all depends on this first plane for their reality and source, this first plane is completely independent of any predicates or attribute or the world. This is the source of every thing. This is the root of all other beings. All other beings and existences are derived from this Being. Every thing depends on this Being but this does not depend on any thing. There is no predicate apart from this Being.. As Spinoza says here attributes are substance it self. There is no difference between subject and predicate or substance and attributes or form and content at this stage. There is no other at this state. This state is not an object of knowledge or mind as this Being is beyond the state of creative mind. In this sense we can say this is Absolute Being . Some call this state The Unknown and The Unknowable. The Absolute  is unknown and unknowable because Being has either not descended into creative aspect of mind or It transcends mind and there is no known, so this state is not an object of mind.

      So there is only one Essence or one Being  and all realities are only different states or grades of the same Being. This highest state of the Being we denote by Absolute Being. Here the essence is unknowable and it is a transcendental state. The Absolute is Positive and Being. At this state the Being is independent of attributes, mind or world. This does not mean at this state there is no attributes, mind or world but the Being's essential nature transcend them. This also means mind is nothing or negative and non being when compared with this state as Absolute Being which is positive and Being. Retrospectively by speculation we can say creative mind is the principal predicate or lower state of the Being. The predicate mind or consciousness  is inferred from the fact that the second and third plane as  reflective mind or Absolute Subject and Spirit and all the succeeding planes of mind are derived when the Being descends into knowledge or consciousness so the reality or essence of all this states are mind in different forms.  What this further means is as we explained mind  itself is a lower form of the Absolute Being and being and all other predicates are nothing but different forms of this mind or in other words they are also lower forms of the Absolute Being. So Absolute Being is Unknowable Essence and even the knowledge of mind as a predicate and related to Absolute Being as negativity and non being is itself a retrospective knowledge  As a matter of fact apart from this speculation that mind is a predicate of the Absolute Being The Essence always remains Unknowable.

   We will denote this state as First Logos. This state is identified usually with the first principal predicates of the Subject. The Being or The Existent. Not as a predicate but as a state or stage as Absolute Being. So here The Being is used in it's first meaning.

     Ibn Arabi describe this state by various names like The Being (Al-Wujud), The Essence (Al-Dhat), The Real (Al-Haqq), etc. Here Being is used in the first sense of He (huwa) or Absolute Being. It is about this state that Ibn Arabi says in Fusus that The Being is independent of every thing ,both the names (Absolute Spirit) and world. Here the Absolute is not even referred as God because Lordship depends on the known or created and at this stage there is no creation or known. Now Knowledge always depends on the known in other words there cannot be any knowledge without an already existing known. Knowledge depends on known and as there is no known there is also no knowledge. So there is only Being. In 'Fusus' Ibn Arabi call this Al-Dhat (The Essence). The indeterminate Essence .The state of Wajib al Wujud (Necessary Being). According to Ibn Arabi this first plane is the Tansih (Transcendence) aspect of the Absolute and is the Tajrid (isolation) of Tauhid (Unity). Ibn Arabi name this Absolute state as the plane of Ahadiyah (Unity). The state that is independent of both attributes and worlds.   What we have to remember is here Al Wujud  is not mere unconscious being or mere existence or extension as opposed to thought but Absolute Being.

    In Jewish Kabala this Absolute Being is called Kethar (first sephiroth-crown). It is called the concealed of the concealed, the primal point etc. In yetziratic text this is called hidden intelligence and primal glory because no created being can attain to it's essence..

       In Hindu Purana this is symbolised by Siva the destryer.In Hindu philosophy this Absolute Being is denoted as Sat (The Being). In Vedanta this state is called Paratpar Parabrahma. In Viveka Chudamani Sankara denote this plane as Brahman, Paramatman, Para Brahman. This is Brahman without any qualities or predicates (Nirguna Brahman). Sankara calls this Para Brahman (higher Absolute) Nirvishesa or Nirguna Brahman. (Absolute without attributes or qualities). .This Unknowable Being is the Brahman, or Paramatman of Vedanta and Adi Budda of the Mahayana Buddists. Buddha call this the plane of Nirvana-this is the plane of nothingness or void. This is the Tao, in it's highest sense of Taoists.

    This Absolute Being is the Gotheit (Godhead) of Meister Eckhart-the impersonal and the unknowable in contrast with Got (God)-the personal and knowable God. Nicholas of Cusa describe this plane as Absolute Maximum, Absolute Simplicity, Infinitude etc. This Absolute Being is the Being of Parmenides, Plato, Heidegger, Ibn Arabi and Mulla Sadra. This is the Light of lights (Nur al Anwar) of Suhravardi's illuminationist (ishraqi) philosophy. This is the One-the unknowable of Plato and Plotinus and there is no Other at this state. This is the Substance of Spinoza. The Unknown and Unknowable of Herbert Spencer, The unknowable Ding un Sich (Thing in itself) of Immanuel Kant.

     In Sufism as a plane this  is called Ahadiyah. It is also called  Wara ul Wara(Beyond the Beyond),Ghaib ul Ghaib(the Hidden of the Hidden).Meher Baba call this plane the Beyond-Beyond. Shah Waliullah name this plane Lahut (Divinity) and call this Being Huwa (He). In Christian trinity this is Father. In Hinduism in Trimurthi concept this is Shiva the destroyer, but in Kashmir saivism this is Parsamvit. In the categories  of Universal ,Particular and Individual this represent Universal.

      Hegel begins the Absolute as Abstract Being. The Absolute which is Thought or Notion (consciousness) implicitly, appear itself as Being. Hegel Begins his Logic with Being-Pure, abstract, in determinate Being. The Absolute not knowing Himself as Self Conscious Subject but Subject as Being (here knowledge limited to Isness or to exist) and by dialectical movement developing into Absolute Idea. So according to Hegel the Absolute is only implicit Subject in the beginning but becomes explicit Absolute Subject as Absolute Idea in the end after a dialectical process of development. Now the real nature or essence of this Subject is Mind or Thought-but not knowing itself as Thought but as Being.

     It will be interesting to compare the concept of this highest state of Absolute Being in the philosophy of three greatest philosophers Sankara, Ibn Arabi and Hegel. Exponents and commentators of Vedanta philosophy mainly depends on Upanishads and Brahma sutra of of Badarayana  and Bagvad Geeta. As we already mentioned according to the exponent of Advaita Vedanta (Absolute Monism) Sankara there are two forms of Absolute-Para Brahman (Higher) and Apara Brahman (lower). The real  is Para Brahman which is the transcendent one and this is Nirguna or Nirvishesha Brahman (without attributes). The Absolute Being is transcendent in the sense that He is Para Brahman (Higher Absolute). The Apara Brahman is Maya (unreal) and it is the result of limitation of Para Brahman by adjuncts(upadi). This is the Savishesha or Saguna Brahman (brahman with attributes).According to the exponent of Vishishtadvitha (specified monism) Ramanuja there are no two Brahman. Here also Brahman is transcendent but  there is only one Brahman and this is Savishesa or Saguna Brahman. Second point is the nature of Jivatman (human spirit). According to Sankara jivatman is identical with Brahman while Ramanuja maintains there is difference between Jivatman and Brahamn. Sankara maintains that jiva appear different due to Maya by limiting adjuncts while Ramanuja says jiva is related to Brahman as substance to it's essential attribute. Third point is the nature of Purshartha (supreme goal). According to Shankara in self realisation  Jivatma becomes one with Brahman but to Ramanuja jivatma enjoys the bliss of Brahman without losing it's individuality. Firstly about the nature of Brahman. We have seen that the highest plane of Absolute Being is transcendent and independent of creative mind as Absolute Subject and Absolute Spirit  We have also seen that  mind is nothing or non being when compared with the Being. Predicates,Qualities or attributes comes with mind  so when viewed from the angle of mind as non being Being is as Sankara says Nirvishesha Brahrman, Being without qualities. Secondly about the nature of Jivatman We have seen that mind is negative and non being when compared with the Being as Positive and Being. So mind is a lower form of the Absolute Being. Creative mind is the reality of Absolute Spirit hence human spirit. This means mind is ontologically different from Being. But Absolute Being is the ground of every subject including human spirit As mind is non being, in reality every subject is the One Being Himself. So here  identity of jivatman and Brahman and distinction between them is looking at them from different angles. Thirdly about Purushartha or supreme goal. In the attainment of real Unity irrespective of whether it is a temporary or permanent state or whether while living or after death there exists neither mind, knowledge nor individuality and there remains only Absolute Being,but as this first plane is beyond experience, the attaind state is experience of Absolute Being as Absolute Subject.

         When we come to the philosophy of Hegel he begins the Absolute as Being. Here Being is Thought or Mind itself but as this is immediate or beginning here mind is not self or subjective consciousness but knowledge limited to being and as being. So being is implicit Thought. Only by a process of self development which is nothing but what is implicit becoming explicit Absolute Being becomes Absolute Idea or Absolute Mind. This is Thought as Subject with predicates-the knowing Willing Subject. Again at the end of this development Absolute Mind abandoning itself freely externalise itself into immediate being as nature. But this  Absolute Mind is the reality of nature.Further development of nature is nothing but the unfolding of this Absolute Mind in all it's perfection so culminate in Absolute Mind as Philosophic Mind. Now even if we begin with Being and Nature and end with Absolute Mind as Absolute Idea and Absolute Mind as Philosophic Mind which so appear as a result, in reality this development is a circle because Absolute Mind is also the Ground as it is this Absolute Mind itself which is unfolding itself in this self development of Being and Nature. When we analyse this Hegelian philosophy we can see that the essential nature of Absolute is Absolute Mind, whether before manifestation as Absolute Idea or in manifestation as Philosophic Mind. Thought, Notion or Mind is the nature of Absolute. In the beginning the Mind is not self conscious but as Being.According to us as already explained the nature of Absolute Being is unknowable and this unknowable essence is something beyond creative or conscious mind. Creative or consious aspect of Mind is only negativity and non being when compared with the Being which is Positive and Being.As the nature of human spirit is crative mind the perfect unfolding development of Absolute Mind is seen as philosophic mind. So human spirit can attain Absolute Knowledge as philosophic mind. Here there is complete identity of human spirit and Absolute . So as a consequence of defining Absolute Being as Mind which first appear as Being and later by self development realize itself as Thinking and Willing Mind the major difference between Hegel and other Mystics is according to Hegel The Absolute is fully knowable and attainable by speculative thought. Ibn Arabi and other mystics are of the view that this first plane is transcendental state. This is because as we explained earlier the plane of Absolute Being is beyond knowable mind and mind is only a predicate or lower form of this Being. So it is impossible to know the nature of this Being. Whether the unknowability is due to difference of the nature of Essence from Mind or due to mind not knowing itself at this primary state as Being it makes no difference as the reality of Man is knowledge and mind as Absolute Spirit.

   When we look at the philosophy of Ibn Arabi here the Essence in spite of including everything like attributes, names and the world is independent of them. As this state is transcendent and independent of names human spirit cannot attain to this state. When the Essence reveal itself human spirit has no knowledge of this state as this is beyond knowledge and also at this state individuality and mind is completely lost and only the Essence remains as it reveal Itself. I will quote below some relevant sections from Ibn Arabi's Fusus Al Hikam.

     {{ "The fact is the world does not participate in the autonomy of the Essential Being, so much so that it can never conceive Him. In this respect God remains always unknown ,to the intuition as well as to the contemplation, for the ephemeral has no hold on that (that is to say the eternal). (fusus-Adam)"

      "As for the Eminent in Himself, He is the one who possesses the perfection (or the infinity: al-kamal) in which are 'drowned' all the existential realities as well as all the non-existent relations (in themselves), in the sense that He is not without any of these 'attributes', whether the attribute be positive, logically or morally ,or whether it be negative, according to custom, reason or moral. Now, this infinity belongs only to He who is designated by the name Allah (which is the Name of the Essence) exclusively (fusus-Idris)"

     "No one (particular being) attaches itself (as such) to God by virtue of His (supreme) Unity. It is because of this that the men of God cannot receive the 'revelation' in the Unity.; for if you contemplates Him through Himself ,it is He who is contemplating Himself ;-He does not then cease to be Himself contemplating Himself by Himself (fusus-Ismail)"

    "Exalted may He be who is proved only by Himself and who exists only by His own unchangeable Essence !There is in existence only that which denotes Unity ;and there is in imagination only that which denotes multiplicity. So ,whoever belongs to multiplicity, is in the world, with the Divine Names and with the names of the world ;and whoever belongs to Unity ,is with God in respect of His Essence 'independent of the worlds'. If the Essence is 'independent of the worlds' it means that God must be essentially independent of 'nominal relations', for the Names do not denote the Essence only ,they denote at the same time other realities ,of which they define the manifestation. The Unity of God which reveals itself in respect of the Divine Names, postulating our existence is the unity of the multiple ,and the Unity of God by which He is independent of us and of the Names  ,is essential Unity ;the one and the other are contained in the Name the One (al-ahad) (fusus-yusuf)".

       This state of Absolute Being is beyond eternity and time. This is because time even as a concept only appear in the third plane as Absolute Spirit. This first plane exclusively belongs to the Absolute.. So no created being has share in this state by knowledge. No human beings, however great he may be whether great mystics or other self realised man cannot attain this plane of Absolute Being by knowledge. All the knowledge the mystics get about this state is knowledge revealed from the second plane as Absolute Subject. This is because the reality or nature or essence of all beings other than this Being is mind and as we mentioned already the Being is beyond mind. So as we explained all the knowledge of Absolute Being is retrospective knowledge. When the Absolute Being  reveal itself there remain nothing but Being Itself. At this state there is neither mind or knowledge nor individuality as in this transcendent aspect of Absolute Being everything vanishes except the Absolute Being.

       A rough comparison of this first plane will be with the state of our deep sleep. The defect of this comparison is even in sleep our essence or nature is mind-but mind as only knower or being without knowledge of known. But the nature of Absolute Being is beyond mind.. In deep sleep our consciousness is limited to being. The Absolute Being is the rest or sleep of the Absolute. The Absolute absorbed in himself. The manifestations-the state of  Absolute Spirit and Absolute World is the wakening or active state of the Absolute. The plane of  mind. The Absolute eternally alternate between these two states. This is described in Hindu mythology as the pralaya-as the eternal cycle of rest and activity of the Absolute. We have earlier seen that this alternation and prior state is due to logical priority but as ontological priority Absolute Being is always with Absolute Spirit but not limited by it. Here Absolute is simultaneously in both states-Absolute Being and Absolute Spirit.

        All the succeeding stages or planes or grades are the descends or limitations of this Absolute Being. But all the descends or limitations are really descends in and as mind. Limiting himself in knowledge. So the Absolute Being is first displayed in and as mind as essences and later as  beings in external forms. This descends are also described as effusion (al-fayd) or over flowing of the Being. But this effusion does not diminish the state of Absolute Being. But the Being remain for ever as He is with out any decrease in spite of all these descends. This is why Heidegger says the nature of Being both as an Origin and Ground. In spite of the origin of all beings it still remains as the Ground of all beings. So one aspect-the aspect of Absolute Being does not change so there is no change in the Essence and all changes are in the angle of perception. Now the ordinary idea of descend means leaving the higher stage and coming to a lower plane. But in the case of Absolute Being all these descends are in and as mind  so relative and He is always as He was in the first plane. All these descends are in perception only (limitation in mind). whether the descend is in  internal or external reflective mind as essences or in beings  as external forms. This we can illustrate with a human subject. Suppose a man makes some concepts about himself in his mind like thinking himself as some other men or animal or plants and further with his imagination makes forms of them which was formless at conceptual level. Further he imagines them in various actions. This conceptual forms and imaginal forms we can compare with Absolute Spirit and Absolute World. Now it is apparent that the real existence of the man is unaffected by this mental forms and whatever he imagines himself to be and in whatever activity of the forms he indulge in his mind the real man is least changed by them. Similar is the case with Absolute Being. We have seen that mind is negative and non being when compared with Being who is Positive and Being. So in the final analysis everything is a mental play of the Being and the Player is least affected by the play as His essence is beyond creative aspect of mind. This relative nature of Absolute Being's descends can also be illustrated by the image in a mirror. There is both identity and difference in the image from the real. If one move his face the image also will be moved ,so there is some form of identity between the real and the image. On the other hand the defects or the destruction of the image due to the imperfection or breaking of the mirror will not affect the real. So there is also difference and distinction between the real and the image. This relative nature of descend is what is called Maya (illusion).It is ignorance which is the cause of this Maya. According to this concept there is neither descend or fall or separation and all idea of duality ,otherness and world is due to ignorance and this veil is lifted at self realization

    As we complete this book we can see that the ultimate reality is Unknowable Essence and there is only this Absolute Being .All the predicates or attributes like knowledge, thought, being, matter, will, power etc are only mental forms so mind itself. Mind is a lower form of the Absolute Being. What we call energy or matter is not a separate reality but the external form of mind.- the lower form of this Absolute Being. So everything in the world, every entities or beings or subjects are nothing but Absolute Being with the forms of mind. So the multiplicity and plurality of beings and subjects are nothing but the same Being manifesting in different forms of mind. So ultimately there is only Absolute Being  whose full nature or essence is unknowable because creative aspect of mind itself is only a predicate of this Being and it is negative and non being when compared with the Being. Creative mind can only reveal itself and some thing below it. This is the Unity of Being. This is also the Absolute Monism or Absolute Idealism. There is only one reality and that is Absolute Being.

    As there is only One Essence or Absolute Being what this further mean is everything and all reality are nothing but the same Essence or Absolute Being in different forms or different gradations or intensity of the One Absolute Being. This is what Mulla Sadra means when he says Being is the same reality in all existences but with gradations and degrees of intensity. In different conditions of manifestations there are various degree of intensity of manifestation-but the Being is same. This is also the ishraqi (illuminist) philosophy of Suhravardi. Here Absolute Being is called Nur al Anwar (Light of lights). Here the whole reality are irradiation and effusion of this primordial light. So everything is ultimately degrees of light and darkness. So according to this theory all beings are nothing but different intensity of the same light. This difference intensity cause difference in stages and states.This can be compared with differnt forms of physical light like sun,candle,electrical where the essence is light but varies in intensity.

      As we have already mentioned this Absolute Being always remain unknowable so this is the transcendental state of the Absolute. This means no man however great he may be whether known as God incarnation, prophet or greatest mystics cannot attain this highest state permanently during life.Whenever one attain to this plane his own consciousness is lost and state is shifted to Absolute Being. There is nothing to know or experience about this state because this state is beyond mind hence beyond knowledge or experience. All the knowledge or descriptions of this highest state is knowledge revealed from second plane.. As there is no self consciousness or knower or knowledge to describe this plane this is often described as void or nothingness. This is the Nirvana of Buddha in it's negative meaning. This also means when the Absolute Being reveal itself no human spirit exists to experience it and to become conscious of this experience. Here Absolute Being alone remains in perfect Unity. The reality of this is as long as this plane and state remain in self realised men they will be unconscious of their own reality as human spirit and so the plane belongs to Absolute Being exclusively. What all these mean is self realised men will have only glimpses of these state during life and after these temporary phase they always have to return to the second plane of Absolute Subject.So all perfect realised men,prophets,avatars contain this plane but at this plane as Absolute Being Itself.

      What we have to remember is the priority of Absolute Being over Absolute Spirit and Absolute World  is not temporal priority but both ontological priority and logical priority. This means Absolute Being is not only logically prior to Absolute Spirit but also Absolute Being in It's infinitude contain everything like Absolute Spirit and Absolute World but still not limited or defined by them. This is due to non being character of mind and world. This is what Sankara describe as Maya. In the final analysis Maya is creative mind itself.

II: Absolute Subject:

  The second plane is Absolute as Mind. This is  Absolute Subject or Absolute Self. This is an intermediate state between the first plane of Absolute Being as unknowable essence and third plane of Absolute Spirit as creative mind. Here the  Unknowable Absolute Being descends into a state of knowledge or self consciousness. This lower form of the Essence as knowledge or consciousness is what we call Mind-at this state as potential mind and not as creative mind. So this is the beginning of  internal movement or infinite vibration in the Absolute Being. So this is the stirring up of the resting Absolute Being. Here the Absolute is not completely unknowable but something can be ascertained about the Absolute Subject. Here being (being in the second meaning as isness or existent) is attributed to the Absolute. As we will see later being in this second sense is knowledge limited only as knower or thought as thinker. So here we can say The Absolute  exists and is conscious of Himself.  This state is called Unity. This means at this state there is some form of subjective or self consciousness. This is the state of pure subjective consciousness without any content. As we have explained in the introduction this is the first state of internal reflective mind where knowledge is limited to pure subjectivity.  When the Absolute Being has subjective consciousness the essence is no more unknowable but as potential mind. So this potential mind is a lower form of the Absolute Being. As the essence of this potential mind is neither the same as Absolute Being nor the same as creative mind (Absolute Spirit) this state is a border line between Absolute Being and Absolute Spirit. Unity is the state of pure subjective consciousness. Now this subjectivity contain all the predicates but they are undifferentiated and potential at this state. The nature of this subjectivity can be grasped from four principal  potentialities which are the root of all the predicates and names.  The first potentiality is Being. Here being is intended in the second meaning. This is the Ego or I or Isness aspect of subjective consciousness. This as will be explained later consciousness as only subjectivity or knowledge as knower or thought as thinker without knowledge of known. This is the root of all subjects, beings and ego's.The second potentiality is knowledge. This is consciousness of potentialities or knowledge of known or thought as thoughts. This is the root of all forms of knowledge, spiritual existential, rational, sensory and discursive knowledge. Third is love or will or desire or bliss. This is the root of all forms of emotions, feelings, passions and imaginations .The fourth is power or potential of activity. This can be compared with the objective or material form of the mind which is energy with infinite frequency at this state. Now these potentialities are not predicate or attribute of the subject at this state but the aspects of subjective consciousness itself in other words these are the essence of potential mind itself. Now  the descend of Absolute Being into Absolute Subject is in and as knowledge. So this the second plane is the plane of active mind or  reflective mind. Here we can see that the nature or essence of this second plane is mind or consciousness. But most abstract consciousness. Subjective consciousness in his most active state. If we consider the external form  corresponding to this internal subjectivity,at this state there is no external motion or movement in the  energy but with infinite internal frequency or vibrations.

      We have seen that in the first plane of Absolute Being The Essence is One and it is Positive and Being as Unknowable Being. Here creative mind is not a separate essence but negative and non being and only a lower form of the Essence. So here Subject as Positive and Being contain in itself it's opposite creative mind as negative and non being. When we come to the second plane here also there is only one essence and it is potential mind as Absolute Subject. Here the subjectivity of the mind is Absolute Subject Himself with the condition that here the essence of subjectivity is mind. So here this mental essence is positive and being. So the only difference between this plane and Absolute Being is the dawning of consciousness as Subject.So here also creative mind is non being and negative hence Absolute Spirit and Absolute world are not real but illusion. So this descend of  Absolute Being into  reflective mind means in other words Absolute Subject is nothing but a form of Absolute Being itself in a lower second plane. So When the Absolute Being descends into the second plane in the form of internal reflective mind or Absolute Subject this mind has  two aspects. One is the internal or content of mind or subjective aspect which is subjective consciousness or subjectivity. The other is the form or external , material, objective  aspect. This we can compare with matter/energy. As we explained at this second plane the energy has infinite frequency  What this further means is energy and mind are not different beings but one being and  energy has no independent being but only the form of  mind. In other words consciousness and energy or mind and matter are two aspects of one and the same thing. So there is no energy or matter whose nature is not mind and no mind whose form is not  energy or matter. Energy is implicit mind or the shadow of mind as its form. The nature of the Absolute Subject is reflective mind in the form of  energy. The content or subjective aspect of this  reflective mind is subjectivity but the objective aspect or form is as  energy. So there is unity between mind and energy but also difference. The difference is energy or matter has no reality in itself like mind but only a form of mind. So the primary reality is mind. So all things and this Absolute Subject also has an internal, subjective and external, objective aspect or nature. The content of mind as subjectivity-internal, subjective aspect and the form of mind as  energy-external, objective aspect. This Absolute Subject and  energy is one and the same thing. So there are no two beings as Absolute Subject and  as essence of energy. These are the different point of view of the one and the same being. When we look at the internal, subjective aspect of this being it is pure subjectivity or pure spirit or if we look at the external, objective aspect of this being it is in the form of  energy. The reality of this  energy is nothing but mind. This is consciousness itself in the form of  energy. So this internal and external, subjective and objective aspect is one and the same thing, not two different things. When viewed from one angle it is subjectivity and from the other angle it is  energy. They are the two sides of the one and same coin. So one has no independent reality without the other. In this plane these are two nature of the one and same Absolute Subject. Absolute Subject's internal subjectivity aspect we call active nature and external, objective,  energy aspect  we call the passive nature. Both are one and the same  Absolute Subject. This means matter or energy is nothing but mind itself or rather the form of  mind. So all beings ,everything and the whole knowable reality, whether as essence of energy (unexcited strings) or as fermions, bosons or as matter or bodies is nothing but mind itself. Energy is the form of this mind. Matter has no independent reality. This means the materialistic view of matter as primary  and devoid of mind is wrong. Like this the idealistic view of two realities ,consciousness and energy or mind and matter is also wrong. There is only mind and everything whether imagined things or material things- they are only different forms of mind. They have no independent reality apart from mind.

      We can get a clear conception of the two planes of Absolute (Absolute Being and Absolute Subject) when we compare this state with the two states of mind. We have seen that mind has two states -state of immediacy or pre reflective mind and state of mediation or reflective mind. We have already seen that mind as  reflective mind whose essence is consciousness  is a lower form of  Absolute Being as Absolute Subject. When we look at the two planes of the Absolute-Absolute Being and Absolute Subject - The Absolute in the immediate state as Absolute Being is beyond creative mind and mind is negative and non being when compared with the Being which is Positive and Being. Here creative mind is only a lower form of this Being. So this is why the Being is unknowable because here the essence of Being is not creative mind but beyond it. So this Essence always remain unknowable. The other or second plane is the same Absolute Being in mediation or reflection and this is the state of Absolute Subject. The essence or nature of this state is potential mind as the reflective mind. Here the immediate and unknowable Absolute Being is changed into knowable mind or Absolute Subjectt. This is when the Being reflects on Itself or thinking about Himself. This is the dawning of consciousness as  reflective mind  and the known is Being Itself. Here the unknowable essence becomes knowable due to reflective mind becoming the essence of the Being. So Absolute Being as immediate is unknowable essence while as mediated Subject or Absolute Subject the essence is potential mind. So the first plane is Unknowable Absolute Being and the second plane is knowable Absolute Subject. We have earlier seen that Immediate or pre reflective mind is prior or precedes mediate or reflective mind. This means we cannot be simultaneously conscious of the two states. The nature of  our mind is such that we are conscious of only one state at any particular moment.The differnce of Absolute  from  human mind is as we explained earlier while our mind cannot be conscious of the two states simultaneously (immediate and mediate) Absolute is conscious and exist in differnt states simultaneously. This also means while we may know the Absolute  in it's second plane as Absolute Subject the real essence always remain unknowable and Absolute Being remain in his pure and unaltered and undiminished state irrespective of the manifestations of the mediated Absolute Subject and Absolute Spirit .So when we say Absolute Being is prior to Absolute subject& Spirit it is not in a temporal sense but there is both logical priority (conforming to reason&rational knowledge) and ontological priority (conforming to intuition &self realisation) of The Absolute Being over Absolute Subject&Spirit.

    The first state of Absolute Being and the second state of Absolute Subject are the reality of the Absolute or the real state of the Absolute while the remaining states like Absolute Spirit and Absolute World are unreal or illusionary states of the Absolute.This means both this planes are Being  and Positive while Absolute Spirit and Absolute World which are the aspect of Absolute as creative mind is negative and non being.So there is no fundemental difference between the first and second plane except here the Essence become conscious of itself .This second plane is the ultimate aim and the last station of the Mystics. There are two aspects of this Absolute Subject.First is it's descending aspect from Absolute Being and the other is it's ascending aspect from Absolute Spirit.As this is the first state of the Descend of the Absolute this is also the final permanent stage attained by perfect mystics.This is the final stage of realisation  Now when the third plane of Absolute Spirit is fully developed with human spirit or rather with Perfect human spirit and ascends to this plane the nature of Absolute Spirit becomes as Subject with four potentialities in it or Absolute Spirit. Here the self is not seen as universal subjective spirit alone like in the beginning but a combination of universal subjective spirit, universal mental spirit, subtle material spirit (universal imaginary spirit) and universal gross material spirit. As we can see this is not a separate stage but a higher state of the Absolute Spirit. This is an ascension into the higher state of Absolute Subject so that it is no longer individual spirit but universal subjectivity without any content. The stage of Unity. This is the state of the Absolute with four potentialities in it. These are  Being (Wujud), Knowledge (Ilm), Self-Love (Nur) and Power (Suhud). Sufism sees this Absolute Sprit as a unity of  Being , Knowledge, Love (will, desire) and Power (potentiality of Action). This is the Being with Thinking Will and Power of actualisation. Sufis calls this state Haqiqat al Muhammed (Reality of Muhammed). This we may call the Divine Mind. Beyond this as we earlier mentioned there is only the unknowable state of Absolute Being. As we explained as long as one is living there is no permanent return to the state of Absolute Being but only glimpses and temporary ascend from which one always has return to the second plane of Absolute Subject which is his reality as potential Mind. We have seen that at this state potential mind has infinite frequency or energy . So this is the active state of mind. Now if we view the Absolute Subject from the descending angle at this state there is only pure subjective consciousness without any content. So creative mind as predicates,Absolute Spirit and Absolute World are negative nonbeing unreal and illusion from this state.If we look from the ascending angle also mystics who remain at this plane cannot act in the worldly ream. This is a state of bliss without any activity.There is only subjective consciousness as Sat-Cit-Ananda(being-consciousness-bliss) at this state. Now there are those who remain at this state without consciousness of the lower illusionar planes of Absolute Spirit&Absolute World and those who are also conscious of the lower planes and also those who are not only aware of the lower illusionary planes but also can use their power to act in the world. The former ones,who are absorbed and unconscious of illusion are called majzoob in sufism and Brahmi boot in vedanta and the latter ones are called perfect men, Avatar, Prophets and this is the highest station.   

.This is the second logos .In Jewish Kabala the subjective aspect of the Absolute Subject is called Chokmah and the objective Aspect-essence of energy is called Binah. Chokmah is also described as Abba (father),wisdom, force and mercy and is the masculine aspect. Binah is described as Ama (mother), understanding, form and wrath and is the feminine aspect In Neoplatonism this plane is called Nous.In christianity this is the Son in Trinity.. In Hindu Trimurthi this is Vishnu the sustainer.In Kashmir Saivism The Subjective aspect of this state is Siva Tatwa (Adam or I, masculine) and the objective aspect is Sakti Tatwa (Idam or This, feminine).In vedanta this plane is called Paramatma.Shankara describe the Absolute Subject as Sat-Cit-Anandan (Subject of Being-Consciousness-Bliss) .What we have to bear in mind is here  consciousness and bliss are not predicates but essence itself. Sankara call this subjective aspect ,Brahman as Self , Purusa(the real) (Samkhya term denoting the masculine aspect of the absolute) and the objective aspect (essence of energy) as the Non Self, The Unreal( Maya, Avidya) ,the undifferentiated -a compound of three major Gunas (predicates, attributes)-Satwa, Rajo and Tamo Gunas. This is Prakrti or Pradana (The feminine aspect of the Absolute) and this is called the power of Brahman.We can equate this second plane with the plane of Samkhya Purusha and Prakrti. Purusha is the subjective consciousness aspect and Prakrti is the objective energy aspect.In Sufism this state is called Wahdat (Unity). This is as we explained earlier is the state of four potentialities. Wujud (Being), Ilm (knowledge), Nur (love, will), Suhud (power). This state is called Haqiqat al Muhamadiya (reality of Muhammad) or Maqam al Muhammad (station of Muhammad). Meherbaba call this plane The Beyond-plane of infinite power-knowledge-bliss.Gurdjieff denotes this state with Hydrogen with highest potency(H1).This is conscious energy with minimum density and maximum infinite frequency.

   This state can be compared with our limited experience of subjectivity. One who has self consciousness knows that there are moments when he experiences his pure subjectivity without any content. But unlike mystic experience this is not a universal experience but limited subjectivity so unlike mystical experience this is not blissful state but as existentialists describe a state of dread and nausea.

III: Absolute Spirit:

    This is the third plane of the Absolute. Here The Absolute Subject of second plane descends into the third plane of Absolute Spirit. We have earlier seen that the state of Absolute Subject is pure self consciousness without any content. As Absolute Spirit first of all this subjectivity becomes the content or object.. Here at this initial state there is no being apart from the Absolute Spirit so Absolute Spirit is consciousness of Subject on Himself. Here Absolute Spirit is as self conscious being or knowing Subject or thinker.  When Absolute Subject reflects on himself (descends into consciousness) the Known is Subject itself. Here there is no known apart from the subject. As there is no other apart from the self  to know at this stage the known is the Self itself. Here Subject becomes an Object to Himself. So this is the state of Self Consciousness as content.A state of subjective and objective consciousness. (It is important to remember that as we explained earlier this does not mean the first plane of Absolute Being and the second plane of Absolute Subject has no self consciousness, rather both include and transcend self consciousness while this Absolute Spirit of the third plane is limited by it's content..) 

      So in this third plane the  Absolute Subject becomes  Absolute Spirit  because here He is no more Absolute Subject but subject with predicates. We have seen earlier that predicates are mental forms of the essence so mind itself. So this is as we explained  reflective mind in the second state-subjective and objective consciousness-but objects as it's own content. Unlike the second plane of potential mind this is the state of actual mind.  When the Absolute Subject or potential mind  of second plane descends into actual mind it  becomes the essence of the subject . So While the second plane is the state of pure subjectivity  this third plane is the state of  subjective and objective consciousness or knower-knowledge-known or Thinker-thought-thoughts. This is the state of Knower and knowledge or Subject and predicates, or Thinker and Thoughts. This is what Ibn Arabi describe as The Absolute Being descending into the plane of knowledge. The difference between this third plane of Absolute Spirit and fourth plane of Absolute World is as Absolute Spirit there is unity between subjective and objective consciousness or  these three aspects of knower-knowledge-known or there is only internal motion or vibration while as Absolute World, knower and known or subject and object are separated.

      This third plane is also the root of external manifestations. We have seen that the third plane of Absolute Spirit as  reflective mind is the mediated Absolute. In this third plane more and more determinations limit mind. This is the state of determined mind We have seen that when the Absolute Being descends into knowledge the essence is  reflective mind and it's nature is universal subjective consciousness. As we briefly mentioned else where the first form this subjectivity takes is as pure being. Here being is used in the second meaning of Is ness or existence. This is same as pure ego consciousness or pure I consciousness. This we call universal subjective spirit or supra light spirit or S spirit. So this third plane begins with the Absolute Spirit as pure subjective spirit. As we explained earlier this is the state of the subject when being is attributed to him. In the beginning knowledge is limited to being or ego consciousness .Here Absolute Spirit become aware of only his I ness and due to limitation in mind first develop into a determinate limited subjective being. So here there is the beginning of individuality. But here individual being or existence is only in and as mind and in this state there is no external or actual existence but only existence in the plane of mind or ideal existence. But as there is no other individual apart from him at this stage this individuality has a universal character. In the beginning as this subjectivity of reflective mind is only limited to the I or ego or being aspect  other predicates are not revealed .So this is the state of pure individual self consciousness or subjective being. As we explained earlier this first predicate being when attributed to subject he is self conscious being. This is also the concept of  Time- Space. We have to remember that at this stage there is neither actual time or space but only the concept or idea of it. We have seen that mind has both a subjective, consciousness, ideal or internal aspect and an objective, energy or external aspect or in better words  energy or matter aspect is the form of this universal subjective spirit.  Time concept is the subjective or consciousness aspect and space concept is the objective or ultracosmic energy aspect of the Universal Subjective Spirit.. As we explained earlier the nature of this universal spirit is reflective mind and the form of this mind is energy with highest frequency which we denote by Ultra Cosmic ray. So the third plane begins with the Absolute spirit as Universal subjective spirit.

        As we explained earlier the priority of Absolute Being over Absolute Subject&Spirit as Universal Subjective Spirit is both an ontological priority and logical priority. According to this the state of Absolute Being where mind or predicate is negative and non being  is logically prior to the state of Absolute Spirit where mind is the essence hence positive and being. So in this case the Universal Subjective Spirit has a logical beginning. From the spiritual perspective-in the third plane of beginning as Universal subjective spirit, this spiritual realm is also the beginning of spiritual time. As we explained earlier this is not temporal time but logical time. We have seen that in spiritual realm as  reflective mind  thought is directed towards the essence itself or there is only internal knowledge and there is unity of knower-knowledge-known so here time is present as pure duration. Here past abide in the present and future is an open possibility. Spiritual realm is an eternal now. Here events unfold from moment to moment. What J. Krishnamurthy described as moment to moment existence. There is change and movement without any division. So the third plane is the plane of time and space as a concept. or notion. As we have seen earlier the beginning of universal subjective spirit is itself the concept of time and space. Subjectivity is the time concept and ultracosmic energy is the space concept. So the third plane of Absolute Spirit is eternal as the concept of time itself begins in this plane..

     . Here as beginning the  reflective mind is not as consciousness of other contents but as being or pure subjectivity as it's content. In other words here knowledge is not as knowledge but as knower. As Ibn Arabi says  there cannot be any knowledge without a prior existing known. As phenomenologist Husserl and existentialists like Heidegger and Sartre says consciousness is always consciousness of something. There is always an object for mind. In other words consciousness depends on the known or knowledge is always knowledge of something and this is always about a subject or being or a predicate. So mind depends on being for its own existence. But as we have already explained  being is the form of mind as essence of energy. So subjective consciousness is knowledge of itself. and this Absolute Spirit's first form where mind appear as self conscious being, knower or thinker and as the first Spirit  we call  Universal Subjective Spirit or Supra Light Spirit.Some equate this universal Subjective Spirit with the Spirit of Mohammedan Reality (Haqiqat al Muhammad).

      Now this third plane as Absolute Spirit has no independent reality but always gives rise to the fourth plane of Absolute world or external manifestations. (Here world or manifestations do not mean only the gross material world. As we will explain further down it is not limited by gross material world but includes both subtle material world and soul world.) The third plane is the internal plane or the plane in and as  reflective mind  while the fourth plane is the external plane or plane of beings or existences- mind as  individual beings or existences or as reflective mind. What this mean is all the realities in the third plane has no individual being or existence but one and the same Absolute Spirit is their spirit and being while the realities in the fourth plane has individual separate beings.

     When at first the Absolute Spirit is as Universal Subjective Spirit this is as pure subjectivity or  as Being or Knower. Both Existence and Life are the further self development of this being .Existence is synonymous with being and Life is also a form of immediate subjectivity. This is the first form of Absolute Spirit. When  this pure subjectivity passes into subject of predicates knowledge is revealed. So only when subjectivity identifies with predicates knowledge reveal as knowledge. When this predicate knowledge is attributed to the subject he is called  universal mental spirit. Knowledge of this Subjectivity and Objectivity evolve or develops into Love. Will &Desire are a form of this Love. Now love is a predicate of the subject and when love is attributed to the subject He is called Lover or universal imaginary spirit . Love evolve or develops in to Power. When the predicate power is attributed to the subject He is called the powerful or universal material spirit .So at this third plane Subject and his innumerable predicates are revealed. The principle predicates are Subjective Being, Knowledge, Love and Power, Hearing, Sight and Speech.. Subject differentiate or abstract himself from all this predicates so that at this state there is Subject and his predicates. When the Subject identifies itself with each and every predicates all these predicates are also Divine names or Spirits which gives rise to the fourth plane as worldly names or Absolute World. By this process all the essences or spirits  are developed in the third plane and the Absolute world with beings are manifested in the fourth plane. This process continues till due to love of Absolute  and the manifestation of this love as power the Absolute human spirit of the third plane manifest corresponding Absolute human being  in the fourth plane or in Absolute World. We will discuss this in detail when we are dealing with the fourth plane or Absolute World. The development of Absolute Spirit as essences or eternal sprits in this third plane has a logical succession. The succeeding spirits have less and less mind as pure subjectivity (subjective aspect) and more and more mind as predicates (objective aspect). This series ends in spirits with maximum objective aspect or passive nature and minimum pure subjective aspect or active nature (Earth Spirit). Then begins the Ascension. Spirits with  maximum objective aspect and also more and more subjective aspect culminating in spirits with maximum subjective and objective aspect. This at last culminate in the development of  the human spirits.

 We have earlier mentioned that the beginning of third plane of Absolute Spirit is Universal Subjective Spirit. As we explained the nature of this spirit is  reflective mind and the external form is ultracosmic energy. We have also seen that the third plane will give rise to the fourth plane or the Absolute world as the result of the Absolute's love of perfection. We have earlier seen that all predicates are mental forms so mind itself. Now love belongs to the realm of will or desire. Love, will, and desire are also mind itself but their form is not as  reflective mind as pure subjectivity but different from it. So this love causes transformation in reflective mind and  movement or less vibrations in Ultracosmic ray with highest vibrations (which is the external aspect of mind). Motion means there is  less frequency or vibrations of ultracosmic ray.. As we are aware desire is a form of internal heat. So this love will produce motion or definite vibration or frequency of ultracosmic ray energy with maximal  external frequencies are formed. The fourth plane of Absolute World is the plane of  active mind or reflective mind with this motion or less vibration or  frequency of ultracosmic energy We have seen that ultracosmic energy is the form of mind. What this further mean is due to this internal heat  there is highest vibrations or waves in the Ultraviolet energy and energy with the highest external frequency and maximal temperature is externally manifested in the second plane. This we call Universal Subjective Soul or S soul, Supra Light waves (cosmic, gamma, x-ray) or supra light photons etc. This is the fourth plane and beginning of external manifestations. This is the power aspect of the Absolute-Power as a state and not as a predicate. Here the Universal Subjective Spirit of the third plane or Supra Light Spirit now knows himself as an external Universal spiritual soul (supra light soul), as an individual and particular external existence. This is the fourth plane or beginning of Absolute World. Now this is nothing but first  reflective mind transformed to love and then  transformed to power or reflected mind.. So manifestation is the power aspect of the Absolute or plane of reflective mind. Power manifesting as the supra light energy. This manifestation of the Universal spiritual soul as S soul or supra light photon is the beginning of the fourth plane ,the Absolute World. As we told earlier what we have to bear in mind is supra light Soul and the  supra light  wave is one and the same thing and the same process. So these are the different names of the one and same thing ,one time stressed from the internal aspect of mind or consciousness aspect, at another from it's external or energy aspect. Supra light soul is the subjective aspect and internal nature and supra light wave or photon is the objective or external aspect. supra light wave is the form of  supra light soul. This is also the beginning of space-time. Space is this supra light wave objective aspect and time is the supra light soul subjective aspect.

     Now the beginning is the development of Absolute Spirit as Universal Subjective Spirit in the third plane and the corresponding supra light wave (universal subjective soul) in the second plane. Universal Subjective Spirit is the most abstract form of thought or consciousness as pure subjectivity as it's content. After some logical time Absolute Spirit as the universal subjective spirit of the third plane due to further self development and knowledge which means more concreteness of consciousness  gradually loses it's consciousness of pure subjectivity or self consciousness and become aware of it's predicates or content of self and completely identify subjectivity with his predicates. This is knowledge as knowledge. This means Absolute Spirit now identify as Universal mental spirit or light spirit (ultraviolet,visible light,infrared) in the third plane. By a similar process as above out of Supra light wave, due to love and power aspect Universal mental Soul or light waves with lower frequency is manifested in the fourth plane. By a similar process all the sprits are developed in the third plane of Absolute Spirit and corresponding souls and beings are manifested in the fourth plane or Absolute World.

       As we told earlier this third plane is the descend of the Absolute Subject into the state of the Absolute Spirit. Now this third plane is the state of  reflective mind or active mind or internal knowledge. Knowledge internal to the Absolute Spirit so that even if there is distinction between the three aspects of Knower-Knowledge-Known there is also Unity and they are not separated and there is  no external manifestation. Here it is the one and same Absolute Spirit making different relations with his numerous predicates thus forming or developing into different essences or spirits. This way he is limiting himself in knowledge. As this is the state of  reflective mind and not that of external existence there is no separate individuals or beings in this state .The same Absolute Spirit knows himself as the universal spirit, or as universal mind or as animal spirit or as human spirit. In the third plane there is only one Absolute Spirit so only one Subject which is the internal aspect and one Being as ultracosmic  energy which is the external aspect of this Absolute Spirit. So there is only one Being and no beings and this is Absolute Spiritual Being. So in third plane one Subject is the subject of all spirits like human spirits ,animal spirits and plant spirits. So these are non existential relations and realities. Like this even though there are innumerable predicates in this state there is unity in each and every predicates. Predicates like knowledge, life, will etc are also undivided in this state. There is  no division in the predicates. Predicates like Life, Knowledge also present in all these spirits without undergoing division. If we take the predicate Life as an example this means the same life is present in plant spirits, animal spirits and human spirits with out Life it self undergoing any division or distinction. So while there is unity of Subject and Being and also unity of each predicates what gives rise to distinction among these innumerable spirits like plant spirits, animal spirits and different human spirits is only the proportion of the predicates of each spirit. Now this is a result of the limitation in knowledge. This means  the Absolute Spirit's limitation in knowledge gives rise to these distinctions of spirits. So the Absolute spirit is the spirit of all these essences and spirits. The separation is only in  consciousness and not in external being . So  these individualities are only in mind as in this state there are no separate beings or existences. So unlike in the fourth plane in this third plane all these spirits are dependent  This is because the one Absolute Spirit is the spirits of all these essences. So in this state they depends on the Absolute Spirit for their reality. There is distinction between the spirits but no division.  There is only the limitation of subjectivity  of the Absolute Spirit in various essences due to the various relation with the predicates. So these spirits have neither beings nor existences of their own. This is what Ibn Arabi says 'the permanent essences have not smelt the smell of existence'. being or existence comes to the essences only in the fourth plane-The Absolute World.

      Now if we look into this third plane of Absolute Spirit as a whole we can see three aspects in it. First there is the Subjectivity or internal aspect of the One Absolute Spirit as subject of all the spirits. Secondly there are the innumerable predicates of the Absolute Spirit like life, knowledge will power etc, which due to various relations giving rise to unique and different spirits depending on the expressing of the particularity and proportionality of the predicates of the spirit. These are the plant spirits, animal spirits, different human spirits etc. Thirdly there is the objective aspect or Being of the Absolute Spirit-the form of the Absolute Spirit-this is  passive nature ,the external aspect of the spirits-ultracosmic energy or passive energy. So we can symbolise the Absolute Sprit as a determinate form with a Subject as the subjective aspect of all the essences or spirits, a Mind which is the  predicates like knowledge, life, will, power etc ,different relations of the predicates so as to form different particular ,unique essences or spirits, and a Body as the external aspect of the essences-as passive nature or passive energy. Here we can see the subject of all the particular spirits is the one and same Absolute Spirit as subjective spirit of these essences and the body of all these particular spirits is the passive nature of the essences as one Being and Existence. As there is no separation into different existences in this state there is no separation of the spirits in this state. The one and same Absolute spirit forms particular relation with each and every spirit according to the predicates assigned to it and this differentiation is only in consciousness and not in actual and external existences like the fourt plane-that of Absolute world.  This is the state of Unity-Unity in plurality.

       So this is the state of the Subject with His predicates or essential attributes or qualities or universal ideas. The predicates are innumerable and infinite. As we explained earlier subject with predicates means mental forms of the Essence or mind itself. The Principal predicates of this Subject are Being (Existence, Life) Knowledge (Thoughts), Love (will, desire) and Power. These four Predicates- Being, Knowledge( wisdom), Love (will, desire) and Power are called the fundamental attributes or predicates of the Subject. To this Three are added Hearing, Sight and Speech. But the predicates are his own essence or essential attributes and they are his own consciousness about himself. So in a sense these predicates are Himself because it is his own essence, but in another sense not himself because He is the Subject and as the subject he is the source of these predicates or mind. So he is the One and the predicates are the Other. but his own other. So this is the state of Subject and Object. Subject distinguished from the object and the object as its own other or His own knowledge or thoughts. So this is the state of One and Other. As the second state of Absolute Subject is identified with Being aspect this Absolute Spirit is identified with the knowledge aspect-knowledge not as a predicate but as a state of the Absolute.

    So the whole completed third plane apart from viewing  Absolute Spirit as the plane of eternal spirits can be also viewed as the plane of Subject with predicates or Essence with attributes. The revelation of the potentialities in the Essence. Here the Attributes or Qualities are also revealed in the Essence .Here the Subject is with his predicates or The Essence or Substance is with attributes or qualities or names. But as we earlier explained predicates or attributes are mental abstractions made about the nature of essence so it is mind itself. As we mentioned earlier this third plane does not exist independently but always gives rise to the fourth plane or the Absolute World.

    We have also mentioned that Absolute Spirit as Universal Subjective Spirit is eternal as this is the realm of pure concepts and Time-Space even as a concept begins with Universal Subjective Spirit. So in one sense Absolute Spirit has only a logical beginning. But if view the Absolute Subject and Absolute Spirit from another angle there is not even this logical beginning and it is as eternal and beginning less as Absolute Being Himself. As the form of world is predicates or mind itself it is also eternal in Absolute Being. This is because we have seen that Absolute Being exists eternally with all his predicates or mind.  The only point is mind is non being and negative when compared with the Being. This also means mind is non essential or without any essence of it's own. Now the third plane of Absolute Spirit is only non existent relations and realities of the Subject with his predicates. This means the the third plane of Absolute Spirit has neither essence nor existence of it's own and exist from all eternity in a seed form in Absolute Being. But the second plane or Absolute World has a definite temporal beginning as Universal Subjective Soul because this is the beginning of actual Space-Time. So the interval between actual manifestations all the spirits of the third plane exists in a seed form in Absolute Being. Now the question is what causes the Absolute World or fourth plane of existences and beings or manifestations. According to Kashmir Saivism it is the nature of the Absolute that it has both non manifest and manifest aspects and Absolute eternally alternate between these two states and according to them both aspects are real. According to Sankara's Vedanta and Buddhism the manifestation aspect is an illusion (maya) and only the transcendental aspect is real. According to Hindu purana manifestation is called Krishna Leela (play of the Absolute). According to Heidegger also there is no cause for the world and call the Space-Time manifestation as the play of Being. According to Ibn Arabi also there is no such and such a real cause for manifested world but the manifestation is due to the Absolute's love of perfection. The Absolute who is already perfect in Being and Absolute Knowledge is made more perfect by this becoming and relative knowledge of manifested aspect. Even though this becoming and relative knowledge add nothing more to the Being and Absolute Knowledge of the Absolute as Absolute Being and Absolute Subject This completed third plane is what we call the state of the Absolute Spirit or Creative Spirit. The cause of the world is love of perfection and this transformed by power is the cause of the fourth plane or Absolute World. As we explained love-love of perfection or spiritual will is the cause of movement which produce the world.

      Ibn -Arabi call this state Al-Wujud (The Being) or Al-Dhat (Essence) descending in to his own Knowledge. The state of Dhat and Sifat (attributes). Ibn Arabi call this third plane The Unique (AL-Wahid). State of Divine Names (Ism Ilahi). State of 99 names. State of Permanent Essences (Ayan-al-Tabitha), The bewildered World. The eternal spirits of this state he calls the permanent essences or divine names (Ism Ilahi) and the worldly beings of second plane he calls worldly names (Ism Kauni). He also calls this third plane Reality of realities (haqiqat al haqaiq) and Universal Reality. The eternal spirits or the Divine Names (third plane) he calls the  Lord (Rubb) of the fourth plane or worldly names or slaves (Abd) of third plane.

        The Absolute Spirit of this plane when viewed from the angle of manifesting all these divine names or spirits or as the inherent Subject of all these essences  he calls by the Divine Name Al-Rahman (The Compassionate). The objective aspect or being of this Absolute Spirit as ultracosmic energy which is the external aspect of the essences-passive nature he calls Fine Dust (haba) or Tabiyat al kull (Univesal Nature) or Nafs al Rahman (Breath of the Merciful) and the shadow of the Absolute Spirit. This Being as Universal  Nature, the material or substance of the shadow, External existence as Light (fourth plane) by which the shadow becomes visible and permanent essences as the projecting surface of the shadow in manifestation (third  plane) and the Absolute Spirit as the person on which this shadow depends for its being and existence. In this third plane, before manifestation the shadow is potentially contained in the Absolute Spirit. In the Absolute Spirit or   reflective mind  subjectivity predominate and objective aspect or passive nature or ultracosmic energy is concealed. Passive nature  is considered as a shadow of the Absolute Spirit. At this stage the passive nature is potentially contained in the Absolute Spirit. Here the relation between the Absolute Spirit and the form as ultracosmic energy or passive nature (objective aspect )  is like a shadow to the original. In the absence of external projection (manifestation in fourth plane) the shadow is potentially contained in the original. So the external aspect of  these essences - the ultracosmic energy or passive nature is nothing but the shadow of this Absolute Spirit which is its internal reality and which is the inner controller of it. This is as we explained in the third plane as Absolute Spirit mind is positive and being while matter is negative and non being or a lower form of mind. This is because as we explained energy or matter is nothing but mind itself-it is only the form of mind.

          The Absolute Spirit as the spirit or subjective aspect of all these essences Ibn Arabi calls al-janab al-ilahi (Divine side), The predicates  Knowledge, Will, Power and its subcategories (the internal aspect of the essences) or what we called eternal spirits or  the mind of the Absolute Spirit  as particular minds he calls haqiqat al-haqaiq (Reality of Realities) and the external aspect of the spirits -what we called the form or being or body of the Absolute Spirit as ultracosmic energy (passive nature) he calls tabiat al-kull (Universal Nature) or Fine Dust (Haba) and symbolizes fourth plane of external Being and existence (Absolute World) with Light. Ibn Arabi also call this objective aspect of the Absolute Spirit or passive nature External Being (wujud khariji). Ibn Arabi describe the development of the fourth plane of  Absolute World from the third plane of Absolute Spirit as Nafs al Rahmani (the Breath of the Merciful). Here breath is the passive energy or nature and during expiration the essences or spirits are forming the souls and beings of the world in this passive nature

    Shah Waliyullah and Imam Rabbani call this form of  Absolute Spirit, objective aspect as ultracosmic energy or passive energy Self Unfolding Being (wujud munbasit).

        .In Jewish Kabala this third plane is called Atziluth-world of Archetypes-Divine world.

         Shankara equate this with Saguna Brahman.When Satwa guna predominate there is jnanashakti which is the cause of knowledge and when Rajo and tamo gunas predominate there is kriya shakti (power of action). This has two powers, namely, the concealing power (avaranashakti) and the power of projection (vikshepashakti). Concealing power cause ignorance by the veiling of Maya of the true nature of Brahman and Atman. Projecting power is the creative power by which Maya create the phenomena and superimpose this unreality on the real. So Maya serves as the limiting adjunct (upaadhi) for Brahman. According to Sankara Brahman with the satwic aspect of Maya due to limiting adjunct becomes Iswara or Saguna Brahman (Absolute with Qualities). As the predicates are in reality the Subject himself distinguishing himself from himself Sankara calls this aspect Maya-Unreal or Illusion. According to Sankara only the Nirguna Brahman (Subject without predicate Sat-Cit-Ananda,Absolute Subject) is Real while Saguna Brahman( with attributes) is unreal. So According to Sankara this Absolute Spirit or Saguna Brahman is a lower stage of the Absolute.

     . This third plane is called the Anandamaya Kosha (Blissful Sheath) of Brahman. This is a  modification of Prakrti or Maya. This is the Turya state of Vedanta. The Human spirits of this plane is called Jivatman  in Vedanta. In Yoga Vashishta this third plane of Absolute Spirit is called Chidakash (Knowledge Space).

      .In Kasmir Saivism from Siva and Sakti, Sadasiva tatwa then Iswara tatwa and lastly  Sadvidya tatwa evolved. They are Iccha Sakti or will, Jnana Sakti or knowledge and kriya Sakti or power of action respectively.

       Hegel describes this as Absolute Idea, The Absolute in and for itself. Absolute Subject with his predicates. The Notion implicit as Being developing into explicit Notion as Absolute Idea. The self development of the Absolute. The unmediated, indeterminate Absolute or  The Absolute in its immediacy (Pure Being) going to mediation, the mediated or determinate Subject. The complete development is through three stages or moments. This development is through three major categories of Being, Essence and Notion. The Absolute or Thought first as Being passes through the subcategories of Quality, Quantity and Measure and develops into Essence. The Essence is Being reflected into itself. Essence through the subcategories of Ground of Existence, Appearance and Actuality develops into Notion. Notion through the subcategories of Subjective Notion, Object and idea develops in to Absolute Idea. This is thorough the subcategories of Idea as Life, Cognition (Thought & Will) and at last in to Absolute Idea. Absolute Idea is the Thinking and Willing Subject who realize himself as the Subject and all the other categories as His predicates. This whole process is not evolution but only development. Even Being is implicitly Notion. The only difference is Being is Absolute not knowing himself as self or Subject but thinking as pure Being. The Absolute in its immediacy aware as not thought but as Being. So in reality Being is nothing but Thought. According to Hegel the Absolute differentiate into self and non self or subject and predicates only at the last stage of Absolute Idea. The idea which thinks itself or thinking idea. The idea in itself and for itself. The unity of life, cognition (intelligence) and will. The idea which distinguish itself from itself so that itself divided into Self and Non Self. Subject and predicates. So at this stage all the preceding categories of Being and Essence becomes the content of Subject. This is the Absolute Idea which contemplates its contents as its own self. It is its own content, because it distinguishes ideally itself from itself. So one of the thing distinguished is a self and the other content or attributes. But as the knower, knowledge and known is the Absolute itself there is only internal subject object distinction at this stage. Absolute Idea not as Knowledge alone which take the world as it is but also as Will which make the world as it ought to be. Idea as accomplished and accomplishing itself.. The idea not only as finished and produced but constantly producing it self. The idea as determinative of the content or as Thinking Will. Now this Absolute Idea contain all the categories of Pure being and Essential being. This means the Absolute Idea contain all the categories of manifestations. Now this self development of Absolute is in reality like a circle. This means what appear as a result at last (Absolute Idea) is also seen as the Ground from which all these development takes place and here Being is a result.

       Hegel also call third plane as Absolute Spirit as Philosophic Spirit.  The state of Notions or Concepts. Absolute Idea Developing through nature and finite mind. As nature through Mathematics (Space, Time, Matter), Inorganic Physics (Mechanics, Elementary Physics, Physics of Individuality), Organic Physics (Geological Nature, Vegetable Nature, Animal Organism) and as Philosophic Mind through Subjective Mind (Soul, Consciousness, Spirit,) Objective Mind (Law, Morality of Conscience, Social Ethics) and Absolute Mind or Spirit  as Philosophic Spirit (Art, Religion, Philosophy).

       One of the difference between Hegel and Ibn Arabi is according to Hegel Absolute Spirit as Absolute Idea and Absolute Spirit as Philosophic Spirit  are two different stages. Absolute Idea is the eternal nature of the Absolute before the development of nature and finite mind. Philosophic Spirit is a later Development of Absolute Spirit through nature and finite mind. But According to Ibn Arabi  in the third plane of Absolute Spirit predicates are also  Divine Names which are same as various spirits of this plane. Secondly this third plane as Absolute spirit never exist independently ,but these Divine Names which simultaneously gives rise to Worldly Names or fourth plane. So when the Absolute Subject descends into reflective mind of the third plane as Absolute Spirit these spirits simultaneously give rise to the fourth plane or Absolute World of beings. The second major difference is according to Hegel the perfection of the Absolute is not in His transcendence as Absolute Being but in His immanent state in Absolute Spirit as Philosophic Spirit. According to Ibn Arabi the first plane or Absolute Being is perfect in itself in His Transcendence and is independent of both the third plane of Absolute Spirit and fourth plane of Absolute World. But according to Hegel the Absolute Mind as Abstract Being becomes perfect only as Absolute Idea by self development and later as Absolute Spirit in Philosophic Mind. The third difference between Hegel and Ibn Arabi  and other Mystics is as a consequence of defining the nature of Absolute as Mind and it's perfected state as Philosophic Mind, according to Hegel we can have absolute knowledge of this Absolute Mind not only as our own essence and spirit but also can have absolute knowledge of all other spirit's essential and absolute nature. But according to Ibn Arabi not only the first plane of Absolute Being is unknowable but even the third plane of Absolute Spirit is not completely knowable. This is because each Divine name is Unique so no one can replace another. It is true that every name is the same Absolute Spirit and the same Being and each name contain in itself all the other names, but each name is a particular relation of the absolute spirit with the predicates so each has a unique significance. Every name denotes a particular aspect of the Absolute Spirit and this is the essential al truth of that name. As we will explain later all the divine names are in an hierarchy like human spirit is higher than animal spirit and in human spirits also the one at a higher state can know the lower but not the one above.

      The completed phase of this stage in Sufism  is called the stage of Wahidiyath(Unity in Plurality).The Essence with attributes.The principal attributes are Wujud or Hayat (Being or Life), Ilm (Knowledge), Iradat(Will),Kudrat(Power),Samh(hearing),Basr(Sight) and Kalam(Speech). This is also called the stage of Lahut.

     This is the realm of conceptions of Socrates. This is what is called the world of Ideas or Ideal world by Plato-the famous Platonic Ideas-Eternal Ideas. This is what Plato says "God made the world out of the nature of the One and the Other". Here the Other means the predicates. This is the pure form, as antithesis to pure matter of Aristotle.

          This third plane is the Immanuel Kant's Noumenon (Ding un Sich)-Things in Themselves. And this is the realm of Ereignis in Heidegger's experience of Being where there is belonging together of Dasein and Being. This is what Heidegger calls the experience of Being as the unity of all beings in Being. This is not a personal plane but pre personal according to Heidegger.

       This is the Holy Ghost of  Christian Trinity. This is the Brahma or creator of the Trimurthi of Hinduism. In Samkya this is the plane of Mahat (Buddi). In the category of Universal, Particular, Individual this represent Individual. This state is the Alaya-Vijnana of Buddhists. This state is also called the third Logos. Both first and second higher states together are called Creativity by Whitehead. The state without any character. 

   Gurdjieff equate this plane with H3 potency. He denotes this plane as the state of Objective Consciousness. 

      The difference between the first plane Absolute Being and the second and third plane of Absolute Subject and Absolute Spirit is ,as we told earlier is that the first plane is the transcendental plane and independent of the worlds so cannot be attained or realised fully by any created or finite beings so beyond the full apprehension of even the greatest mystics and only temporary transport to this realm is possible during life. On the contrary all the succeeding states and planes depends on the Absolute Being for their reality. The third plane of Absolute Spirit is a dependent state, depends on the world or related to manifestation or worlds. Absolute Spirit and Absolute world depends on each other. The world depends on the absolute spirit for their essences or spirits and the spirits depends on the world for their manifestation. So each depends on the other and the one cannot exist without the other.

        This third plane -The Absolute Spirit as the spirits of these essences is the  reflective mind or spiritual mind. These spirits are permanent or eternal spirits so they can never transcend this nature so never attain the first plane as it is the state of Absolute Being. As we explained earlier when the Absolute Being of first plane reveal itself one cannot experience it as an individual subject as at this state individuality is lost as the Absolute Being is independent of mind and world so there cannot be knowledge or consciousness of this first plane as an individual spirit. This third plane is also eternal or rather it is beyond time and eternity. This is because Time and Space even as a concept or notion only begins or develop in this state. When the mystics attain this state they will have the realization that the One and only Absolute Spirit is the reality of themselves and all the other spirits. But as Ibn Arabi says each Divine name (spirits) is Unique so one spirit cannot know other spirit essentially-so Absolute knowledge of other spirits are impossible even in this state. At this realised state one will have Absolute knowledge of himself but can attain the knowledge of the essences of other spirits only as much as his capability and depends upon the station on the spiritual hierarchy. As I explained else where All human spirits are at a higher level than all other spirits because human spirit contains all the predicates or essences but every human spirit is also unique and distinct due to the different proportion of the predicates pertaining to each spirit.

      These first three planes of Absolute -Absolute Being, Absolute Subject and  Absolute Spirit are the higher states of the Absolute. They are the eternal aspects of the Absolute. All philosophic systems describe these as the eternal and immutable states of the Absolute. They are represented by the Trimurthi in Hindu puranas. I Logos the destroyer Shiva, II Logos the sustainer Vishnu and III Logos the creator Brahma. In Sufism these are Ahadiyah, Wahadat and wahadiyath. In Christianity this is Father, Son and the Holy Ghost. Pythagoreans,  Kabalism and Sufism consider these planes as the Higher Triad.

       But now if we reflect on these three planes of Absolute we can see that they are really two aspects of the Absolute.. The immediate and mediate aspect of  The Absolute. As we explained earlier as The Absolute all these planes exist simultaneously. According to the people of intuition and self realisation there is only an ontological priority of the state of Absolute Being over Absolute Subject and Spirit. We have explained earlier that Absolute has two aspects- immediate  and mediated aspects. The Absolute is Absolute Being and Absolute Subject &Spirit simultaneously. It has both immediacy and mediation simultaneously. This means when there is manifestation there is no absence or diminishing of the plane of Absolute Being. As we explained earlier even at the state of mediation Being remain as Absolute. Absolute Being is the state beyond mind where mind or predicates are negative and non being while Absolute Subject&Spirit is the Same Being as mind. All the predicates or mind and even the form of the world which are noting but predicates as mental forms or knowledge is also beginning less and eternal , but Being is not defined by them and is independent of them. Secondly as all these succeeding states are forms of mind they are only states of perception. In reality there is no logical priority of one state over the other. It is only our reason or rational knowledge which consider the logical priority. Further reflection will reveal that this is nothing but the limitation of mind itself. The limitation of logic or knowledge. Mind can conceive  mediation only  after immediacy or spontaneity, undifferentiated prior to differentiation, indeterminate state prior to determination.. But this logical priority is not at all a priority with respect to the Absolute whose Essence is beyond mind. So the Absolute  is simultaneously in both planes so these two aspect cannot be separated . Absolute Being and Absolute Subject& Spirit is in a Unity. Neither has precedence over the other. The notion of the Absolute is in their Unity. In it's structure The Absolute is both Absolute Being and Absolute Subject&Spirit. When we consider this first plane from the aspect of reason or mind only  there is logical priority. Here this occur as eternal alternation of passivity and activity as we explained earlier In this sense The Absolute Being is the rest or sleep of the Absolute. The manifestations-the plane of Absolute Spirit and Absolute World is the wakening or active state of the Absolute- The state of mind. In Hindu philosophy this  eternal alternation is described as the Pralaya .(dissolution ) and Sristi (creation). Rest is followed by activity- transcendence is followed by immanence.-Absolute Being is followed by Absolute Subject&Spirit and Absolute World .Here the Absolute is one reality with two aspects  and eternally alternate between these two states. . This is the eternal recurrence described by Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and Whitehead.

      So the real nature of the Absolute is He is transcendent and immanent simultaneously. We have described the Absolute Being and Absolute Subject&Spirit as different states or as higher and lower states for convenience of describing these states. In reality these two states cannot be separated. So he is nothing of the world and everything of the world simultaneously. Due to this nature of God world is described by mystics as 'it is neither God nor something other than God'. Now when Ibn Arabi speaks about Absolute Being it is the ontological priority. So here there is Absolute Spirit and Absolute World but Absolute Being transcends it and not limited or qualified by it. This is why both Ibn Arabi and Spinoza says about the Essence that it is Being and Exists and is Holy (transcendent). Here Being or Existence is same as the Absolute Being because here the priority is not logical but ontological. On the other hand Abdul Karim Jili in his famous Insan al Kamil (The Perfect Man) describe the Absolute Being in his logical Priority. So here Absolute Being is beyond being and non being, existence or non existence because here being is  the isness or existence of mind and is the stage of Absolute Subject&Spirit and here Absolute Being is logically prior to it. So the real priority is ontological and this means Absolute Being and Absolute Subject  are both eternal or without beginning.. This means the concept of Absolute  always include both Absolute Being and Absolute Subject.So Absolute is Unknowable Essence and Mental Essence simultaneously. The priority of  Absolute Being over Absolute Subject is an ontological priority.                 

          The dual nature of The Absolute as transcendent state of Absolute Being and the immanent state of Absolute Subject&Spirit as reflective mind or spiritual mind and the descend into this second and third plane of mind as Absolute Subject&Spirit developing into subject and predicates  and the nature of this Absolute Spirit as mind and the form of this mind as energy is really at the root of the main two doctrines of the nature of reality. Monism and Dualism. This is also the cause of describing the fundamental nature of Absolute as dual in eastern and Persian philosophy and as triune in western and Abrahamic philosophy. We have seen that the The Absolute  has dual nature-transcendence and immanence. Only in this sense we can say God is dual nature. The transcendent state of Absolute Being as unknowable taken alone is beyond any dual or triune nature. When we consider the second state of immanence as Absolute Subject&Spirit which is  reflective mind or spiritual mind this is also as dual nature because the nature of mind is consciousness and the form is energy. Matter is in reality mind itself and it is only the form of mind so matter has no independent reality. Mind always contain matter. Energy or matter is the existential or experiential aspect of the mind and consciousness is the internal nature of mind. So mind as Absolute Subject&Spirit has dual aspect. Consciousness and matter. Mind contain matter. There is no mind without the form of energy and there is no energy whose reality is not mind. It is this dual aspect which is expressed in vedanta as purusha and maya, in Samkya as purusha and prakrti, in Kashmir saivishm as Siva (male) and Sakti (female) in Persian Zoroastrian philosophy as spentomainyush (light) and angromainyush (darkness). This is also expressed in philosophy by division of reality as self and non-self, mind and matter, being and thought, subject and object, one and other, positive and negative, masculine and feminine. In reality the predicates are the Subject Himself. Subject Himself is his own object .Self becomes object. The other is His Own Other. Like wise when we consider the triune nature of Absolute as Father, Son, Holy Spirit the transcendent state of Absolute Being is symbolised by Father. The second plane of Absolute Subject when viewed as pure subjectivity without any content  and also in the special state of perfect human spirit containing all the four potentialities of being, knowledge, will and power is symbolised by Son. The Absolute Spirit when viewed as each and every particular unique spirit is symbolised by Holy Spirit. In Sufism these three planes are called Ahadiya, wahadath and wahidiya  respectively. Ibn Arabi name these three planes as Allah, Rahman and Rubb respectively. In Hindu Philosophy this states are called Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma respectively. If we consider the transcendent state of Absolute Being beyond any designation ,even the state as Father then the immanent state of Absolute Subjet&Spirit itself is seen as triune nature. We have earlier seen that Absolute Spirit as spiritual mind or  reflective mind is dual nature as consciousness and energy ,subject and object, knower and known. Now if we look at the mind in it's triune nature this is subject of consciousness, consciousness itself and object of consciousness; knower, knowledge and known; thinker, thought and thoughts. As we explained earlier as reflective mind or spiritual mind there is unity between these three aspects so there is no separation or difference between them but only an inner distinction. So they are three and one simultaneously. Some Christian mystics like Nicholas of Cusa identify the Trinity concept with this triune aspect. He names them Oneness, Union and Equality respectively. When we consider the dual nature of the Absolute in His transcendent and immanent state both monism and dualism can also be explained. We have seen that there is only one ultimate essence which is unknowable and mind is a lower form of this essence and matter is only the form of this mind and every knowable reality is different form of this mind. This means there is only one essence which is ultimately the reality of all. This is monism. We have also seen that transcendent state of Absolute Being is an higher state and always remain unknowable and independent of the immanent state of Absolute Spirit  The immanent state which is a lower form of the Absolute is as reflective mind or spiritual mind. Absolute Being is the ground of Absolute Subject&Spirit so it depends on the transcendent state for it's reality. This immanent state is the root of all creation, hence the created can never be equated with the Absolute. When we consider the Absolute from the highest state of Absolute Being there is neither duality nor trinity but only perfect Unity. We have seen that mind and world are non being and negative so nothing when compared with the state of Absolute Being. Moreover they are the lower forms of the One Essence. So in reality there is only one essence in different forms. This is Absolute Monism.       

       When the seeker reach this state of Absolute Spirit or spiritual mind the experience is totally different from the worldly experience. There are those who momentarily experience this state and those who are firmly established in this state. The attainment of this state is what we call first stage of self realisation. This comes in the way after attaining the subtle and soul planes. When one reaches this state both his subjective and objective experience undergo total transformation and it is as if he is transported to a completely unknown and inexperienced realm. This is because in unrealised state our subjectivity is limited to our body. Even if we can think of our family or loved ones as our own and like wise some can include the whole creation in his self this remains only an intellectual or rational knowledge and not an existential experience. This becomes evident when we cannot feel the emotions of others like pain or pleasure in the same intensity as experienced by them even if we think and love them as ourselves. Secondly because as this is not an existential experience to act as if every one is our own self becomes a constant struggle. What happens when one reaches the third plane of spiritual mind is there is an expansion of the subjectivity so it envelops the whole creation. Unlike intellectual knowledge this is an existential experience. Here what happens is Absolute Spirit manifests through that man so that he has the realisation that there is only one subject and he himself is not different from the Absolute Spirit. This will make him existentially experience his own subjectivity permeating the whole creation without losing his own individuality. As we have already explained in the introduction when speaking about the different forms of mind internal reflective mind is the highest form of mind. Here unlike external reflective mind there is universal subjectivity and objects are not something alien to it but include in it's subjectivity. So unlike reflected mind there is no difference between subject and object but only distinction and objects are as it's own other. As we have explained earlier even though the subject is one, every spirit is unique due to the proportion of predicates pertaining to it or the degree of manifestation of the Essence. Secondly as the objective aspect of the Absolute Spirit is ultracosmic energy so that there is only one Body or Being which state is entirely different form our ordinary state which is manifested energy and limited body experience and also multiplicity of beings. This will result in the experience of the whole universe as his own body and the nature of this ultracosmic energy which is totally unknowable to us in ordinary state and cannot be experienced by any kind of speculation or imagination will give rise to what the mystics describe as the blissful state (ananda). This subjective and objective experience which is totally alien to the worldly creatures makes the realised man an entirely different category from normal human beings and action from a universal perspective proceed from him without any struggle or effort. It is also reported by mystics that one who attains to the spiritual mind or divine mind the whole past and future history of the cosmos is revealed.

       This third plane can be roughly compared to the mental or intellectual world of a man. Suppose a man as a subject  thinks of himself as so many things like some animals, plants, other beings etc( formless thoughts-concepts of things, not imagination with forms-which is the fourth plane of Absolute World). Now we can see that these are only mental concepts and thoughts and when compared with the real existence of the thinker or subject this concepts or thoughts have only a less real existence. Now here it is apparent that there is only one subject and all these activities are really the result of the intentions of the subject and merely his thoughts. This is why it is said that there is only one essence and one existence. Secondly the existence of these animals and plants which has only less real existence cannot be equated with the existence of the man which is the most real existence. So there is both unity and difference. Thirdly when this thinking activity is over all these animals and plants disappear and the man alone remains. That is why it is said that the first plane or the Absolute Being is independent of both second ,third, and fourth  planes-Absolute Subject, Spirit and Absolute World. The defect of this comparison is even as subject we are in the realm of mind while Absolute Being is beyond the realm of mind. Or these states can be compared with the witnessing of a self conscious man. It is known that during normal undeveloped states one never becomes an object to himself. In these normal undeveloped states thought is occupied always with other things but not reflecting on thought itself or one self. But when we are self conscious we can abstract everything from ourself so that everything becomes an object to the witnessing subject. Not only the world outside, but our own body and sensations, our feelings, emotions, our mind and particular thoughts, and even our particular ego and subjectivity becomes an object to the witnessing universal subject. An highly self conscious man when acting, even if the act does not harm others, but only give advantage to oneself and boost his particular ego or subjectivity experience conscience. From this it is apparent that the man is witnessing from a universal subjective point to which even this particular subjectivity is an object. During these witnessing one experience that this witnessing universal subjectivity is the essence of oneself and all others including particular ego is unessential elements. As already explained the defect of these comparison is in our case both are forms of mind itself. Universal subject is the  reflective mind or spiritual mind as Absolute Spirit which is our inner reality and essence and particular ego, thoughts, emotions, body etc are forms of reflective mind. But when compared with the states of Absolute, the first plane Absolute Being is unknowable essence which is being and positive and compared with this the second ,third, fourth plane of Absolute Subject, Spirit and  Absolute World whose essence is mind is non being and nothing and is a lower form of the Essence itself. This is why it is said that Absolute Subject is independent of both predicates and world.

IV: Absolute World

 A. Soul World (Space-Time)

    i: Universal Spiritual (Subjective) Soul.

     Now as we explained above in the third plane the beginning of Absolute Spirit is as universal subjective spirit -  Subjectve consciousness  which becomes an object to Himself, so that being becomes a predicate of the subject and when this being is attributed to the Absolute Spirit he is subjective being or self conscious being or universal subjective spirit. (supra light spirit). As we already explained cause of the fourth plane is the love of the Absolute Spirit-love of perfection. Love and desire are a form of internal heat. This will produce slight motion or external vibrations in the ultracosmic of energy of Absolute Spirit as Universal Subjective Spirit  which is without external motion and at rest. So as a manifestation of power due to increased concreteness of mind or due to this movement or vibrations or frequency, energy with the highest frequency is formed as the fourth plane. This is called Universal Spiritual Soul (supra light soul). This is what we call active mind in the form of conscious reflective mind.

      As we explained earlier the subjective or internal nature of this universal spiritual soul in the fourth plane is pure individual subjectivity as particular and individual independent external being and the external nature of this universal spiritual soul is  as supra light wave (cosmic,gamma,x-ray). So both are one and the same thing -mind itself as conscious reflective mind ,only the form is that of energy. So supra light soul with its internal aspect of subjectivity  and the objective aspect as supra light wave is one and same thing. (Here a word of caution. When I say cosmic or gamma rays it is not in the literal sense of complete identity with these electro magnetic waves but to convey the idea of physical manifestation beginning with maximal frequency).

      So at this fourth plane  of Absolute world as soul world, identity as one Absolute Spirit or  reflective mind is lost and become conscious reflective mind. This manifests as a subjective aspect of consciousness and an objective aspect of  external body. This combination is the cause of all manifestations. This  is the cause of Absolute's identity as  individual  beings. This is the cause of separate particular Individuality. So this is the beginning of individual beings .Here there is the beginning of the distinction and difference between subjective and objective aspect so that the internal unity is broken. The Unity of Knower-Knowledge-Known of third plane is lost. As we explained earlier the cause of external manifestations is transformation of love into power. So the worlds are the Power aspect of the Absolute.

     Now all manifestations can be viewed from two angles or there is two angle of vision. One is the internal nature or subjective aspect  This is from the side of pure consciousness. This is the interior aspect of the manifestations. The second is the objective or energy aspect. This is the external aspect of manifestation. Physical view or angle is from the side of energy. The form of mind appearing  as energy or matter or body. The external existence or body of the individual soul. This will produce physical or material aspect of the beings. This is the exterior aspect of the manifestations. This manifestation of both interior and exterior aspects constitute both beings and world. Such numerous worlds and beings are called existences.

     Now all the worlds and beings whether soul mind, subtle mind or material mind constitute these two elements. One interior or the aspect of consciousness  as subjectivity and the other physical or material aspect. Either of them have no independent reality or existence apart from the other. As we have explained earlier objective aspect as either energy or matter is only the form of mind. Mind cannot exist without the form of energy and energy has no independent reality apart from mind.

      So this subjective aspect (consciousness) and objective aspect (body) of the manifested beings are not two separate realities. They are one and the same thing now looked through subjective aspect of mind as consciousness and now looked through as the form of this as energy. The reality or existence of one depends on the other. They are depending on each other for their existence and for their reality. One cannot exist without the other. They are one and the same thing viewed from different angles.

      Now as we told earlier at the beginning of manifestations in the third plane of the Absolute Spirit  is in a state of  reflective mind as pure subjectivity or as a combination of maximum consciousness as pure subjectivity and minimum consciousness as objectivity.. We called this Absolute Spirit, by the name Universal subjective Spirit or Supra light spirit. All the succeeding spirits are the result of the decreasing pure subjective aspect and increasing objective aspect or  as combinations of decreasing pure subjective consciousness and increasing consciousness of subjectivity identifying as object up to the earth spirit and later combinations of maximum objective aspect as energy or matter and increasing pure consciousness or subjective aspect and culminating in the spiritual mind as a subjectivity of a combination of maximum pure consciousness and maximum matter as human spirit. Now the Absolute Spirit or Creative Spirit  who is in a non dual state of unity or without subject object difference in the third plane are manifested externally as particular and individual beings with dual aspect or with subject-object distinction due to this combination. These worldly beings of the fourth plane are dependent and depend on their spirits in the third plane for their reality and existence.

      As we explained earlier Absolute Spirit in the third plane, in the beginning identify as Universal subjective Spirit. This is as we explained is the predicate Being attributed to the subject or as self conscious being.. This is the state of Universal I or Ego. Here the Absolute or Creative Spirit fully identified with the wisdom or knowledge aspect of the Absolute as being. Here the Creative Spirit identify itself as full of spiritual essence or full of self consciousness. As wisdom aspect this is pure subjective or spiritual or self consciousness. This is the state of pure I or Universal Ego or Universal subject or Universal subjective Spirit. Here self or spirit is identified with pure subjectivity. Here internal reflective mind as active mind is a state of internal knowledge.. Self awareness without any movement. Let us call this Universal subjective Spirit or supra light spirit (S spirit) as full self conscious spirit  Cosmic Spirit or S1 spirit. As this is the divine aspect these are called Divine names. This Cosmic Spirit is the conceptual level or notional level in the third plane. So first development is Absolute or Creative Spirit with maximum consciousness and minimum pure being. As we told earlier this will manifest on the third plane of Absolute Spirit as Universal Subjective Spirit thinking as pure self consciousness spirit as S1 spirit or cosmic spirit.

        The other aspect is from the soul mind or world or in the fourth plane. This is as we described earlier is the conscious reflected mind. The fourth plane is manifested when the love of the Universal subjective spirit as cosmic spirit in the third plane develops into power or mind becoming more concrete so the fourth plane is manifested. As we explained love and desire are a form of internal heat and as a result there is vibrations or motion in the ultracosmic energy of cosmic Spirit  and energy with the highest frequency is manifested as the fourth plane. Here in the fourth plane Universal Spiritual Soul or cosmic soul is formed. Now the internal nature of this cosmic soul is  consciousness as Individual universal independent  subjective soul. . This active mind manifest externally as highest vibrations or frequency in the ultracosmic energy. As a result externally energy with the highest frequency is manifested. This is Cosmic Photon. So internally and externally this is universal subjective soul or cosmic soul or S1 Soul.( cosmic photon). So both internal and external aspect is one and the same thing. This Universal spiritual Soul or Cosmic Soul  in the fourth plane corresponding to the Divine name or concept or Notion which is Cosmic Spirit in the eternal third plane. This is the beginning of Soul World. In the Soul World the dual aspect is the internal subjective individual cosmic soul and the external objective cosmic photons or body. What we have to remember is there is neither temporal succession nor logical succession in the manifestation of Universal Spiritual Soul as Cosmic soul in its internal nature as subjectivity and external nature as energy or body as cosmic photon. They appear together because as we told earlier they are one and the same thing viewed from two different aspects or angle of vision. Now in external manifestation  being aspect as Cosmic photons are prior and apparent and as Cosmic soul or spiritual soul are hidden and reveal later only to intuitive mind. So in this sense we can say Universal Spiritual Soul as cosmic soul is  the internal reality of this Cosmic Photon.

     Further this division of mind as pure consciousness and pure being or as active spirit and passive nature is only due to internal distinction in the third plane as Absolute Spirit , which means only in the consciousness of the Absolute or Creative spirit. But the  reflective mind contain both subjectivity and objectivity or self consciousness and non self consciousness. So here passive nature or ultracosmic energy or matter is also mind,  but as other of self consciousness. It's own other-Self and it's own other. A sentient spirit or active spirit and insentient nature or passive nature. So the manifested Universal Spiritual Soul as Cosmic soul in the fourth plane has an active internal nature as consciousness and external nature as cosmic photon or passive nature.

     This is the fourth plane and the world of manifestations. This is the beginning of external manifestation as spiritual soul, cosmic photon. This is the beginning of the soul world. In other words The Universal Subjective spirit as Cosmic spirit, Which is the third plane as Absolute Spirit or  reflective mind, due to love of perfection further limitation of mind becoming more and more concrete by developing into to power manifest the fourth plane-Absolute World as conscious reflective mind. The first manifestation in this Absolute world is the Universal Spiritual Soul as cosmic soul in Soul World.. This is the world of external manifestations. From the internal aspect this Cosmic Soul is consciousness as pure subjectivity and from the external aspect this is Cosmic Photon. In  external manifestations passive nature as Cosmic Photon  is apparent and the subjective aspect of this cosmic soul is hidden or concealed. As we explained earlier This Cosmic Soul  is nothing but the active thought of the Cosmic Spirit (third plane) as a separate and individual ,independent self-conscious being or Soul. This Cosmic Soul or Cosmic Photon in the fourth plane  is controlled by the Cosmic spirit of the third plane and which is its inner reality. This Cosmic Soul is like a shadow to the Cosmic spirit, which is its internal reality and which is the inner controller of it from the third plane So we can also say this Cosmic Soul  is the form of the Cosmic Spirit .

       According to modern physics electro magnetic radiations are emitted by the particles. We are not denying this fact but proposing that prior to the formation of subatomic particles or even other elementary particles (like fermions-eg: Quarks, Leptons or  other Bosons ) there was a state at which  energy existed as higher frequency electromagnetic waves. So according to us this Cosmic photon is the basic physical unit. This is a mass less boson with maximum quanta of energy or with the highest frequency. According to string theory basic unit of matter or plank quanta has only length but no position. Cosmic photon due to its dual nature also fit this description.

      In this external Universal Subjective Soul as Cosmic Soul which we call(S1) wisdom predominates so this soul is complete spiritual essence or full of self-consciousness. This is also called Universal Spiritual Soul or Universal Ego, which is the source of all further manifestations.

       Hegel identify this Universal Spiritual Soul  as Cosmic Soul of fourth plane with Space in its objective aspect or external nature as cosmic wave or photon and this is the abstract ideal Object and internal aspect and Spiritual thought or subjectivity he identify with Time and this is  abstract ideal Subject. So here the Space is this abstract externality or objectivity as Cosmic Photon and Time is  just this intuition of becoming-Pure Subjectivity as cosmic soul. So This Universal Spiritual Soul as Cosmic Soul is also called Space-Time. Space is the external being aspect as cosmic wave and Time is the internal subjective aspect of this cosmic soul or spiritual soul. So this is the beginning of space-time. So the concept of Time-Space begins in the third plane as Cosmic Spirit and Space-Time manifest in the fourth plane as Cosmic Soul.

          As we already explained Universal Subjective Spirit as Cosmic Spirit is the most abstract form of consciousness. After some logical time the Absolute Spirit as Cosmic Spirit in the third plane undergo further development and awareness  and   reflective mind becomes  more concrete. What this mean is the proportion of Absolute Spirit's knowledge as pure being increases and as pure subjectivity decreases. In the eternal third plane or from the aspect of pure consciousness  this will make the Universal Subjective Spirit (supra light spirit; Cosmic, Gamma, X-ray spirit) as Cosmic Spirit(S1) lose some active awareness as pure spiritual essence or full of self-consciousness. As a result Creative Spirit as universal subjective spirit  gradually identifies itself as Spirit with Will aspect or medium self-consciousness. This is emotional or discursive self consciousness. Let us call this Universal subjective Spirit as Gamma spirit or S2 spirit. As before due to the love of perfection of Absolute Spirit as  Gamma Spirit there is less motion or vibration in the Cosmic soul or photon and photon with  decrease in frequency is formed in the fourth plane out of cosmic wave. So in the fourth plane  Gamma photon  is manifested out of Cosmic photons with lower frequency. Let us call this  S2 Soul.  As we explained earlier Gamma Soul in its internal aspect is Individual subjectivity (mind) and external aspect Gamma photon.. By a similar process after some logical time, losing further self consciousness Absolute Spirit as Gamma spirit identify itself as spirit with Power aspect or minimal self-consciousness or X-ray spirit or S3 spirit on the eternal third plane. This is sensuous self consciousness. In the fourth plane or in soul world, due to the love of Absolute Spirit as Gamma Spirit power dominated X-ray spiritual soul or X-ray photon with lower frequency  is manifested out of Gamma photons. So the cause of the fourth  plane or world is the love of Absolute Spirit for perfection and the word is manifestation of the power aspect of the Absolute.

     As we explained earlier The internal or subjective aspects of these individual Cosmic or S1, Gamma or S2, and X-ray or S3 spiritual Souls and the external or objective nature as Cosmic ,Gamma and X-ray photons  are one and the same thing. So these two aspects are one and the same thing. These are the fundamental three divisions of Universal Spiritual Soul or Supra Light Soul. So what we have to always remember is the Subjective knowledge of this Universal Spiritual Soul as his mind and the Objective aspect as the external Cosmic, Gamma or X-ray photon as his body is one and the same. Both are only one Thought. One thought whose nature is knowledge and form is as energy.

     What we have to remember is  the difference between these three spiritual souls (cosmic, gamma, X-ray) are not one of nature but only the degree of content. All three are only universal spiritual or subjective soul (supra light soul). In cosmic soul or S1 there is maximum self consciousness as the attribute of Wisdom predominate so full of pure spiritual subjective self consciousness.S2 soul  moderate self consciousness as this is the Love or Will aspect so discursive reason or emotional self consciousness. S3 soul  minimum self consciousness as this is the Power aspect so sensuous self consciousness.

   As we earlier explained universal subjective soul represents the conscious reflective mind. This is conscious reflective mind because here the subjectivity or ego experienced as pure mind with out any content unlike the following soul worlds like universal mental soul, universal material soul etc where self or ego is identified with predicates or matter.

      We have earlier mentioned that from the spiritual perspective the third plane of universal subjective spirit as cosmic spirit is the concept of Time and space. From the physical perspective or in the fourth plane of Cosmic soul  this is the beginning of physical substance, time and space. We already told Cosmic photon as basic physical unit. This is same as Strings-the basic of both matter and Energy. Physical time also begins with the existence of Cosmic wave. Time is the internal individual subjectivity of the cosmic soul. Space also begins with Cosmic photon, rather Cosmic photons itself is space. Cosmic wave has dual nature and behave both as particle and wave. In the beginning there exist only Cosmic wave, so this existence of Cosmic wave is space. Time and space both change as Cosmic wave is partly replaced by Gamma wave then by X-ray wave etc. First logical calculation of time is the duration between the appearances of Cosmic wave to the appearance of Gamma wave. Due to the existence of Gamma photon space also changes and Gamma photon becomes part of space. So time and space are co-related and exist from and with the beginning of Soul World. So we designate thus time interrelated with space and as a fourth dimension Space-Time.. Hegel describe Time as the negativity of Space.

        In Sufism the third plane of Absolute Spirit as essences or spirits is called Ism Ilahi (Divine Names) and the fourth plane of Absolute World as beings is called Ism Kauni (Worldly Names). The Universal subjective Spirit or supra light spirit (Cosmic, Gamma, X-ray) is called by the Divine name Hadi (creator). Universal Spiritual Soul or supra light soul  in the fourth plane is called by the worldly name Aql Kull (Universal Reason) ,Qalam i Ala (exalted Pen). Ibn Arabi call this Universal Spiritual Soul the First Intellect. He also calls this Haqiqat al Muhammediya (Reality of Muhammad)(futuhat-ch-3&6).(As we earlier mentioned some Sufis also denote haqiqat Muhammediya with state of Wahdat-Absolute Subject with four potentialities).

ii: Universal Mental Soul.

         Gradually after some logical time in eternal third plane there is further development and knowledge in the Absolute Spirit as X-ray Spirit. This means mind becomes more and more concrete.. As this increases Creative spirit's  knowledge as X-ay spirit is lost and identify itself as Universal Mental Spirit or Light spectrum spirit (M spirit). The beginning is mental spirit with Wisdom aspect. So this is the spirit with spiritual or divine thoughts. Let us call this Ultraviolet mental spirit or M1 spirit. As explained love of perfection of the ultraviolet spirit produces less  motion or vibration in the X-ray wave and ultraviolet wave with lower frequency is manifested out of X-ray wave in the fourth plane. As we explained earlier this also have the same two aspects. One internal subjective consciousness aspect and external objective physical aspect. This is individual UV mental soul with body of ultraviolet photons This is the beginning of Universal Mental Souls or Light Spectrum Souls. By a similar process ultra violet(M1) spirit, in the third plane or spiritual realm by further self development and becoming more concrete losing more self consciousness  think as mental spirit with Will aspect or visible light(M2) mental spirit in the third plane. So this is temporal thoughts. Similarly love of perfection of the visible light spirit produces less vibrations in the ultraviolet wave of second plane and  visible light soul or visible light ray with lower frequency is manifested out of ultraviolet mental Soul. This is M2 mental Soul .By a similar process again later light spirit identify as Mental Spirit with Power aspect and  infra red mental spirit or M3 spirit  in third plane or spiritual realm and IR mental thought as sensory knowledge (power aspect) emanated. So this is sensual thoughts. As earlier out of Visible Light mental soul manifest IR soul with lower frequency consisting of internal IR subjectivity and externally as IR body or photon. This is M3 Soul. These M1, M2 and M3 Mental Souls are the three fundamental groups in Universal Mental Soul or Light Spectrum Soul.

        As we explained all mental souls have  mental essence but in M1 there is maximum essence because as it is Wisdom attribute full of spiritual and divine thoughts. ,M2 moderate mental essence, the Will aspect and so temporal or worldly thoughts. and in M3 minimum mental essence, the Power aspect and sensuous thoughts. As we explained earlier mental soul and mental photons are one and the same thing. One is looked from the internal subjective aspect and the other from the external objective aspect.

      Ibn Arabi call this Mental Soul  by the worldly name Universal Self. Sufis call the Universal Mental Spirit in the spiritual realm or in the third plane  of Absolute Spirit by the divine name Baith (Cause) and Universal Mental Soul in the fourth plane by the worldly name Nafs kull (universal self) .This is also called Lawh i Mahfus (Preserved Tablet).

 iii: Universal Material Soul.

   a:    Subtle Material Soul (Imaginal or Astral).

                Now after some logical time further self development make the  reflective mind more concrete so that consciousness of Creative spirit as UV mental spirit is reduced and lost and Creative Spirit become aware as Astral or imaginary Spirit or Infra Light Spirit (A spirit). The beginning is astral spirit with wisdom aspect  or TV subtle material spirit or A1 spirit .This is the spirit of spiritual desire and imagination (wisdom dominated). Similarly love of Absolute Spirit as Infra light Spirit produces further motion or vibrations in IR Wave and in the fourth plane energy with lower frequency or TV-subtle material Soul or astral soul or TV-ray   manifested out of IR ray. As we explained earlier the internal aspect of this TV astral soul is imagination and external aspect is TV photon or being or body. This is the beginning of subtle material Souls. By a similar process when the  reflective mind or Creative Spirit in the third plane as TV-astral Spirit  becomes more concrete it think as Astral spirit with will aspect or Micro astral spirit manifested and egoistic desire or images (Will dominated) emanate from it. , Similarly micro astral soul or Micro wave with lower frequency is manifested out of TV-ray or TV-astral soul. This is A2 astral soul or Micro Soul.. Like this due to further concrete mind Micro spirit identify as astral spirit with Power aspect or Radio astral spirit.  This is A3 astral spirit and sensual desire or images (power dominated) .Similarly radio astral soul manifested out of micro Soul or micro wave. This is radio Soul or radio wave or A3 soul.

      These A1, A2 and A3 subtle material or imaginary or astral Spirits in the third plane of Absolute Spirit and Corresponding  TV,Micro,Radio astral Souls or Photons in the fourth plane of Absolute World  are the three fundamental groups in subtle material spirit and soul.

     Sufis call the Subtle material spirit in the third plane by the Divine name Batin (Un manifest) and the Subtle material soul in the fourth plane by the worldly name Tabiat i Kull (Universal Nature). This universal Nature contain the four natures which are the roots of four fundamental elements of nature-Fire, Air, Water and Earth. These natures are Heat and Cold, Dry and Wet. But dryness contained in Heat and wet in Cold. So there are two fundamental natures. Heat and Cold. But this is nothing but temperature. So temperature is at the root of all nature. But as we explained earlier heat or temperature is the external form of love or will or desire and this temperature is energy itself so that difference of temperature is difference of the quanta of energy.

b:    Gross Material Soul.

      After some logical time due to further self development of the radio astral spirit in eternal third plane or spiritual plane mind becomes more concrete. From the Absolute spiritual aspect at this the thought of subtle material or astral spirit as radio spirit go on increasing and astral spirit become aware as material spirit with wisdom aspect or as sub quark1 material Spirit or P1 material Spirit and  material thought (wisdom dominant) emanate out of P1 Spirit This is  mind or thinking as pure matter. In the soul world Sub Quark1 material Soul is manifested with internal subjectivity and external SubQuark1 basic particle. This is seen Externally as a process. The frequency of radio rays goes on decreasing and a critical point is reached. At this point there is low energy and frequency. At this critical point due to interaction of these low frequency rays and other fundamental particle rays like Cosmic, light and gamma rays, sub quarks are formed. This is manifestation of   SubQuark1  material soul or particle. This subquark1 consists of internal subquark1 subjectivity and  external Sub Quark1 Body or particle. This is Gross Material soul with wisdom aspect or P1 material soul. This is the beginning of gross material Souls. Similar to subquark1 spirit subquark2 spirit as material thoughts (will) is formed in eternal Absolute spiritual realm. So this is mind as moderately pure matter due to the Will aspect. Subbquark2 material soul is manifested out of subquark1Soul. This is material soul with will aspect or P2 material soul. Like this sub quark3  spirit is developed out of subquark2 spirit with power aspect in second state. This is mind as impure matter. subquark3 material particle is formed out of subquark2 in the absolute world.. This is material being with power aspect so this is P3 material Soul.

         According to quantum field theory by instantaneous and local interaction of different energy fields basic particles can be formed. So this is the way the sub quark is formed. According to modern physics Quarks are the fundamental physical building blocks. Sub atomic particles are formed by combination of different types of Quarks. According to our theory Quarks composed of three Sub Quarks. These sub Quarks are the basic physical units. There are three basic types of Sub Quarks. Sub Quark with Wisdom aspect or P1,Sub Quark with Will aspect or P2,Sub Quark with Power aspect or P3.

     Sufis call the Universal Gross material Spirit in the Spiritual plane by the Divine Name Akhir (The Exterior) and Universal Gross Material Soul in the Soul World by the worldly name Jauhar i Haba (Essence of Matter).

     This complete Soul world with universal subjective soul, mental soul, subtle and gross material soul is called Alam Arwah..Gurdjieff equate this soul world with H6 potency.He denotes this plane as the state of Self Consciousness.  As we can see spiritual Soul(S) and mental Soul(M) differs from Material Soul in that they have no material nature hence Shah Waliyullah calls them Ruh Malakut.(Angelic Soul). As human soul contains whole soul world or SMAPs (souls) it is called a tied soul. In this Human soul SMs (souls) is called the angelic soul part and the APs (souls) is called the rational part of the human soul. This is the causal body (karana sarira) of spirit(Atman)

        As we explained earlier in the third eternal plane as Absolute or Creative Spirit due to the unity of Knower, Knowledge and Known  there is only an internal distinction between active nature and passive nature or in other words  internal as subjective consciousness and external consciousness in the form of passive energy or ultracosmic energy. We have seen that the reality of both is mind and they are one and the same thing. So passive nature is the form of the very same mind. So in Universal subjective Spirits(S1,S2,S3),Universal Mental Spirits(M1,M2,M3),Universal Subtle material Spirits(A1,A2,A3) and Universal Gross Material Spirits(P1,P2,P3) these distinctions are only internal as they are in this eternal plane and the passive nature is as ultracosmic energy or passive energy. Even if there is internal distinction we have seen that both are one and the same thing-mind,. internal as pure consciousness and external as form of this mind.. But in the Absolute World or fourth plane of temporality this unity is broken  and there is division of knower, knowledge and known. So there is external distinction. These Universal subjective Souls(S1,S2,S3),Universal Mental Souls(M1,M2,M3),Universal Subtle material Souls(A1,A2,A3) and Universal Gross Material Souls(P1,P2,P3) consider their subjectivity distinct from their external nature. So these Photons of the physical aspect they consider as their bodies. But as we told earlier the souls and photons are one and the same thing. One looked from internal, subjective and consciousness aspect and the other from external, objective and as form of consciousness aspect. As these are the forms of these same subjective thought the subject cannot exist without this form. They are one and the same reality considered from two aspects. One cannot exist without the other.

      The above  Soul  world consisting Universal Spiritual, Mental, imaginary and gross material Soul manifestations are known as principal manifestations. These four Universal Souls and the corresponding Spirits represent four fundamental attributes of the Absolute Subject. Wujud (Subjective Being), Ilm (Knowledge), Irada (Will) and Qudrat (Power) respectively. From these S1,S2,S3 is known as Universal Spiritual Soul or Subjective Being, M1,M2,M3 Universal Mental Soul or The Knower, A1,A2,A3, Universal Subtle Material Soul or Universal Nature or Imagination or The Willer and P1,P2,P3 Universal Gross material Soul or Universal Matter or essence of matter or The Powerful. These Souls are individual, particular and independent souls unlike their spirits in the third plane of Absolute Spirit where all the spirits are one and the same Absolute Spirit forming different relations so that the individual spirits have no independent existence apart from the Absolute Spirit.. But all the souls as we explained earlier depends on their spirits in the fourth plane for their reality and in turn  those spirits in the eternal spiritual plane depends on these souls of the world for their manifestations. so they depend each other. All other innumerable minor spiritual, mental, astral  and material souls are derived ultimately from these Four Universal  Souls.

        As we have explained above universal subjective soul of this soul word is the conscious reflective mind. This is the plane of pure self consciousness and not consciousness  of any objects. There is no other consciousness at this plane than self consciousness. Spiritual soul is knowledge of self as pure subjectivity, mental soul is knowledge of self as mental essence (knowledge of predicates), subtle material soul is knowledge of self as imaginary essence and gross material soul is Knowledge of self as material essence or matter/energy. Universal subjective soul of this Soul world  is the realm of ideas and thoughts arising out of self consciousness where the being is fully conscious of his individual subjectivity and every thing arising out of this subjectivity. In contrast to internal reflective mind in this conscious reflective mind there is always an object for mind set apart from subjectivity. Unlike  reflective mind here mind  posit two independent and different realities -a subject and an object. This Soul world is an objective realm and should not be confused with the subjective human soul plane.

    These Four major manifestations of soul world are the beginning of the temporal and mutable aspects of reality. Pythagoras describe them as the temporal  tetrad. In Jewish kabala this plane is described as lower triad This consists of Chesed, Geburah and Tiphareth. If we include the invisible sephiroth Daath this also becomes a tetrad. Daath is equated with Knowledge, Chesed with Love,Geburah with fear and Tiphareth with beauty.This plane is called Briah and this is the world of creation. This is represented by Arch Angels. Semitic religions describe them as four Archangels. Other religions also describe them as chief devas or prajapatis.

    This  soul world can be compared to the Vedanta's cosmic sleep-consciousness (Susupti), in which the Brahman has for its upaadhi the cosmic causal  body. This soul world is the Ahankara plane of Samkya. This is also the Vijnanana maya kosha (knowledge sheath) of Brahman. This is the chitta plane of yoga philosophy. Human soul of this plane is called Jiva in Indian philosophy. This human soul of the fourth plane is the casual body (karana sarira) of the human spirit (jivatman )of the third plane. All created beings contain one or some of the souls. In our solar system only human beings contain all the four souls. It is the peculiarity and uniqueness of the the human beings that his soul is a combination of  spiritual, mental, subtle and gross material souls (SMAPs).

        Mystics describe these four stages as the process of creation or emanation. So they transcend our created material universe. Ibn Arabi in his later work Fusus describe these as the higher superior angels who transcend both subtle and gross material nature but still depending on universal nature (objective, passive nature, ultracosmic energy aspect of the Absolute Spirit) as they are individual spirits. They are described as Malai Ala (higher angels). If we are only concerned with our solar system here we can symbolise them as Pluto (Universal Spiritual Soul)), Neptune (Universal Mental Soul) and Uranus (Universal Material Soul).

       When we are fully self conscious or when we are completely absorbed in our subjectivity without any other thoughts we are in contact with this soul plane or conscious reflective mind. In our unrealised normal human state we can only experience a  very limited and distorted knowledge of this plane. When ever we reflect on our subjective or self consciousness we becomes aware that what ever be the content of consciousness at any moment it is always particular and an individual  subjective consciousness. Any content of our thought, imagination or sensation is coloured by our own individuality. When we reflect on this subjectivity and individuality or when we try to go deeper and deeper into ourselves we will understand that our self or subjectivity or I consciousness cannot be identified with our body. This subjectivity is also beyond mind or ego. What I mean by ego here is our concept of identifying our self with our race, nation, sex, profession ,religion and family etc thus forming a definite personality. It is true that every one is a unique individual subject with unique proportion of the predicates and particular capacities. But this individuality is different from personality. In pure self consciousness we are only aware of this individual, limited subjectivity. The concept of personality or body we introduce into this subjectivity by thoughts and then identify with it. With this identification all our further thoughts and emotions ,feelings and actions are colored so we think, feel and act in this egoistic way.

  When the seeker reach this plane of soul world or conscious reflective mind as we explained above he is free from all conditioning and indoctrinations and does not identify himself completely with any thing like race, religion, nation, sex etc. On the other hand hand in spite of the uniqueness and individuality  of every soul he will realise the underlying unity and universality of subjectivity .As this is an objective realm and much vaster than our subjective conscious reflective mind plane one who attain this state will have contact with innumerable soul worlds. It is reported by some mystics that one who is attained to this soul plane can know not only his past from the beginning and future up to the end but also the past history of the cosmos. In the spiritual journey one attains this soul plane after subtle plane and before self realisation in the third spiritual plane.

B: Material World

  i      Subtle Material world or Beings

       a: Cosmic Mental Being (The Cosmos-Quark)

          Now in the eternal third plane after some logical time the Absolute Spirit or the creative spirit thinking itself as the universal gross material  spirit or sub quark3 spirit loses further self consciousness or the  reflective mind becomes more limited or concrete. This will produce loss of self consciousness as material spirit or  as sub Quark3 spirit and loses pure soul consciousness and identify himself as spirit with mental faculty or spirit of discursive thoughts This is the realm of discursive thoughts or consciousness .This spirit is called Cosmic Mental Spirit or Quark Spirit or 'm' Spirit.  This means consciousness as subquark3 spirit is lost and identify as cosmic mental spirit. As we explained earlier due to the love of expression of this cosmic mental sprit there is less motions and vibrations in the sub quark3 soul of the fourth plane and cosmic mental being  is manifested out of sub quark soul in the fourth plane. This is the power aspect of the Absolute. This is the beginning of the Subtle material world as cosmic mental being or quark being or 'm' being. So the Material World as Subtle material beings are manifested out of combination of groups of sub quarks soul in the fourth plane . Now as we told earlier the internal aspect of this cosmic mental being is the subjectivity as discursive thoughts and the external aspect or the form of this subjectivity is  the combination of sub quarks forming Quarks. As this cosmic mental spirit of third plane and cosmic mental being of fourth plane contain various forms of discursive thoughts like predominance of wisdom, love or power aspects so there are different spirits and beings like  like quark1,quark2 and quark3 .

     This is the realm of  thoughts or consciousness . Pure self consciousness of the soul world is replaced by consciousness or discursive thoughts. This is the beginning of Material world as Subtle material world. Again they distinguish their subjectivity as Mind and the Quark particle as their body. but as we mentioned earlier this quark is nothing but the form of these subjective thought. So these internal and external are one and the same thing and they have no independent existence. What we have to remember is this plane is the mental plane or plane of mental faculties  so these beings are aware primarily as mental beings with discursive thoughts. Similar to all planes three group mental or thinking faculties are found. This is the realm of discursive thoughts -the most abstract and spiritual thoughts or the Wisdom aspect and thoughts with will aspect or temporal thought content and  thoughts with Power aspect so with sensual thought. so there are m1,m2 and m3 Spirits and Beings. This is also the realm of feelings and emotions

        In Sufism the Cosmic Mental Spirit in the eternal spiritual third plane is called by the divine name Zahir (The Exterior) and the Cosmic Mental Being in the world by the worldly name Jism i Kull( Universal Body). This plane we can be symbolised by the whole created Universe or Cosmos. The Plane of Quarks.

     Gurdjieff equate this plane with H12 potency or mental body

    The willing faculty (quwwat Azimah), The intellectual faculty or cognitive faculty (quwwat Mufakkirah), Estimative faculty (Wahamiyah) of the Nusma(astral body) belongs to this Plane. In terrestrial Angels and Jinn the nature of this Cosmic Mental being is predominant so their nature is called terrestrial angelic or jinn soul. This is represented by the elemental Fire. In Alam Misal or Alam Kayal (world of similitude's or imagination) this is called the higher astral world. The beings and happenings of this plane is a copy and represent more of the above soul world than the material world so that the dreams or visions coming from this plane is always true. The beings and happenings of this stage is not liable to change so firmly established .This is represented as Devachan (abode of gods) in esoteric planes .Ibn Arabi also calls this Alam al Qalb(World of Heart) or Lauh al Mahfuz (Guarded Tablet) and the domain of Absolute (mutlaq) imagination.

    We have explained in the introduction that this cosmic mental world corresponds to the higher part of the unconscious reflective mind. Here subjectivity is completely identified with the thinking or feeling process so here it is thinking or feeling subject. As this is also an objective vaster plane unlike our subjective limited unconscious reflective mind  when the seeker reach this plane he is in contact with innumerable mental worlds and heavenly planes. It is also reported by some mystics that one who reach this plane can remember all his past and  can know all his future history. 

b: Cosmic Imaginary Being-Astral Being (Galaxy-Sub atom).

         By a similar process after some logical time in the eternal third plane the Absolute spirit as Quark spirit  loses consciousness as universal mental spirit  due to limitation and further concreteness of  reflective mind and identify itself as imaginative faculty and think itself as cosmic imaginary spirit or 'a' Spirit or Sub Atom spirit. As there are various types of sub atoms like protons, neutrons and electrons so also these imaginary spirits vary  depends on the contents as spiritual imagination, worldly imaginations and sensual imaginations etc. This is also the realm of desires ,passion and world of forms and images. As explained due to love and power of this sub atom spirit, on the subtle material world similarly out of combination of Quark mental being Sub atom is formed. We call this imaginary being, Sub Atom Being or 'a' Imaginary Being or simply 'a' Being. As explained due to the predominance of spiritual, worldly or sensual imaginations there are a1,a2,a3  Beings.

Sufis call the  imaginary spirit in the eternal plane by the divine name Hakim (Wise) and the imaginary being of the world by the worldly name Shakl i Kull (Universal Form). This can be  symbolised by the Galaxy System which has a definite form. This is the formation of three main types of subatomic particles-Proton, Neutron and Electron. In Vedanta universal mental being and universal imaginary being together is called the manomaya kosha (mental sheath) of Brahman. Gurdjieff equate this plane with H24 and H48 potency-fine and coarse desire body..

  Faculty of imagination (Khayal), Common Sense (Hiss Mushtaric) of the Nusma belongs to this plane. In the nature of Animals this plane is predominant so this nature of them is called Animal Soul.

This is represented by the elemental Air..In Alam Misal this is called the lower Astral world. The beings and happenings of this plane is a copy and represent more of the inferior material world so that the dreams and visions coming form this plane may not be true. This plane constantly undergo changes. This is called Kama Loka (Desire World). Ibn Arabi calls this Alam Nafs or Lawh al Mahw al Isbath(world of effacement and establisment) and domain of limited (muqayad) imagination.

   As we earlier mentioned this cosmic imaginal world is the unconscious reflective mind. Unlike limited subjective realm this is an objective and much vaster realm. Here subjectivity is completely identified with this imaginations, feelings and passions. When the seeker attain this plane apart from his subjective astral body he is in contact with innumerable astral worlds. Here he can experience the reality of the state after death and may encounter physically dead beings. It is also reported by some mystics that one who attain this state can not only transcend space so that his astral body can fly and reach any where in the material and imaginal world but also some transcendence of temporal limitations so he can remember all of his past history from the beginning.  

c: Cosmic Living Being (Solar System-Atom).

            Now the Absolute spirit in the third plane as sub atom spirit  due to further self development becomes aware of its life nature and develops into cosmic living spirit or' p' Spirit or Atomic Spirit. By a similar process out of these spirits in the subtle material world cosmic Living  Being or Atomic Being is manifested by the combination of sub atomic particles. This is 'p' Atomic Beings. Similar to above there are three fundamental  types- p1,p2,p3 Spirits and Beings.

      Sufis designate the cosmic living spirit in the eternal spiritual plane by the divine name Muhit (Encompassor) and their counterpart in the world as cosmic living being by the divine name Arsh (Throne of God).Gurdjieff equate this with H96 potency

     This can be compared in a macrocosmic level with our solar system and microcosmic level with the formation of basic atoms. Various atoms are formed by the combinations of subatomic particles. In plants and vegetation this cosmic living being is predominant so their nature is called vegetable soul or growing soul. In Sufism the vegetative faculties (nutrition, growth, procreation) and moving faculties (muharrikah) of the Nusma (astral body) are identified with cosmic Living Being. In Vedanta Pranamaya kosha( Vital sheath) of Brahman is identified with this being. This Kosha consists of Prana (life) and 5 Karmendriyas (working senses-Power to express, grasp, move, procreate and excrete). This is represented by the elemental Water.

   As we already explained this is the lowest part of the unconscious reflective mind. This is also called the Etheric plane. It is reported by some mystics that when the seeker reach this plane he can overcome the gravitational influence. This means he can transcend limtation of space and his etheric body has the power of flying and reaching anywhere in the world.

               These plane as a whole (subtle material world) differs from the soul world or self consciousness in that here subjectivity completely identify as objective thoughts either as life, imaginative faculty or mental faculty. What we have to remember is this subtle material world is not the plane of self consciousness or soul world but the plane of consciousness. So here in this plane there is no knowledge of self but knowledge as discursive thoughts or in the form of imagination or in the form of subtle matter or life energy.. So this is just knowledge or consciousness but not self knowledge or self consciousness.

      This subtle material World we can compare with Vedanta's cosmic dream-consciousness (Swapna), in which Brahman has the totality of cosmic subtle body as its limiting adjuncts (upaadhi). Like soul world is the casual body (jiva, human soul) of human spirit (jivatman) ,this subtle material world is the subtle body (suksma sarira) of the human spirit. This consists of in  Samkya philosophy the following- manas,indriyas(5 jnanendriya (knowing senses+5 karmendriya),5 tanmatras (subtle matter).

    Like soul world corresponds to the four principal divine attributes of Being, Knowledge, Love, Power These three subtle material world corresponds to the the three Divine attributes of Hearing (Mental world), Sight (imaginary world) and Speech (living world) respectively. Ibn Arabi call these plane the higher realm of Imagination. Sufis call this plane Alam Barzak or Alam Mithal(the world of Similitude's) Alam Kayal (world of imagination). This is also called Alam Malakut.

           The earlier lower tetrad or Soul world , which are Universal Spiritual Soul, Universal Mental Soul, Universal Imagination or Astral Soul and Universal Material soul, and the lower triad or subtle material world , which are Cosmic Mental Being, Cosmic Imaginary Being and Cosmic living Being  forms Septinary or Septad. These seven are considered as the seven Main Dhyanichohans or Prajapatis or seven  principal Angels in religions. The eternal upper triad (Absolute Being, Absolute Subject and, Absolute Sprit ) and the temporal lower septad together form the Decad. Decad is the complete mystic number for Pythagoras and Jewish Kabala. Decad is 10 major planes of the Absolute. In Yoga Vasishta soul world and subtle material world together is called Chittakash (Mental Space)

       What we have to remember is both the soul world and subtle material world are the planes of Universal or Cosmic Beings. So they are not individual particular beings like the following gross material beings which derives their beings from these higher beings. So these higher seven Beings are always designated as the main seven angels or devas.

           According to modern physics big bang point is the point of singularity. At this point there is infinite energy and temperature and hence the universe has infinite mass and minimal or zero size. After big bang explosion the temperature go on decreasing and four forces and elements are formed out of basic particles and quarks. According to us this big bang point is not a material state but the point of formation of other bosons and fermions.

          The sub quark produce quarks and then the boson graviton is formed. At this point there is super symmetry so there is only one force which itself is a force carrying basic particle. This single force can be compared to graviton which is a neutral ,mass less boson.. After the formation of graviton again the energy and frequency go on decreasing and a critical point is reached. At this point there is symmetry breaking and four forces are formed. This facilitates the formations of elements and molecules.

        Now the combination of these sub quarks produce quarks. The combination of these quarks produce all the sub atomic particles like neutral mass less particles and charged mass particles. So Graviton spirit and corresponding Graviton  is formed. similarly other Bosons, Fermions and sub atoms formed.

       Now if we consider the whole material Cosmos The Cosmic Mental Being  is symbolised by the whole Cosmos consisting of billions of galaxies and Cosmic Imaginary Being  is symbolised by Galaxy like our milky way galaxy and Cosmic Living Being is symbolised by solar systems.

      As we have already explained this subtle material world is the higher form of unconscious reflective mind. Here subjectivity is completely identified with thinking, imagining, feeling and sensing activity. Most of the time we go on thinking or knowing or feeling without being conscious of the fact that we are thinking or feeling. We are only conscious of the product of this thinking or feeling but never simultaneously aware of this thinking or feeling process or subject. Unlike internal  reflective mind and conscious reflective mind where subjectivity is experienced as something distinct (internal  reflective mind) or different (conscious reflective mind) from object of consciousness, as unconscious reflective mind the subjectivity completely identifies itself with the object of consciousness. So here subjectivity is experienced merely as thinking or feeling or sensing or imagining subject. As we mentioned already unlike human subjective limited plane this is an objective and much vaster plane. As we explained above when the seeker reach this plane he can overcome spatial and temporal limitations and can also have contact with other subtle material world than his own subjective world. In the spiritual journey this is the first plane reached by the Mystics and this is as we have seen consisit of many subplane like astral,desire,mental planes.

ii: Gross Material World or Beings

  1: Celestial Beings. (Subtle Beings):

Now if we consider our Solar system the further development of the Cosmic living spirit or Atomic spirit  is development of Spirits of Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury and Moon. What we have to remember at the outset is that these beings should not be completely identified with the gross material planets or star or satellites whose evolutionary stage is below these planes at the stage of fire, air etc .These are the beings of an atomic nature who are associated with these celestial bodies. The second thing to remember is all the beings of Gross material world, whether celestial or terrestrial  is either  manifestation of a single plane like soul world or subtle material world or combination of the  two planes above described-soul world (self consciousness) and subtle material world (consciousness) in different proportions. So both celestial world and terrestrial world is a combination of SMAPs (souls) and mapb (beings). The only difference between celestial world and terrestrial world on the one hand and the the different beings of these world on the other is in each beings except human beings only some aspect of these planes is expressed while the other aspect remain dormant or hidden.

i: Higher Soul Beings

        We have seen that in the eternal spiritual plane Absolute spirit is as Atomic Spirit or Cosmic living spirit or 'p' spirit. Now in the spiritual plane this Atomic Spirit Due to further limitation in knowledge develops into higher soul spirits like Pluto, Uranus and Neptune spirits and correspondingly in the fourth  plane of Absolute world soul beings like Pluto ,Neptune etc is formed..

Now if we consider the development of the higher planets Pluto, Neptune, Uranus in the eternal plane as spirits these spirits mainly manifest the soul world or SMAPs. As they contain subjective soul this is conscious reflective mind. Each succeeding spirits have decreasing quantity of the spiritual essence of the soul world (or we can symbolise this as S1M1A1P1,S2M2A2P2 and S3M3A3P3 souls). This means these planets manifest the different aspect of self consciousness like wisdom, love or power. So these higher planets when considered with the influence on human consciousness is often associated with collective consciousness or transpersonal consciousness. What we have to remember is these soul, mental, imaginary and subtle material planet beings are not the material planets as such but the beings what we call angels in religious terminology inhabiting these planets. The material planets and the sun are only symbolised by these beings.

a: Pluto

Now at first the Absolute spirit as Cosmic living spirit due to limitation in knowledge become gradually conscious of its dormant soul world. Now out of the cosmic living spirit Pluto spirit is developed. We can see that this Pluto spirit contains 'S1M1A1P1's (souls) or self consciousness. Correspondingly in the fourth plane or world plane Pluto planet is manifested out of Atomic Being. Here there is predominance of spiritual essence or wisdom aspect. Sufis designate this spirit in the eternal spiritual plane by the divine name Shakur (Appreciator or Grateful) and the Being in the world by the worldly name Kursi (Seat). Ibn Arabi connect this with the mental faculties.

b: Neptune:

In the eternal spiritual plane the Absolute spirit as Pluto spirit loses consciousness of full spiritual or wisdom aspect and so due to further limitation of knowledge there is development of Neptune Spirit with love or will aspect. Corresponding to this Neptune Planet is manifested out of Pluto planet in the world. This is 'S2M2A2P2s'.Here there is predominance of will aspect.Sufis designate this spirit by the divine name Ghani (Independent) and the being by the worldly name Falak al Manfazil (Crystalline Sphere or starless sphere). Ibn arabi describe it as the inhabited House and connect with faculties of heart. These beings are responsible for radiation of unconditional love and positive spirit and also associated with divine wisdom

c: Uranus:

   In the eternal Plane due to further decrease in spiritual  essence of Neptune Spirit Uranus Spirit with power aspect  is developed. Similarly Uranus Planet is manifested in the world out of Neptune planet. This is 'S3M3A3P3's.Here there is predominance of power aspect.Sufis designate this spirit by the divine name Muqtadir (Powerful, Determiner) and the Being by the worldly name Falak ul Buruj (sphere of fixed stars). Ibn Arabi describe this as the spirits and their capacities. These are also known as the angels of harmony and divine wisdom.

    So these Pluto, Neptune and Uranus planets are symbolised by beings with self consciousness of SMAPs (but decreasing spiritual  knowledge).

ii: Middle Mental Beings

  Unlike higher soul beings which manifest only the soul world these middle mental beings and lower imaginary beings manifest both soul world and subtle material world.  Unlike higher soul beings where all beings like Pluto, Neptune, Uranus manifest all the soul world but in varying degrees here in mental beings universal subjective soul (S) is not manifested. This means middle mental beings have no pure spiritual or subjective self consciousness but only mental ,imaginal or physical self consciousness. So the spirits of these planes are various expression of 'MAP's and 'map'b. This means this is unconscious reflective mind. When discussing the influence of them on human consciousness unlike the higher spirits they are identified with personal or individual consciousness. Here as with the higher soul beings different planets will show different aspects of self consciousness and consciousness like wisdom, will and power aspect. This means with the lower planets this self consciousness (MAPs) and consciousness (mapb) planes go on decreasing ( symbolised in the order of spiritual thoughts, worldly thoughts, sensual thoughts) and more expression of imaginary and living consciousness so that when we come to the level of Moon there is only 'apb' (imaginary and living thoughts or thought as imagination and life). This mean they manifest different aspect of wisdom, love and power.

d: Saturn:

In the eternal third spiritual state Absolute Spirit as Uranus Spirit due to limitation in knowledge loses completely the universal subjective spirit essence and develops into Saturn Spirit . Corresponding to this Saturn Planet is manifested in the world out of Uranus planet. So this contain both soul world (minus universal subjective spirit) and subtle material world. MAPs +mapb. As we explained in Saturn planet wisdom aspect predominate in both self consciousness and consciousness. Sufis designate this Saturn Spirit by the divine name Rubb (Lord). Worldly name Zuhal (Saturn). This is the supporter or Nourisher. Ibn arabi  describe it as source of knowledge and breath. Neo-Platonists identify this with the mental power of forming conclusions. Abdul Karem Jili in Insan al Kamil connects it with reason. This being is identified with justice and supervising judgments for individual karma and whole humanity and also as record keepers of sacred universal laws representing the will necessary to administer divine justice in the world.

e: Jupiter:

In the eternal spiritual plane Absolute spirit as Saturn spirit due to limitation of knowledge loses some knowledge of  mental thoughts (consciousness) there develops Jupiter Spirit . Then Jupiter planet is manifested in the World. This also contain soul world (MAPs) and subtle material world (mapb). Here there is predominance of will aspect.Sufis call this Jupiter Spirit by the divine name Alim (Knower). Worldly name Musthari (Jupiter). Ibn Arabi describe it as the mental function of Memory. Neo Platonists identify this with the power of effectiveness of the will. Jili also connects it with will power and the angel Michael. They also represent wisdom and intuitional knowledge. They represent superior power of wisdom against physical strength and egotistical forces.

f: Mars:

In the eternal spiritual plane like above due to further decrease in mental thoughts there develops Mars Spirit. correspondingly Mars Planet is manifested in the world. This is also MAPs+mapb. Here there is predominance of power aspect.Sufis call this spirit by the divine name Qahir (Dominant). Worldly name is Marrikh (Mars). Ibn Arabi equate it with the intellectual function of Mind. Neo- Platonists identify this with affections and impulses. Jili connects this with power, majesty and guess and the angel Asrail. They are also connected with free will.

g: Sun:

In the eternal spiritual plane due to further limitation of  reflective mind  develops the Sun Spirit. In the world the Sun Star is manifested. The Sun also have a central position in not only living and imaginative world but also in the mental world. Sufis call this spirit by the divine name Nur (Light). Worldly name is Shams (Sun). Ibn Arabi describe the sun as the faculty of Reflection. Ibn Arabi gives a central position (heliocentric) to sun in respect to the three above and three below planets. Neo-Platonists identify this with sensation, opinion, and imagination. Jili connects this with the heart and the angel Asrafil.

   So these Saturn, Jupiter, Mars and Sun are symbolised by beings with self consciousness MAPs and consciousness as 'mapb' or discursive thoughts, imagination and living essences but decreasing mental or discursive thoughts (in the order of spiritual thoughts, worldly thoughts, sensual thoughts). So in these middle mental beings mental self consciousness (Ms) and rational and discursive thoughts (mb) go on decreasing so that when we comes to the lower imaginary being there is only astral and physical self consciousness (APs) and astral and life  thoughts (apb).

ii: Lower Imaginary Beings:

As we explained earlier at this stage self consciousness contain mainly APs and consciousness  contain only (apb). So the spirits of these planes are APs+apb. Like we explained earlier in this plane this astral consciousness also go on decreasing (symbolised in the order of spiritual imagination, worldly imagination, sensual imagination) so that when we come to the level of Terrestrial beings or Fire there is only Ps or material self consciousness.  So these lower imaginal beings also represent different aspects of mind like wisdom, love and power.

 h: Venus:   

 First in the eternal spiritual plane Absolute Spirit as Sun spirit  due to further limitation of knowledge lose mental or discursive thoughts completely and develops in to Venus Spirit.. similarly Venus planet is manifested out of Sun planet. This is as we explained astral and material self consciousness (APs) and astral and life thoughts (apb). This is the wisdom aspect of consciousness.

Sufis call this spirit by the divine name Musavvir (Form giver). Worldly name is Zuhra(Venus). Ibn Arabi connect it with illusory imagination and animal spirit. Neo Platonists identify it with sensuous desires aiming at the particular. Jili connects it also with will and desire and imagination. These beings are also considered as the protectors of important people on earth.

i: Mercury:

Now in the eternal spiritual plane the Absolute spirit as Venus spirit loses  some properties of imagination and develops in to Mercury Spirit. Correspondingly in the world Mercury Planet manifested out of Venus Planet. This is also APs+ apb, but here there is predominance of will aspect..Sufis call this spirit by the divine name Muhsey (Recorder) and the worldly name is Utarid (Mercury). Ibn Arabi connect it with imagination (Khayal). Jili connect it with knowledge and Rumi with Intelligence. These are supposed to carry out divine decree for humans.

j: Moon:

Now in the eternal third plane the Mercury Spirit loses further  imaginary thoughts and develops into Moon spirit. In the world Moon satellite is manifested This is also APs + apb, but here there is predominance of power aspect..Sufis call this spirit by the divine name Muhaymin (Guardian) and the worldly name is Qamar(Moon). Ibn Arabi connect it with sensory faculties. Neo-Platonists connect it with the power of production. Jili connects this with life and imagination. These are messenger angels who govern nature spirits. They are the guardians of humanity. They involve with the everyday life of earth and is a direct gateway of information, knowledge and communication between mankind and the higher source.

     As we already mentioned this lower imaginary plane contain both astral and material self consciousness (APs) and astral and living consciousness (apb). Both the astral self consciousness and astral or imagination faculty also go on decreasing so when the moon is reached which is the power aspect there is minimum astral essence and maximum material essence.

    This Celestial plane need some clarification. What we are referring here is not the present state of the planets as gross material beings. This present state is the condensed state of the planets after further evolution like, Fire, Air. Water etc there by forming the solid gross objects. What we are referring here is as explained earlier these celestial beings in their Atomic state. The rarefied state of these planets in their subtle material state before the development of Fire, Air, Water etc. As we explained this is the plane of the Atoms or elements and there is not yet the development of molecules or compounds. So at that evolutionary state we are describing  this is really subtle material plane. The second point to remember is these celestial beings can manifest both the higher planes-soul world and subtle material world. This means the celestial spirits have both self consciousness and  consciousness. This also means these celestial spirits have both soul body and subtle body but no material body. But what we have to remember is when they are conscious of their self as spiritual, mental, astral &material soul essence  these self knowledge or self consciousness is from the plane of the Soul world. Like this their consciousness or thoughts as discursive thoughts or imagination or matter are thoughts or knowledge from the subtle material plane. But even though these beings have self consciousness they have no separate individual self consciousness like human beings but self consciousness of species and sub species like animals.

      In religious terminology these celestial beings are called Angels or Devas.  In Sufism these Celestial Beings are called Superior Fathers and they have an influence in the evolution of the terrestrial beings which are called inferior mothers.

2: Terrestrial Beings.

      As we can see the beginning of the terrestrial plane is a descend of the celestial plane. So the beings of the terrestrial plane contain potentially both soul world (self consciousness, SMAPs) and subtle material world (consciousness, 'mapb') but they becomes an actuality only in human beings.

       What we have to remember is the elemental and inorganic realm of terrestrial plane (Fire, Air, Water, Earth) have both self consciousness (but only Ps or material soul )and consciousness (only 'pb' thought as life). So this is 'Ps+pb' .This as we already explained is the lowest form of unconscious reflective mind. But here in these realms even this living consciousness is not expressed as life externally but only as matter. but as we explained earlier the internal aspect of this matter is nothing but living consciousness. This is one of the reason why mystics always consider everything in the world endowed with life. Like all the above planes we explained here also there are three groups depending on the manifestation of wisdom, love or power aspect.

   Now the formation of this Terrestrial Material beings out of Atomic being is the combination of minimum consciousness as pure subjective consciousness or subjectivity and maximum consciousness as  object or matter culminating in Earth being. Now this is the out come of the most  concrete form or extreme limitation of knowledge so that Creative spirit thinks only as pure material being. This is the opposite of Cosmic Spirit as S1 or corresponding Cosmic Soul where it was a combination of maximum  consciousness as subjectivity  and minimum consciousness as object or matter which was the least concrete or most abstract  mind as Creative spirit thinking as maximum pure subjective self consciousness.

 a: Fire

    Now the Absolute Spirit in the third eternal plane thinking itself as the Moon spirit  due to further limitation of knowledge loses more self consciousness and consciousness so that knowledge of imaginary soul and imagination is completely lost and think itself as only gross material essence. This is Fire spirit. correspondingly in the fourth plane or material world out of non visible subtle atomic elements manifest partly visible elements with higher mass. This is Fire. As we already explained this contain material self consciousness (Ps) and life consciousness (pb) as matter. So this is Ps+pb. As usual fire represent the wisdom aspect so this is the most abstract form of matter.

 This Fire we can represent as Cosmic Material being because all the succeeding beings receive their material being from this being. Sufis designate the fire spirit by the divine name  Qabid (Curtailer of Life) and worldly name is Nar (Fire)

b: Air

Now in the eternal third plane the Absolute Spirit as the fire Sprit which is  wisdom aspect and mind as most abstract matter due to further limitation of consciousness identify itself as Air Spirit. In the fourth plane or world Air is formed out of Fire. This is also wisdom aspect but less abstract matter than fire. Now the formation of compounds and molecules like hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen etc can be compared to Air.. Sufis designate the Air spirit by the divine name Hayy (Life) and worldly name is Hawa (Air)

c: Water

   As usual in the third plane Air Spirit which is mind as abstract matter due to further limitation of knowledge identify itself as Water Spirit. Water is manifested out of Air in the world. This is the will aspect so here mind as concrete matter. Sufis call the water spirit by the divine name Muhiyy (Life Giver) and the worldly name is Ma (Water)

d: Earth.

   As above in the eternal third plane Water spirit which is mind as concrete matter due to further limitation of mind identify itself as Earth Spirit. Correspondingly in the world plane earth planet  is manifested out of Water. This is the power aspect hence mind as the most concrete matter.Sufis call the earth spirit by the divine name Mumit (Annihilator) and the worldly name is Ard (Earth).

   So all these beings (fire, air, water, earth) are 'Ps+pb' so they contain both material self consciousness and living consciousness expressed only as external matter. How they differ from each other is the preponderance of the P1,P2,P3 elements in their being. Not only each represent a particular group but even in every beings (eg: air or water)  there contains all the three groups. As they express the different aspects of mind like wisdom ,will and power so they are mind as most abstract matter to mind as most concrete matter. While fire is the most abstract matter, earth is mind as the most concrete form of matter. We have seen that Absolute world begins with soul world as cosmic soul. This is mind as the most abstract state. Here there is maximum consciousness as pure subjectivity and minimum consciousness as matter. Now in every succeeding stage mind becomes more and more concrete so that when it reaches Earth this is mind in its most concrete state. Here there is minimum consciousness as pure subject and maximum consciousness of subjectivity  as matter. This is the descending stage of the Absolute. Every descend veil more and more the essential nature of the Absolute. This means in every descend the degree of manifestation of The Essence is less and less so that when it comes to the Earth there is least manifestation of the Essence. This means there is less pure subjective or self consciousness in every descend and less and less self revelations. These Fire, Air, Water, Earth  constitute the gross inanimate matter and this is what Hindu Vedanta denotes as the cosmic waking-consciousness (Jagrat), which is conscious of the totality of concrete existences  and in which Brahman is limited by the cosmic gross body. In Yoga Vasishta this whole Gross material World is called Bootakash (Elemental Space)

     But after Earth begins the ascend. From now on every succeeding stage is the state of maximum consciousness as matter and also increasing level of  pure subjective consciousness. So this is also the beginning of the most concrete thought becoming more and more self conscious so that Absolute also thinks more and more as pure subjective consciousness. This means Absolute in the succeeding manifestations of the beings reveal more and more its self in other words there is more and more self revelation in the succeeding spirits. So there is increased manifestation of the Essence in the remaining manifestations. This means even the succeeding manifestation like Minerals  is implicitly a combination of Material and Astral self consciousness and also some imaginary being even though explicitly this is noticed only in Vegetable Kingdom. This culminate in human beings and in Perfect Man  where there is maximum degree of manifestation of Essence. This also means there is complete subjective or self consciousness in Perfect Man and maximum self revelation of the Absolute .So starting from minerals mind manifest as most concrete matter and also increasing knowledge of subjectivity. When we reach Perfect Man mind is as most concrete matter and also as maximum subjectivity or pure subjective or self consciousness. But as we explained earlier to the Perfect Man consciousness and matter are not two separate things but mind itself and matter is only the form of mind. So at this stage there is no duality from this state but complete unity.

e: Mineral Being:

     Now in the eternal third plane of Absolute Spirit mind as earth spirit which is the most concrete form of matter due to delimitation and more self revelation become aware as Mineral Spirit. Correspondingly in the fourth plane or in the material world Minerals  manifested  out of earth. As we explained this is material and astral self consciousness and living consciousness (APs+pb) but the astral and living elements becomes expressive only in plants. So this is the lower form of unconscious reflective mind. But as there are different forms of minerals from simple ones to advanced like coral reef which shows growing tendency like plants  they are in different combinations of A1A2A3 and P1P2P3.Sufis designate the Mineral spirit by the divine name Aziz (Exalted) and the worldly name is Maidan

f: Plant Being:

    Now due to further delimitation and self revelation of mind in the eternal spiritual plane Absolute spirit as Mineral spirit becomes more aware of the dormant astral self consciousness and living consciousness. As these awareness increases the mineral spirit reveal or identify itself as plant sprit. Due to to active thought of this plant spirit in the material world  plants  manifested out of minerals .

      So plants are APs+apb or they have astral and material self consciousness and also astral and living consciousness. So this is higher form of unconscious reflective mind. But as we know there is in plant kingdom ranging from unicellular and multi cellular rudimentary plant types to highly developed plants like having reproductive organs in different plants like Dioecious plants e.g.: Nutmeg .This means there are three different groups of plants depending on the predominance of wisdom, love or power aspect. So there will be different combinations of A1,A2,A3 and P1,P2,P3.

      Cosmic Living being essence produce plant's external material body and bodily activity and also manifest life. Cosmic Imaginary being essence manifest plant's subtle body as sensations, reflexes and instincts. Life produce growths so plants are characterized by growth. Some mystical philosophy describes plants as being with growing soul. In higher type of plants  except sight all other senses are developed. The Plants can be considered as manifesting predominantly the Cosmic living being and this is called growing soul or vegetative soul of plants. All other succeeding beings receive life from this being.Sufis call the plant spirit by the divine name Razzaq (Providence, Feeder) and worldly name is Nabatat

g: Animal Being:

      Now due to further delimitation and self revelation of mind  the Creative spirit as  plant spirit in third plane become  aware of the dormant  mental self consciousness and also mental or discursive consciousness (mb).. As this awareness increases Creative spirit identify as  animal spirit and living ,imaginary and rudimentary discursive thoughts emanate from animal spirit. Due to active thought on the material world  animal with maximum external materiality and imagination but minimum mental faculty manifested out of plants . In animals imaginary or astral being is manifested as sensory knowledge and desire and  mental being as rudimentary discriminative knowledge and weak will. Presence of  mental being in animals enables domestication and taming of them. The Animal being can be considered as manifesting predominantly  the Cosmic imaginary being and this is called the animal soul and human beings  receive animal soul from this being.

So animals are MAPs+mapb or they participate in mental, astral and material self consciousness and also mental ,astral and living consciousness. So they are having both mental, imaginary and material soul and possess the faculties of both discursive thoughts, imagination and material thoughts. So this is also higher form of unconscious reflective mind. But as we know there is in animal kingdom ranging from unicellular and multi cellular  animal with only rudimentary senses to animals to highly developed  having high mental faculties like Ape, Dolphins, horses and Dogs.. This means there are three different groups of animals depending on the predominance of wisdom, love or power aspect. So there will be different combinations of  M1,M2,M3;A1,A2,A3 and P1,P2,P3.Sufis call the animal spirit by the divine name Muzil (Abaser) and worldly name is Haywan.

h-Terrestrial Angelic being.

     Now the Absolute Spirit in the thirdeternal plane as animal spirit due to further delimitation and self revelation of mind passively aware of its complete mental self consciousness and also mental consciousness. and identify itself as terrestrial angelic spirit. While in animals there is only the beginning of mental self consciousness in terrestrial angels there is full manifestation of mental self consciousness and mental faculties. Externally in the fourth plane or material world terrestrial angelic beings are manifested. So the angelic being predominantly manifest the cosmic mental being. The material essence of these angels are mainly Subtle matter so they are normally invisible. From the four elements constituting these beings (Fire, Air, Water, Earth) the light aspect of Fire is predominant in them .Apart from the difference that they are subtle beings they also differ from human beings in that they have not subjective or spiritual self consciousness (Ss) like human beings and also they have no individuality like humans but exist as species and subspecies like animals. Sufis designate the angelic spirit by the divine name Qawi (Powerful) and worldly name is Malayak

i: Jinn

      Similarly the Absolute Spirit as terrestrial angelic spirit due to further delimitation and self revelation becomes dimly aware of its spiritual self consciousness  as it develops into  jinn spirit. In the material world jinn is manifested out of angels. From the four elements the proportion of fire and air is more in jinn so they are created from smokeless fire and they are also subtle material beings. Due to excess air they can assume any form and due to fire they are immaterial and subtle and they seek dominance, pride and might. The difference of these Jinn beings from human beings is not only that they are subtle being but also the subjective or  spiritual self consciousness (Ss) is not fully manifested in them .Sufis designate the jinn spirit by the divine name latif (Subtle) and worldly name jinn .

j. Human Being:

     Now the Creative Spirit as Jinn spirit due to further delimitation and self revelation also becomes aware of complete subjective self consciousness( S1). As this awareness increase human spirits formed in the eternal third plane. Material&living, imaginary, discursive and spiritual thoughts emanates from the human spirit. Due to active thought  on the material world Human being  is manifested.

    So humans are 'SMAPs + mapb' or they have self consciousness of having both spiritual mental, imaginary and material soul and possess the faculties of both discursive thoughts, imagination and living&material thoughts. They have both self consciousness (soul world) and consciousness (subtle material world.) .This means they manifest both conscious reflective mind and unconscious reflective mind. But as we told there are three fundamental groups of spiritual soul-S1(wisdom)S2(love)S3(power) so there are three groups of human beings with different nature. Those who have S1 spiritual soul have predominant spiritual nature and those who have S2 spiritual soul have predominant rational nature and those with S3 spiritual soul is man with predominant passionate nature.. In human beings Soul World are manifested as self consciousness. Now this  Human being is mind as  maximum pure Subjectivity and maximum matter. But as we already explained they are one and the same thing  The First manifested  human being is considered as the universal human being because all the succeeding humanity receive their human nature from this being. In Semitic religions this human being is symbolically represented as Adam. Sufis designate the Human spirit by the divine name Jami (Uniter) and worldly name is Insan (Man).

           Hegel in his philosophy of Spirit or Mind describe this human existence in different stages of the development of the Human Spirit. He describes the developments in three stages as three main Notions or Concepts. Subjective Spirit or Mind, Objective Spirit or Mind and Absolute Spirit or Mind.

a: Subjective Spirit :

     This is the form of self relation. Subjective Spirit develops through the following subcategories of  Soul, Consciousness and Spirit.

 i. Soul:

     Soul is as Spirit in nature. It is the ideal life of nature. So soul is the sleep of spirit. Soul develops through three stages or notions. physical soul ,feeling soul and actual soul. Physical Soul is the natural soul. Its modes are only natural life. So this physical soul refers to what we called living soul as external material spirit or P in SMAPs. So besides humans this physical soul is common in animals, plants, minerals, earth, water, air and and Fire.. Feeling Soul or soul as sentiency is the simple ideality or subjective side of sensation. This corresponds to A in SMAPs. so besides humans this is present well developed in plants and animals. Actual soul is the stage where soul becomes the subject and body the predicate. Here body represents the soul's sign.

 ii. Consciousness:

     At the stage of consciousness Spirit reflect into itself and other things. Here the immediate identity of soul is raised into ideal self identity  and the contents of soul becomes its object. So consciousness makes soul its object. This is the stage of ego and non ego .Non ego is the relative other and as independent object. Conscious internal subject and  external object. Consciousness develops through three main stages or notions ;Consciousness proper, Self consciousness, Reason. Consciousness proper is the stage where ego is the internal subject and non ego is the external independent object. In self consciousness ego itself is the object. Self consciousness is the truth of consciousness. Here consciousness of object is also self consciousness. Because in this stage object is self's own idea so self is aware of the object as its own and in it self is aware of itself. Here there is no distinction between subject and object. It is the identification of self consciousness and object consciousness. Reason is the existent and real unity of consciousness and self consciousness. The existent universality and objectivity of self consciousness. At the stage of reason  object  which was in consciousness is now universal permeating and enveloping the ego  and the ego is the form which also overlaps and envelops the object. So it is the identity of the subjectivity of the idea with its objectivity and universality.

 iii. Spirit

       Spirit is the truth of soul and consciousness. Spirit makes consciousness its object. Spirit is neither subjective nor objective but the awareness of the substantial totality of subject and object. Spirit is the stage of concrete unity. Spirit develops through three main stages or Notions; Theoretical Spirit or intelligence, Practical Spirit or will and Free Spirit. First is theoretical Spirit or cognition as being where Spirit finds in itself something which IS. Cognition is the elevation of the nominal knowledge  to definite and conceptual knowledge through stages. This culminate in thought as free notion. Here cognition is a mode of being. This passes through three stages of intuition (intelligent perception), representation (mental idea) and thinking. The second is practical Spirit or will. Here the being as its own. Here Spirit make it its own . Will is the stage at which Spirit is aware that it is determinative of its content  and the author of its conclusions .Passing through  stages it develops into a thinking will ,to give itself the content which it can only have as it thinks itself. This passes through the three stages of practical sense (feeling), impulses&choice and happiness. Free Spirit is the unity of theoretical and practical Spirit. Free Spirit is the Spirit which knows itself as free and wills itself as this freedom as its object. This free Spirit is the actual Spirit.

 b. Objective Spirit :

      This is Spirit in the form of reality. Spirit realised in a world produced and to be produced by it . In this world freedom presents as Necessity. The reality in general where free will has existence is Law (right). This passes through three main stages and notions, Law, Morality of conscience and Moral life (social ethics).

 i. Law:

         Free will as immediate so as a single being, the person. Existence which the person gives to its liberty is property. The right as law is abstract right. In law the free individual is considered as a person. This develops through three stages of property, contract and right verses wrong.

 ii. Morality of Conscience :

      This is will reflected into self .So it has inside existence.  This is the right of the subjective will. Here the free individual is considered as a subject. This develops through three stages of purpose, intention&welfare, and goodness and wickedness.

 iii. Moral life or Social Ethics:

       Here free will is the substantial will .Actual in the subject and conformable to its concept. This is the ethics of actual life in family, civil society and state. Moral life is the perfection of objective spirit .The consciously free substance, actuality as the spirit of a nation. Spirit as the ethical substance. This develops through three stages. First family, objective Spirit as natural Spirit. Second is civil society relation of individual as independent persons to one another in a formal universality. Second is the state as self conscious ethical substance .Here Spirit developed into its organic actuality.

 c. Absolute Spirit:

      This is the unity of Spirit as objectivity and Spirit as  ideality and concept. The essential and actual Spirit and which for ever produces itself. Spirit in its absolute truth. The unity of subjective and objective Spirit. It has three stages or Notions, Art, Religion and philosophy.

 i. Artistic spirit:

     In art the Absolute Idea is as a unity of nature and spirit. The immediate unity in sensuously intuitional form. Spirit as a natural Spirit. This is external in point of form and  substantial content,  become many separate shapes. In art there is immediate vision and it is the subjective's inward retreat.. This is S3s Humans with passion&power nature in their complete self realisation. This is Artistic Spirit.

 ii. Religious spirit:

      Here the Absolute Spirit is in point of content the actual spirit of both nature and Spirit and in point of form absolute Spirit is presented to consciousness as a mental representation. This quasi -pictorial representation gives the elements of content  a separate being. Religious Spirit separate the absolute Spirit into parts and opens it out in mental picture. This religious Spirit is the objective and external revelation presupposed by representation. Religious Spirit is the subjective movement of faith .This religious Spirit is represented by S2s or humans with will nature in their complete self realisation..

 iii. Philosophic spirit:

      This is the unity of art and religion. The notion of philosophy is the self thinking idea. The truth aware of itself. The syllogism of philosophic Spirit is  logic which divides into Spirit and nature . Here logic is the self knowing reason the absolutely universal. Spirit is the philosophic ideas pre supposition subjective activity and nature is philosophic idea's universal extremity and objectively and implicitly existing idea .The self judging of the philosophic Spirit into its two appearances characterises both as its (self knowing reason) manifestation and in it there is a unification of the two aspects. The eternal idea in full fruitation of its essence, eternally sets itself to work, engenders and enjoys itself as absolute Spirit. In our system this is represented by S1s or human spirit with wisdom nature in their complete self realisation..

     Let us illustrate this Absolute World with the same example we described when illustrating Absolute Spirit. We have compared there Absolute Spirit with a human subject and  with the thoughts and concepts made by the subject in his mind. We have seen that the human subject (corresponds to Absolute Spirit) is the most real and these concepts and thoughts (corresponding to innumreable spirits) are less real when compared to the subject. Now let us conceive that the subject is not satisfied with mere concepts of himself as some animals and plants (Absolute Spirit) but  thinks himself further as these animals and plants in action like running, reproducing and flowering (comparison with Absolute World-soul world) and also makes imaginative forms of these beings and activities (corresponds to Absolute world-subtle&gross material world). Now we can see that the Absolute world -soul world is less real than the Absolute Spirit and Absolute world-subtle& gross material world is less real than the Absolute world-soul world. We can say the fourth plane of Absolute world has a shadowy existence when comparing with the third plane of  Absolute Spirit. This means the world will cease to exist when the Absolute stops his thoughts and imaginations. This is what the mystics means when they say the world has no reality or world is an illusion or world is a shadow or the world is the cosmic imagination of the Absolute.

   Absolute and it's different planes can be further illustrated with the example of water. The state of Absolute Subject is the essence of hydrogen and oxygen as subatomic particles, quarks etc. The plane of ideal world or Absolute Spirit is hydrogen and oxygen atoms in specific relation. The Soul world is the plane of H2O as steam. Subtle material world H2O as water and gross material world H2O as  ice. We can now see that the essence and the subject of all these different state is one and the same. Further to transform the lower to the higher, ice to water and water to steam we have to raise the temperature corresponding to burning the lower nature by self purification and become non being, only when ice is not water is there and when water is no more steam arrives corresponding to the dissolving of limited and selfish ego and individuality.

        Let us further explain this Absolute World with some example. We begin with Soul World. This is the first plane of the world. This is the world of self consciousness.' S' self as Subjective consciousness or spiritual soul, 'M' self  as mental consciousness or mental soul 'A' self as Imaginative consciousness or astral soul and 'P' self as material consciousness or as living & physical soul. As this soul world contain subjective soul this is conscious reflective mind.  As we explained earlier Subjective aspect of the soul and the objective aspect are one and the same thing or the objective form is nothing but the form of this very subjective thought. So whether we say soul or photon it is the same thing. Now suppose that there are 12 Cosmic Photon (spiritual soul) in the beginning. This S1 is the Universal Subjective Soul because this S1 is the inner reality of all 12 Photons. Now one remain as S1 and 11  become Gamma Photon or S2 then 10 become X-ray photon or S3 then 9 become ultraviolet or M1. This M1 is the Universal mental Soul. M1 is the root mental essence and the inner reality of all remaining 9 souls. Now 8 become visible light or M2, then 7 become infrared or M3, then 6 become TV-ray or A1. This A1 is the universal nature or subtle material soul because A1 is the root astral essence and the inner reality of all remaining 6 photons. 5 become micro ray or A2 then 4 become radio ray or A3 then 3 become P1 or subquark1 Now P1 is the universal gross material soul because all 3 beings receive physical essence from P1 soul. 2 become subquark2 or P2 then 1 become P3 or subquark3.So this soul world is the world of SMAPs (souls)

         Now we come to the second worldly plane. The Subtle Material World. As we explained earlier this is the plane of Consciousness and not Self Consciousness. This is the formation of Quarks or Cosmic Mental Being (mb),  Sub atoms or Cosmic Imaginary Being (ab) ,and Atoms or Cosmic Living Being (pb). Here the mind is unconscious reflective mind. What we have to remember is Material self consciousness (Ps) by descends into the subtle material world loses self consciousness and the dormant mental, astral and material self consciousness express as consciousness in this plane. So sub quarks or Ps which are self conscious material souls by the combination and formation of Quarks, Sub atoms and Atoms loses its self consciousness in this plane and manifest as consciousness or thoughts. So we have seen that these beings are Beings of thoughts. 'mb' mental discursive thoughts, 'ab' thoughts as imagination ,desire and passions and 'pb' thoughts as life and matter. So these beings are thoughts but as they are primary beings we denote them with a capital 'B'. As we already explained about the soul world here in subtle material world also these subjective thoughts and their objective body as Quarks, Sub atoms and Atoms are one and the same thing. These bodies are the forms of these very thoughts. So either of them have no independent existence.

        Now we comes to the Third plane of the world. The gross material world. First we consider the Celestial beings. If we look at the higher soul beings we can see that they are SMAPs or they have only self consciousness-they only participate in the soul world and not in subtle material world. When we look at the middle mental and lower imaginary beings they are MAPs+ 'mapb' .They have both self consciousness and consciousness or they participate in both soul world and subtle material world. But they have no subjective self consciousness and others like mental and astral self consciousness also go on decreasing in the descend so that when we reach moon there is only astral self consciousness. They are beings with a small letter 'b' because they have manifested out of the subtle material Beings which are primary Beings. Now these celestial beings are evolved after both the soul world and the subtle material world so this mean they contains both the soul world and subtle material world in themselves. This means they have both self consciousness and consciousness. In higher soul beings the subtle material world is dormant so they predominantly express the soul world and in other beings soul world is dormant and subtle material world is expressed. But what we have to remember is when they are self conscious that self consciousness is from the soul world and when they are conscious as thoughts it is from the subtle material world.

      Now let us look at the subjectivity or mind and objectivity or body of these celestial beings. We have seen that they are Atomic beings. When they are self conscious as spiritual, mental, astral or physical souls or a combination of these essence this self consciousness is due to the activation of the earlier dormant spiritual soul (cosmic, gamma or Xray photons) mental soul UV, visible or infrared photon), astral soul (TV,micro,radio ray) material soul (sub quark 1,2, or3) in their Atoms. This constitute their soul or causal body. Like that when they are merely conscious as discursive thought or imagination or life&materiality these subjective thoughts are the activation of their quark, subatomic or atomic body. This is the subtle body. Now the mind of these celestial beings as subject of self consciousness and consciousness and these Atomic body is one and the same thing, because this Atomic body is the form of these same thoughts. One cannot exist with out the other. But when they are just conscious of their self ,in that self consciousness they are in the soul body and at that time these consciousness or atomic body which is the subtle body can be considered as something separate or as a body to the soul. When we say the higher soul beings have self consciousness this is not individual self consciousness like human being, but self consciousness of the species.

      Now we come to the terrestrial beings. We have seen that Fire, Air, Water, and Earth are 'Ps+pb' beings. As we explained this is material self consciousness and living consciousness expressed as matter. As we have seen they have evolved out of soul world and the subtle material world and celestial world. This means they have in themselves both (material) self consciousness and consciousness. but as we told earlier the  self consciousness is from the soul world and consciousness that of subtle material world. So when they are self conscious as material souls this is the activation of the dormant sub quarks in these Fire, earth, etc materials. Now their subjective consciousness as fire, air etc or their mind is same as the objective or body as fire, earth, minerals etc. Form these it is apparent that all these beings are not inert and unconscious as the modern science thinks but they are conscious beings in their own way. The only difference is their nature of consciousness is different from the human consciousness. The second difference is here the consciousness is not confined to individual or particular material but in the form of universal only. This is why the mystics describe every thing in the world as living things. Then we come to the minerals, plants and animals. They are 'APs+apb' and 'MAPs+mapb' beings. So they have  self consciousness as a combination astral and material essence or mental souls and also they are conscious as material being with living, astral or and mental faculties. This as we already explained, due to absence of subjective soul is unconscious reflective mind.

     Lastly  we come to the human beings. We have seen that they are 'SMAPs + mapb'  beings .This means they are conscious of their self as a combination of spiritual ,mental, astral and material souls. Besides this self consciousness they have also consciousness as mental faculty or discursive thoughts , life & imagination and materiality. As we have seen  man is manifested as the last of the beings and he inherits the consciousness of jinn, angels, animals, plants, minerals etc up to subtle material beings. The inclusion of subjective soul means this is mind as both conscious reflective mind and unconscious reflective mind.

    The human constitution can be broadly explained as follows. We have seen that the root or base or ground of all beings is the first  plane as Absolute Being or in Vedanta what is called  Paramatman.this plane cannot be experienced as human spirit as it is beyond that state. The second plane of Absolute Subject also cannot be experienced as individual spirit as it is a plane of universal subjectivity without any particularity. As we have explained earlier the human spirit which is on the third plane of Absolute Spirit have no individual subjectivity nor individual separate being. Here the Absolute Spirit is the Subject and Being of the human spirit as the Absolute Spirit manifest itself as human spirit. In Vedanta this human spirit is called Jivatman. This third plane of Absolute Spirit as the spirits is the Anandamaya kosha (Blissful sheath) of the Paramatman (Absolute). This is the Mahat plane of Samkya. This is compared with the fourth state of consciousness (Turya). This is the major difference between the human spirit and the Absolute. While human spirit originates in this third plane Paramatman has still higher planes-the second plane of Absolute Subject and first plane of Absolute Being. Now the experience of second plane of Absolute Subject is not Absolute Spirit as particular spirit of third plane but something beyond this spiritual ream in a divine plane. The experience of Absolute Being even as glimpses is beyond this divine plane as it is beyond consciousness. Now as this third plane of the human spirit have no separate being or existence it always depends on the fourth plane (Absolute world) for their being and existence. So they always depends on eatch other. The spirits depends on the world for their being and existence and the world depends on the spirits for their reality. Earlier we have explained that this spiritual plane of Absolute Spirit is internal reflective mind.      

   So in the fourth plane of Absolute World the spirits have existence so they becomes individual subjects and individual beings. Now if we consider human spirit we can say generally it has three beings or bodies. The human spirit always exist either with these three beings or at least one being. Human spirit cannot exist without any one of this being. The first being or body of the human spirit is from the soul world and this we can say soul being. The human spirit with this soul being is what we call human soul. As we explained this is 'SMAPs'. Human soul consists of spiritual, mental astral and material soul. This means when a man is self conscious this consciousness is from the soul world and he exist in that moment in soul plane. Now this subjective self consciousness and the corresponding objective photons& subquark body is one and the same thing or in other words this body is the form of this self consciousness. This objectivity is the form of of the subjective soul consciousness and one cannot exist without the other. This human soul or soul being or the first being of human spirit can be called the first body of human spirit. This human soul is called Jiva in vedanta and it is called karana sarira (causal body) of human spirit. (jivatman). This is the human aspect of the vijnana maya kosha (knowledge sheath) of Brahman. This is the Ahankara(ego) plane of Smakya.  This is the individual aspect of cosmic deep sleep consciousness (Susupti). So the experience of this causal body is called individual sleep consciousness (pragna). and experience is just self consciousness. .This is compared with the third state of consciousness-deep sleep. This is the plane of pure self consciousness and at this plane there is no awareness of any physical or spiritual faculties of the spirit. The human spirit always exist with this being of human soul as this is the cause of individuality and in this sense we can say human soul is eternal and permanent. Unlike other beings or bodies of the human spirit this human soul does not change with time nor the human soul depends on the earthly material body for its development or sustenance like other beings of the human spirit. As we already explained human soul contains subjective soul so we can say human soul is conscious reflective mind.

        The second being or body of the human spirit is subtle being. This being is formed from the subtle material world and consists of whole three beings-cosmic mental being, cosmic imaginary being and cosmic living being (mapb). A we explained these discursive thoughts ,imagination ,life and the corresponding subquarks, subatoms and atoms are one and the same thing. These matter or being is the form of these thoughts or they are thought forms. This is called the second body of the human spirit. This is called the suksma sarira(subtle body) of jivatman in Hindu philosophy. This forms the human aspect of manomaya kosha (mental sheath) and pranamaya kosha (vital sheath) of Brahman. This constitute manas,indriyas(5 working senses&5 knowing senses),Tanmatras(5 subtle matter) planes of samkya philosophy. This is compared with the second state of consciousness-dream sleep consciousness (Swapna). This is the individual aspect of cosmic dream consciousness (Swapna). So the experience of this subtle body is called individual dream consciousness (taijasa) in which the experience does not depend on any thing external. This subtle body is the bearer of all the physical and spiritual faculties of the human spirit. Like the human soul which exist prior to the material body and which can also exist indefinitely after leaving the material body the subtle body also exist prior to material body as it is from the subtle material world and as combined with subjective soul forms subtle formed .Conscious manifestation of the human soul and subtle body and the corresponding soul and subtle world is possible only when the human soul comes into contact with the material body. This is by the formation of astral body(nusma) and is developed and maintained from the quarks, sub atoms, atoms during earthly life from the food & nutrition of the  material body. As at the time of physical death our nutritional supply is cut off the astral body becomes weaker and weaker and at last after a long long time this astral body completely vanishes leaving the human soul and subtle body  again in an independent existence. As we explained this subtle body is the higher form of unconscious reflective mind.

     We have seen that the subtle body consists of subtle material world-cosmic mental being, cosmic imaginal being, cosmic living being (mapb). So the subtle body consists of three parts or divisions or layers. The first part coming from cosmic mental being and consists of most subtle quarks so least depend on the material body for its survival. This is the seat of estimative faculties, intellectual faculties and willing faculties. The astral part of this subtle body is the last one to develop during earthly life and perfected during adolescence and adult hood and and this is the last one to disappear after death and take much longer time than the animal soul and with this the astral body completely disappears. When a man is thinking abstractly or form less thoughts either temporal or spiritual matters these thoughts and the corresponding, Quark body is the same thing and we can say he is on the plane of higher Animals, terrestrial angels or jinn. As we explained earlier this subtle mental body has connection with the cosmic mental being so the dreams and visions coming from this plane is always true as this is connected to higher or absolute imaginary world. The second part coming from cosmic imaginal being and consists of less subtle sub atoms. This is the predominant nature of animals so philosophers call this animal soul or kama rupa (desire form). The second and first part together forms the manomaya kosha (mental sheath) of the jivatman and consists of 5 knowing senses and manas. This is what Hegel calls Feeling Soul .This is the seat of common sense&sensations, imaginations, desire and passions. The astral part of this is the second one to develop and perfected during child hood and this is also the second one to disappear after death. It may take countless years for the disappearance of this part depending upon the individual and the strength of this body but at last this also disappears. When one's thoughts are always directed to desires ,passions and the senses like seeing, hearing ,eating ,indulging in sensuous and bodily pleasures etc or imagination, these thoughts and the corresponding sub atomic body is same thing and he is on the plane of lower animals. This subtle imaginal body has connection with cosmic imaginal being so that the dreams and visions coming from this plane is colored by the earthly plane so may not be true. The third part coming from cosmic living being and consisting of least subtle atoms. This third is the predominant nature of plants&vegetables so philosophers call this by the name vegetative soul or growing soul (the name soul is a misnomer as we explained subtle body is not soul body of spirit). The astral component of this  is the first one to develop during earthly life and also the first one to vanish after physical death.This is the prana maya kosha (vital sheath) of jivatman (human spirit). This consists of nutritive faculties, reproductive faculties, growing faculties, moving faculties etc in short life and 5 karmendriys(working senses). When man thinks himself as mere living thing his spirit is focusing on this part of subtle body and  this thought and and corresponding life is the same thing and he is on the plane of plants. .

        The third being or body of the human spirit is earthly material being. This is called the material body of  of human spirit. This is what Hegel describe as Physical Soul. This is what Sankara describes as the Gross Body (stula sarira) of jivatman(human spirit). This is the individual aspect of cosmic waking consciousness (Jagrat). So the experience of this state is called the individual waking-consciousness (visva) In which the experienced is mainly the external world of senses. This is also the individual aspect of the universal Annamaya  Kosha (gross body sheath). In samkya and yoga philosophy this consists of 5 mahabutas (gross matter)-akasa,fire,air,water and earth. .This also comes from cosmic living being (atoms) .Here this is formed by the aggregation and combination of atoms so that life is unable to express externally so manifest in the form of matter. So when a man thinks himself as this mere physical body his spirit is focusing on this material being and these thoughts and the corresponding body is one and the same thing and he is on the same plane as that of Fire, Air, Water, Earth, etc. As we explained this is the lowest form of unconscious reflective mind.

           So if we consider the Human Spirit as the the Subject these all planes are objects or bodies of the subject. Now let us explain this with human being's physical death. We have seen that all the planes (of self consciousness and consciousness) are in a unity and at the same time man can be in any of these planes when he is conscious of that plane. At the time of death the human spirit leaves its attention on the material body and the dead body gradually join their respective planes of cosmic material  plane like fire, air, water earth etc. Now as we explained the mind (subjectivity) and body (objectivity) is one and the same thing so what this mean is when the material  plane is lost the consciousness of material body  is also lost. As human spirit with causal body and subtle body survive material death so even after death self consciousness (soul) and consciousness as mental faculties and imaginative faculties and living faculties or the corresponding photons, sub quarks, quarks, sub atoms, and atomic bodies remain. Now even after some time if the living faculties, imaginative faculty ,and the mental faculty (Quark, Sub atom, Atomic body) separate and join their cosmic planes the self consciousness (Soul plane) or the Photon &sub quark body exist independently irrespective of these changes. So the soul plane is eternal in the sense that time or eternity as we have explained begins from the soul plane as Cosmic photon.

      As we told earlier all manifestations after Quark, Sub Atom, and Atomic Beings (Subtle material plane) like celestial beings and terrestrial beings up to human being is a combination of either some or all of the material, astral, mental and spiritual souls( self consciousness) and mental faculty, imaginative and material thoughts (consciousness). What we have to remember is this is only a symbolic representation. This does not mean every passionate, rational or spiritual nature contain besides S3, S2 and S1 only corresponding Ps, As and Ms Souls.. All type of combination can occur. What we mean is all human beings can be basically reduced to three groups. One with maximum essential revelation or wisdom nature, second medium self consciousness or will nature and third minimal self consciousness or power nature. In human beings this S3MAPs can be S3M1A1P1s,S3M2A2P2s orS3M3A3P3s which corresponds to power aspect or passionate nature or what we call artistic being. Like this S2MAPs can be S2M1A1P1s,S2M2A2P2s or S2M3A3P3s as will aspect or rational nature or religious being with representational thinking. Like this S1MAPs can be S1M1A1P1s,S1M2A2P2s or S1M3A3P3s as wisdom aspect or spiritual nature and what we call philosophic being. Now this is only a summery of the evolution of the world. Actually every category of non-living things and every species and subspecies of living things, which distinguish one group from another, have their own essence. This is the case up to human beings. Up to man the world is a manifestation of group or species or sub species essences but in the case of man it is different. In human beings every individual is represented by his own essence and spirit. Unlike other beings each and every human being is unique and represents a particular, individual and separate spirit.

V: Absolute Man.

          Now we come to the fifth plane -that of Absolute Man. Strictly speaking this is not a new plane but a special state of the fourth plane. This plane differs from the normal state of fourth plane or the Absolute World mainly in the following. It is only in Absolute Man there is occasional glimpses of the first plane of Absolute Being. It is only in him the divine plane, second plane of Absolute Subject fully manifested. Only in Absolute Man there is conscious manifestation of the third plane as Absolute Spirit or  reflective mind. When man reaches this third plane he can consciously manifest the Absolute Spirit or the  reflective mind completely in their human manifestation. Besides and before this he consciously manifest first subtle body then soul body and world We have seen that Absolute Spirit as human being is 'SMAPs+ mapb'. This means man contain all the worlds preceding him in himself-the spiritual world ,the soul world, the subtle material world and the gross material world (both celestial plane and terrestrial plane up to Jinn). This is internal reflective mind, conscious reflective mind and unconscious reflective mind  In other words as we explained human spirit has three bodies- causal body, subtle body and gross body. This means human beings contain all of the Absolute World in miniature. In addition to all this what is unique to human being is or what differentiate him from all other creation is only Absolute Man is dimly conscious of the first plane of Absolute Being where he is transported now and then and about which he becomes aware only when returned to second plane of Absolute Subject which is the plane of consciousness. Only Absolute Man  can consciously fully manifest the second plane of Absolute Subject. Absolute Man is also the state were there is conscious manifestation of third plane of Absolute Spirit. It is About this special nature of man that Heidegger refers when he says man is essentially Ek-sistence (existence) or transcendence because he is the only being who is aware of Being, so ask about the meaning of Being and ultimately can experience Being. This is because unlike other beings there is belonging together of Being and Dasein. But in normal earthly life man is unconscious of the higher planes-he is totally unaware of the first plane of Absolute Being, second plane of divine mind or Absolute Subject and third spiritual plane or  reflective mind, he has only glimpses of the soul world and subtle world in deep sleep and dream sleep and in rare moments of his life. Ordinary man is not even fully conscious of his material world. This means he is in potentiality or implicitly aware of all these planes as Absolute Spirit and so explicitly he can manifest or actualise all these planes.

         We have seen that Human Spirit has a gross body. As we explained this body is part of the gross material world or bootakash or Annamaya kosha of paramatman. When man is conscious and interested only in his material body and material and superficial things in the world the human spirit is mainly focusing its attention on the material body and the corresponding gross material world so the man is identifying himself completely with the material body which is but only one aspect of his whole being. As we already explained this material self consciousness (Ps) and consciousness (pb) and the corresponding sub quark and material body are one and the same thing or this sub quark and material body is the form of this material self consciousness and consciousness. In Vedanta this is saying the man is engrossed more in his Annamaya Kosha (material sheath) and which is only the individual aspect of or derived from the cosmic waking or gross material consciousness. This is what Hegel describe as physical soul. Now in normal unrealised state even this material consciousness is not complete but limited to one's body and immediate surroundings but in realised state or in Absolute Man this material consciousness is also perfect so his knowledge includes more of the gross material world or Annamaya sheath of Paramatman than ordinary human beings. Similarly the subtle body of man contain life which is a part of the cosmic living being of subtle material world. When a man has most of the time only living self consciousness and conscious as only a mere living being and spend most of his life and energy just to sustain his vitality this is his plant plane or he is in his vegetative soul or growing soul .Here he is only in conscious contact with the plane of cosmic living being of subtle material plane and universal (subtle) material soul of soul plane. What Vedanta says in Pranamaya Kosha (vital sheath). Here also in un realised state this vital sheath consciousness is limited while Absolute Man penetrate more of the cosmic living being or pranamaya sheath of the Absolute than ordinary beings. Similarly the subtle body also contain imaginary part which is part of the cosmic imaginary being. When man is only engrossed in his external senses or in his internal senses as imagination and spend his whole life just satisfying the senses, impulses and passions (in modern times in front of cable TV) this is what is called  his animal soul or what Hegel calls feeling soul. Here he is in conscious contact with only the cosmic imaginary being and universal (subtle) material soul .Here also realised man or Absolute Man penetrate and experience the cosmic imaginary plane much greater than ordinary humans. Similarly the subtle body also contain a mental part which is part of cosmic mental being of subtle material plane. When man is only conscious of temporal matters and thinking most of the times about these with out reflecting into the self (in modern times internet and computer) he is in the plane of terrestrial angels and jinn. Here he is only in contact with cosmic mental being of the subtle material plane and universal mental soul of soul plane. This is what Hegel calls consciousness proper or subject object consciousness. As explained  unlike normal man the experience of the realised one or Absolute Man  about  this cosmic mental plane is much greater. Vedanta call the above two planes together Manomaya Kosha (mental sheath) and this is the individual aspect of cosmic dream consciousness and is the manifestation of subtle material plane so during dream man is in this plane. Prana maya and Manomaya together forms Subtle body (linga sarira). This consciousness  is due to the human spirit focusing its attention most of the time on its subtle body. As we already explained all these subtle and gross bodies are nothing but unconscious reflective mind. As told earlier this consciousness and the corresponding subtle body is one and the same thing.

          From the above description we can see that in all the above planes man is only aware of his gross material plane and subtle material plane in other word he as consciousness is only aware of the material world (subtle&gross) and he has only mental, astral and material self consciousness. This is what Kierkegaard explain as the first form or stage of individual existence-the aesthetic stage. We have explained that besides this gross and subtle body human spirit also contain the causal body or soul body. This individual soul body is part of the soul world or vijnanamaya kosha of Paramatman. we have seen that man contains all the soul worlds or spiritual, mental, imaginary and material self consciousness. When one is conscious of his pure subjectivity and most of the time he is with this subjective self consciousness so that all other thoughts becomes secondary to him this is nothing but he becoming conscious of his  subjective or spiritual soul from soul world. Now this subjective soul world is the reason of man's individuality and uniqueness. His unique self consciousnesses is due to the inclusion of this subjective soul world. Now only those who are conscious of their pure subjectivity or pure ego are conscious of the soul world. In Vedanta this is called Vijnana maya Kosha (knowledge sheath) and this is the Causal body (Karana Sarira) because this is the cause for individuality (Ahankara-Ego). This individual soul is also called Jiva. We can see that this world is equated with the cosmic deep sleep consciousness and man is in this plane during deep sleep. When man becomes more and more self conscious he is more and more in conscious contact with this soul plane and there will comes a stage when man is always conscious of his subjectivity or self. What ever activities he is engaged he is conscious of his self and he sees all the world through his self consciousness. This soul world as we explained earlier is the conscious reflective mind. This is what Hegel calls universal self consciousness or Reason and what Husserl calls the phenomenological reduction. At this stage there is complete conscious manifestation of the soul plane in the individual. The individual is able to see the whole world reflected in his self consciousness. Here the human spirit is focusing its attention exclusively on the causal body. We have seen that in complete self consciousness the whole world is reflected into the self and the world has no independent existence from this self consciousness. But at this self consciousness plane or soul plane this is the  consciousness of the individual or particular soul. So even when there is this universal self consciousness this remains at the theoretical or rational level and one is not able to correspond his activities to this universal consciousness as this is not an existential experience . This is because as we told earlier at existential level this is an individual soul and exist as an individual and different from all the other souls in the soul plane. So in normal man the manifestation of soul world is always imperfect while in Absolute Man there is perfect manifestation of this Soul World. Now when one continuously try and act in such a way that he is able to forego his condition of this existential situation and make to correspond his knowledge of cosmic self consciousness with his activates this is a result of his seeing his self in the other. When one try to experience one's self in others and only One Self in the whole world all his activities will be such a nature that his happiness and pleasures must correspond to the common good. Here the individual is trying to forgo the consciousness which normally exclusively limited to his finite ego and completely absorbed in the petty interests and desires of that limited ego and trying to make an awareness of cosmic consciousness and try to think ,speak and act from a cosmic point of view. This does not mean he will not have individual desires and interests but he will not pursue such interests and desires which are contrary to the common good. This is what Kierkegaard explain as the ethical stage. This is a painful experience because he is trying to dissolve his particular individuality but which is his reality as an individual soul at this soul plane. When he  continuously try to experience this state of self in others by constant identification with the whole world  this is a painful experience because he experience the effects of his efforts for dissolution of his ego as in actuality he is an individual soul so these activities of common good may not produce happiness or pleasure to his individual self.

       But when he persists in these experiences he is suddenly transported to the higher plane ,the plane of Absolute spirit or eternal spiritual plane. Here we come to the next stage-that of Absolute Man. Conscious manifestation of the Absolute Spirit or the eternal spiritual plane in human beings. This is the plane of reflective mind. Unlike all the other planes including soul plane described above which are attained by human effort this is a happening which is beyond human achievement by effort. But normally when man becomes more and more self conscious and if he is able to  regulate his action according to his self consciousness the Absolute Spirit manifest itself as a normal out come of this endeavor .But still it is a giving or blessing which is beyond all human control. We have explained earlier when dealing with the third plane that one and the same Absolute spirit is the spirit of all the essences in the spiritual plane. When a human being manifest this spiritual plane he experience this oneness of the Spirit in all beings. When one reaches spiritual plane there is only one Subject and so one Being-The Absolute Spirit. There is no individual I at this plane but only He. Every thing is a manifestation of Him. He is the Subject and Being of everything. This is the religious life of Kierkegaard. This is the 'jump into the abyss' of faith's 'seventy thousand fathoms'. Leaping into faith over aesthetic pleasure and ethical reason and duty. This is Heidegger's experience of Being. This is the realm of his 'Ereignis' where there is belonging together man and Being. This is the Anandamaya Kosha (blissful sheath) of Vedanta. As the Absolute Spirit or third plane is a limitation of Absolute Being of first plane in Knowledge this is a sheath (Kosha) hence a limitation. The human spirit of the third plane  is what is called  Jivatman. In Samkhya philosophy this plane is called Mahat. In transcendental experience this is the fourth state of Turya .For human beings as human spirits this Anandamaya is  the ultimate station because human spirit originates from this spiritual plane. After this when the Absolute Man reaches the second divine plane of Absolute Subject is not Absolute Spirit as individual human spirit but as pure universal subject without any individual consciousness. This is because at this plane pure subjectivity has no content so one is not conscious of himself or the world. There are those who are permanently established in this plane wit out any consciousness of themselves or the world. Here they will remain with this blissful state without any action in the world. There are others who after completing this plane returned and established in their spirit in the third plane. They are the ones who can act in the world and guide others in the way. We have already explained earlier that when the Absolute Being of the first plane reveal itself there is neither spirits or individual nor knowledge to experience this as Absolute Being is independent of mind and world so there remains only Absolute Being Himself. So Absolute Man is only temporarily transported to this first plane during life and he becomes conscious of this plane only when returned to the second divine plane of Absolute Subject.. Hegel describe the development of this manifestation of this Absolute spirit as human spirit as the development of Subjective Spirit, Objective Spirit and  Finally into Absolute Spirit. This is the state of Absolute Man.

    Ibn Arabi and Sufis call the Absolute Man's spirit by the divine name Rafi ud Darajat((Elevator of Rank) and worldly name is Insan al Kamil (Perfect Man). This is what Mulla Sadra calls self as Ilm Huduri (Knowledge as presence or Presencial cognition). Heidegger describe this  Dasein (Being there) plane of  Ereignis. where Aletheia (unconcealment) takes place. The belonging together of Being and man. The lightening up of Being in Man. This is the state of experience of Being. This conscious manifestation of the third spiritual plane is accompanied by the complete manifestation of all the other planes and potentialities in man. This because the other worlds like soul world ,subtle world and material world are the beings or bodies of this human spirit. This perfect state is described in various terms like divine man, illumination, self realisation. All these denotes this state.

      We have mentioned that this spiritual state or divine state cannot be attained by human effort as it is a divine favour conferred on man. But another paradox is one who never seeks seldom reach this state. So mystics have developed many methods to reach this plane. Christian mystics have the paths of purgation, illumination and union. Sufis also have self purification (jihad nafs) and contemplation (muraqaba). Hindu mystics also have asceticism. detachment, renunciation and meditation (dhyan). The different paths are described in Hindu philosophy as Raja yoga ( meditation), jnana yoga (knowledge), Bhakti yoga (devotion) and karma yoga (work).In Vedanta Sankara maintains that jnana (knowledge) is the direct means to self realisation while Ramanuja maintains jnana followed by upasana (meditation) is the means to self realisation. Heidegger also explains three paths to the experience of Being. These are essential thinking, dwelling in the neighbor hood of Being and seeing the truth of Being. But as a preliminary step Heidegger suggest moving away from care and abandon modern way of calculative thinking or manipulative thinking or technological thinking. This is seeing others from a technological or mechanical view and contemplating always how to exploit and take advantage of others for one's own benefit. Normal man is also involved with life and  world in a state of care .There are three forms of care-epistemological care, relational care and existential care. To experience being man must move away from this worldly care. Essential thinking is meditating about Being. This is attained by release. Release means even if physically involved in the world mentally not absorbed in the worldly affairs. What sufi's says "in the world but not of the world". This means he can use and enjoy everything in the world but not attached to it.Gurdjieff describe the method of self realisation as conscious labour and intentional suffering. This is mainly through constant self consciousness and transforming negative emotions. All these methods can be broadly divided into three types. The first is control and sublimation of body and senses. This include controlling and limiting smoking, drinking, drugs, excess eating, excess sleeping, excess sex and excess relaxation and laziness like always satisfying the senses like excessive watching TV ,excessive listening of popular music, shunning away from all works that need physical effort etc. The second is control and sublimation of some mental faculties and characters. This include desire for wealth, fame ,power etc, control of anger, pride, control of rational thinking or business like thinking which always focus to one's gain in any dealings, cultivation of humility and generosity. The most important mental exercise are trying to dissolve the limited ego consciousness which always thinks about one's own welfare with out considering it's effect on others. The other is cultivation of love which help in dissolving the ego. The third is  concentrating ,contemplating and meditating on the Absolute. All these different methods can be ultimately reduced or leads to what we have already explained. So the essence of all these methods is constant contemplation of Absolute Spirit as one's own spirit or self and also the spirit of every one and everything and thinking, speaking, seeing, hearing and acting from this awareness of cosmic self. Methods like purgation, purification, self mortification, asceticism, renunciation are only a means to this and not an end in itself. Like this illumination, union, dhyana, contemplation, meditation etc refer to methods to attain this cosmic consciousness. Real purgation is purgation of limited ego. Real renunciation is not renouncing the world or family or work or material comforts but renouncing the desire for them. Like this detachment is not neglecting the world or one's duties but a mental state of indifference to riches and poverty, pleasure and pain etc. This detachment is what Heidegger means by release. Even this detachment and renunciation are not end in itself but a means to augment the constant contemplation by making mind free of temporal thoughts and strengthening action from a cosmic view. Among all these methods mystics consider Knowledge (discriminating real from unreal), detachment or renunciation and love as the most important ones. We have seen that discriminating knowledge is necessary for continuous contemplation of the Absolute. The real detachment or renunciation as not attached to worldly things and the essence of renunciation or detachment is renouncing the ego or detaching from ego and this detachment helps in freeing the mind from all other thoughts and desires so helps in both initiating and maintaining  contemplation. Similarly Love-both human and divine. Love of other men and creatures  will help in dissolving the limited ego and is the best method to dissolve it which is essential for self realisation. Divine love also dissolve the limited ego as one see divinity as the essence of everything and divine love is essential for contemplation of Absolute and to maintain this contemplation until realisation is reached. Without Divine love constant contemplation of Absolute is not possible as worldly attachment prevent the constant remembrance of Absolute and besides contemplation of Absolute will be a boring and tedious experience and will not give any pleasure without divine love so cannot be maintained till self realisation. So ultimately all methods can be reduced either to constant contemplation of oneself and others as Absolute Spirit or Universal Self and always thinking, speaking, seeing, hearing and acting from this cosmic view or as we explained these methods are means to develop this state of consciousness or to maintain this consciousness and activities until self realisation is reached. Every thing which prevent to maintain this consciousness can be ultimately reduced to our limited ego consciousness and the negative emotions arising out of it.

        Now we have earlier seen that there are three fundamental types of human spirits depending on the predominance of subjective spirit or depending on the proportion of essential revelation as S1MAP,S2MAP and S3MAP.This division is mainly depending on the proportion of subjective spirit (S). Now conscious manifestation of  Absolute Spirit as human spirit or Absolute Man can present these three fundamental types. Now S3MAP is the human spirit with minimum pure subjective  revelation of the Absolute or the power aspect. This is what we called the predominance of passionate Nature. Hegel call this third type of human spirit the Artistic Spirit. Here Absolute Spirit manifest as Natural spirit so the form of the spirit is substantial and imaginative forms. So the artistic Spirit can experience Absolute only in His  physical and form aspect. In our terminology this is same as S3MAP where the subjective spiritual essence is minimum .We have seen that in Sufism human soul is considered as a tied soul with angelic soul and rational soul in it. spiritual soul (S) and mental soul (M) considered as Angelic soul and Subtle material or imaginary soul (A) and gross material soul (P) considered as the rational part of human soul. In S3MAP souls there is predominance of rational part or imaginary and material souls .Now when such a human spirit reach the eternal third plane of Absolute sprit subjectivity is mainly identified with the physical and imaginative form of the Absolute Spirit. Now the form of the Absolute Spirit is the passive nature or passive energy of the eternal plane. This is the formal aspect of the Absolute Spirit. We have explained earlier that in the eternal third plane the internal nature of the Absolute Spirit is as subject but external nature is the form of this subjectivity as ultra cosmic  energy of highest vibration. So when the human spirit with predominant Passionate nature attain the second state they identify the absolute spirit with the physical and existence and form aspect and realise themselves as the whole material being and existence and form of the world. We have seen that  this is but external being (wujud khariji, wujud munbasit). Such Absolute Man is called Arif (Gnostic). As they identify the Absolute only with the underlying Being and Existence and form of the world they are called Wujudiya Ainiyah. This is same as Artistic Mind. In Vedanta Dvaita (duality) philosophy of Madava can be compared to this state.

     Now the second type is S2MAP human spirit with Love aspect or what we call rational nature. Hegel call this human spirit as Absolute Spirit ,the religious spirit. In religious spirit the content is Absolute spirit but the form is that of representation. Here due to this representation the religious spirit exclude himself from the Absolute Spirit. The religious spirit experience is like an other experiencing this Absolute Spirit. In other words human spirit as religious spirit does not come to the comprehension that this religious spirit itself is the Absolute spirit. In Sufism we can describe this spirit as some predominance of angelic soul (SMs) over rational soul (APs). So here the Absolute Spirit is not identified with mere being or existence form alone which is only the form of the spirit or external aspect but identify with the subjective or internal aspect and comprehend being and existence as the passive energy or only form of this very thought as Absolute spirit. They are called Hakim (man of taste and wisdom). These are called Wujudiya Waraiyah. The religious spirit among this group while knowing the Absolute Spirit as religious spirit deny any real existence to fourth plane of Absolute World as plurality of spirits thus denying their own beings and only apprehending the Absolute in its independence. So according to them there is only one essence but two existences, the real existence is that of the Absolute Spirit and the existence of the world is only shadowy existence. They are called the people of Wahdat al Suhud and Imam Rabbani is one of them. In Vedanta philosophy Vishistadvita (specified monism) of Ramanuja may be compared with this state.

       Now the third type is S1MAP human spirit with wisdom aspect or what we call maximum subjective or spiritual nature. This is spirit with maximum self or essential revelation. Hegel call this human spirit as Absolute Spirit, the philosophic Spirit. The spirit or self as universal self which comprehends it's own self in the other. In Sufism this is the higher stage of the Wujudiya Waraiyah where the Angelic soul is like a form and rational soul is like matter to it. Here there is only one essence and one being or existence. All the planes are due to the descends of the absolute in his knowledge. So every plane has it's own reality or essence and being or existence in that plane, So not only the Absolute Being ,Subject and Absolute spirit of higher planes has reality but the fourth plane of Absolute World has it's own reality  according to that plane because the essence and being of all plane is One Essence and One Being. Here Absolute Subject is seen ultimately as the essence of everything. This is called Wahdat al Wujud (Unity of Subject ) and Ibn Arabi is the Grand Master of this group. In Vedanta philosophy Advaita (Absolute Monism) of Sankara may be compared with this state.

             This third spiritual plane, the Absolute Spirit need some more clarification. As we explained earlier human beings are SMAPs+ MAPb beings. They have both self consciousness (soul world) and consciousness (subtle material world). As we explained earlier their soul contain not only M, A and P but also S1,S2 or S3 or spiritual souls. This subjective or spiritual soul is what we call conscious reflective mind and this subjective soul is the cause of man's unique individuality. As we explained earlier when a man is active with his external senses or when his thoughts are most of the time about the external physical world he has mainly living consciousness and material self consciousness. Here he is mainly conscious of his gross body and gross material world. This is what we called the individual aspect of universal waking consciousness and this is  from connection with the universal living (material) Being of the subtle material world plane. This happens through his material body  and this is  the material or mineral being, Plant being  [what philosophers call mineral soul, vegetative (growing) soul, ) parts of the human beings. Like this when most of the time a man's internal senses are active or he is imagining or when he is dreaming in his sleep this is due to activities  from the universal imaginary being of subtle material world and astral self consciousness .This is what we call the individual aspect of Universal Dream consciousness and this is due to connection with subtle material being of the subtle world. This happens through the parts of the animal being, angelic being (animal soul, ) of the human being. Similarly when man thinks about  various things (discursive thoughts) or form less thoughts this is still only consciousness and comes from the universal mental being of subtle world and mental self consciousness. Now even when a man withdraws his external and internal senses from every thing and withdraw from all particular thoughts  there is still subjective consciousness or there is pure self consciousness so we are in the soul world and connected with subjective soul and as we explained earlier the form or external nature of this soul is as photons&sub quarks (cosmic, light etc) and every one is an individual soul .This means there is a definite number of photons and sub quarks as each individual soul thus distinguishing oneself from all others. This means as soul we cannot get rid our limited subjectivity which is our real nature as soul. This pure self consciousness or reducing ,withdrawing everything to the self is what Husserl call phenomenological reduction. When withdrawn from every thing or with out any content this pure subjective consciousness looks like empty so Sartre term this consciousness as nothingness. But it is clear from the above discussion that even though for this self consciousness ego is not an object like reflective consciousness this self consciousness itself is individual subjective or ego consciousness. So what is common to all these experiences whether as self consciousness or consciousness is the firm ground of individuality and being due to the forms of these thoughts as photons, sub atoms or other grosser forms.

            But when a human being attain the third spiritual state of Absolute Man the experience or knowledge is entirely different from this worldly experience or knowledge of fourth plane. This is because this third plane is beyond the fourth plane or world. So this experience cannot be comprehended or compared with any of the worldly experience as an individual. So when a man realise or reach this spiritual plane his consciousness or knowledge go a complete transformation. This is because his knowledge of limited subjectivity is lost at this eternal plane. This is due to two factors. One as we have explained earlier in the spiritual plane one and the same Absolute Spirit is the spirit of all the essences. So when one reach this eternal plane he will have the realisation that individual self or spirit was an illusion and the self or subject or spirit or ego or I is in reality the Absolute Spirit which is the same spirit of all the beings. Secondly as we explained the external aspect or the form of this Absolute Spirit is as passive nature or passive energy or ultracosmic energy-this means energy before any external definite frequency or particularization. This fact will make the realisation that the Being and Existence of all beings is one Being or Existence hence in this aspect also there is no division or individuality. So there is complete identity with all beings in both respects. This third plane -The Absolute Spirit as the spirits of these essences is the internal reflective mind or spiritual mind. These spirits are permanent or eternal spirits so they can never transcend this nature so never attain the first plane as it is the state of Absolute Being or second plane of Absolute Subject .As we explained elsewhere when the Absolute Being reveal himself there is neither spirit, individuality nor mind or knowledge to experience this as Absolute Being is independent of mind and world and Absolute Being alone remains at this state.Similarly the Absolute Subject is a universal subjective state not particular or individual spirits. The third plane is also eternal or rather it is beyond time and eternity. This is because Time and Space even as a concept or notion only begins or develop in this state. This third plane is the aim and the first  station of the Mystics in self realisation. When the mystics attain this state they will have the realization that the One and only Absolute Spirit is the reality of themselves and all the other spirits. But as Ibn Arabi says each Divine name (spirits) is Unique so one spirit cannot know other spirit essentially-so Absolute knowledge of other spirits are impossible even in this state. At this realised state one will have Absolute knowledge of himself but can attain the knowledge of the essences of other spirits only as much as his capability and depends upon the station on the spiritual hierarchy. As I explained else where All human spirits are at a higher level than all other spirits because human spirit contains all the predicates or essences but every human spirit is also unique and distinct due to the different proportion of the predicates pertaining to each spirit. So what distinguishes one from the other is only the specific relations of the predicates. We have seen that what distinguishes human beings from all other beings is while all other beings contain only some of the predicates or most of the predicates human beings contain or the synthesis of all the predicates. Now what distinguishes one human being from another is only the quantity or intensity of the different predicates in each human being. The various relations of the predicates determine the potentialities and capabilities of each spirit. We have seen that in the predicates the lower depends on the higher- power depends on love or will as one cannot act without will and this in turn depends on knowledge as we cannot will what we do not know. So ultimately the proportion of knowledge make the hierarchy of human beings. Now we have seen that knowledge or consciousness is the essence of mind itself and this mind is the reality of  third plane as Absolute Spirit or  reflective mind. We have also seen that subjective spirit and soul is nothing but mind or knowledge as subjective being and pure subjective consciousness and mental spirit and soul is knowledge as knowledge of predicates. So knowledge in the last analysis is nothing but the self revelation of the spirit. So in whose essence there is maximum knowledge there is the maximum essential or self revelation of the Absolute Spirit. Now even when this realisation completely dawns on the human spirit in the eternal spiritual plane that even though there is only one spirit or self and also only one existence or external being , due to this particular relations of the predicates one is only able to know essentially oneself and one can know the essential nature of other spirits only as much as his potentialities and capabilities enable him. This is why Ibn Arabi in Fusus says every one is unique and represent a particular and unique Divine Name and there is no repetition of the Divine name in the world. This realisation will make him acknowledge that I as an ego do not exists but only He (Absolute Spirit) exists so I and all beings are Absolute Spirit Himself and the expression of Him. So at this final stage even though there is realisation that the same Spirit and Being of one Subject is the spirit and existence of all the world due to this uniqueness of every spirits&beings  there is no knowledge that I am everything or I am the whole world or I am God But He or the Absolute Spirit is every thing or the whole world or He is God and I appear as an illusion.

      When the seeker reach this state of Absolute Spirit or spiritual mind the experience is totally different from the worldly experience. There are those who momentarily experience this state and those who are firmly established in this state. The attainment of this state is what we call self realisation. When one reaches this state both his subjective and objective experience undergo total transformation and it is as if he is transported to a completely unknown and inexperienced realm. This is because in unrealised state our subjectivity is limited to our body. Even if we can think of our family or loved ones as our own and like wise some can include the whole creation in his self this remains only an intellectual or rational knowledge and not an existential experience. This becomes evident when we cannot feel the emotions of others like pain or pleasure in the same intensity as experienced by them even if we think and love them as ourselves. Secondly because as this is not an existential experience to act as if every one is our own self becomes a constant struggle. What happens when one reaches the third plane of spiritual mind is there is an expansion of the subjectivity so it envelops the whole creation. Unlike intellectual knowledge this is an existential experience. Here what happens is Absolute Spirit manifests through that man so that he has the realisation that there is only one subject and he himself is not different from the Absolute Spirit. This will make him existentially experience his own subjectivity permeating the whole creation without losing his own individuality. As we have already explained in the introduction when speaking about the different forms of mind internal  reflective mind is the higher form of mind. Here unlike reflective mind there is universal subjectivity and objects are not something alien to it but include in it's subjectivity. So unlike reflected mind there is no difference between subject and object but only distinction and objects are as it's own other. As we have explained earlier even though the subject is one, every spirit is unique due to the proportion of predicates pertaining to it or the degree of manifestation of the Essence. Secondly as the objective aspect of the Absolute Spirit is ultracosmic energy so that there is only one Body or Being which state is entirely different form our ordinary state which is manifested energy and limited body experience and also multiplicity of beings. This will result in the experience of the whole universe as his own body and the nature of this ultracosmic energy of highest vibrations which is totally unknowable to us in ordinary state and cannot be experienced by any kind of speculation or imagination, will give rise to what the mystics describe as the blissful state (ananda). This subjective and objective experience which is totally alien to the worldly creatures makes the realised man an entirely different category from normal human beings and action from a universal perspective proceed from him without any struggle or effort. It is also reported by mystics that one who attains to the spiritual mind he whole past and future history of the cosmos is revealed.

      So the last or final development of the human being as human spirit is the attainment of this third eternal spiritual plane or Absolute spirit as a permanent state. This is because the final stage of realisation as Absolute Subject of divine second plane is not as human spirit but as the divine spirit of universal subject without consciousness of world or individuality.Similarly first plane or The Absolute Being is a transcendent state and so when it reveal itself only Absolute Being remains . As the essence of man is from the third plane it is his real home. So the attainment of this spiritual state is really a homecoming or returning to the source. Every one is consciously or unconsciously  longing for this spiritual state and at the root of every discontent and alienation is non attainment of this state. This root less feeling is what Sartre means when he says existence as absurd and the feeling of anguish and nausea and Heidegger by the states of thrownness and fallen. Man experience meaning and fulfillment in life only when he permanently attain this spiritual state. This is what Heidegger means when he says authentic life is experience of Being. This permanence and experience of higher two planes of Absolute Being&Absolute Subject is what we call the Mystic Spirit or The Absolute Man.

      Actually there is no difference between the Absolute Spirit of Hegel and the the Mystic Spirit- So there is no real difference between the speculative reason and existential experience. Speculative reason is really the organic movement of the notion within itself reaching to the final stage of Absolute Spirit. This speculative reason is not something we can gain by reading philosophy and making concepts. Knowing the state of the absolute spirit by forming concepts is not the same as the experience of it. In real speculation the whole being as notion moves from lower to higher stage .So here the experience of Being and knowing is not different. There is unity of knowing and being. So this speculative reason and existential experience is one and the same thing. So the Absolute Spirit of Hegel and the Experience of Being of Heidegger in the final analysis is one and the same thing. In the perfect man or in the mystic mind there is no conflict between thought and will. There is sublation of both thought and will. As we explained earlier this state is not as knowledge alone which take the world as it is but also as will which make the world as it ought to be. Absolute Man as accomplished and accomplishing itself.. The state not only as finished and produced but constantly producing it self. The state as determinative of the content or as Thinking Will. This synthesis will produce the living experience of self realisation.

          We have earlier said that this is the Mahat of Samkhya philosophy and Anandamaya of Vedanta. The human spirit of this plane is what is called Atman or Jivatman. According to Sankara Atman realises it self as Brahman.. But as we explained earlier the second plane of divine mind is not same as spiritual mind but something beyond it.Similarly the first plane or The Absolute Being is a transcendental state and not  attainable by human being as human spirit .This is because as we told earlier this is unknowable because the Being has not descended into the plane of knowledge. When one reaches this highest state of Absolute Being his self consciousness itself is obliterated and there remain only Absolute Being Himself as this state is independent of mind and world. So in this sense there is no point in saying jivatman realise it self as Brahman as Absolute Being Is as He always Was and no change of perception can be attributed to Being in this transcendental state. The third eternal spiritual plane as Absolute Spirit is not unknowable but knowledge as subject so the internal aspect or content is thought and external aspect or form of this thought is as passive nature or passive or ultracosmicf energy. As we explained all the spirits in this plane are permanent and eternal so human spirit can never transcend this nature. But it is true that human spirit as Absolute Spirit is Absolute Being &Absolute Subject Himself with the limitation of this third plane or the descend of the Absolute Being in Knowledge as Absolute Spirit.

         As we explained earlier in Hegel's philosophy the transcendent state of Absolute Being as Unknowable Essence and beyond mind where mind is negative and non being so nothing when compared with the Being is missing. Besides speculating the nature or essence of Absolute Subject with predicates (Absolute Idea) as Mind, this Absolute Idea  itself is not the most perfect or concrete state of Absolute Spirit ,but the Absolute Spirit later descending and developing through nature and finite mind into Philosophic Spirit. This Absolute Spirit as philosophic spirit can have Absolute Knowledge so the Absolute is completely knowable as Philosophic spirit. We have seen that the Absolute Spirit is a limitation of Absolute Being So even as philosophic Spirit Absolute Being remain unknowable. Similarly According to Hegel This Absolute knowledge covers all being so the whole world. But we have seen that as every being is unique so even as Absolute Spirit there can be no complete knowledge of other beings but  each know other depending on ones potentialities and capabilities. This is what Kant says Ding un Sich-The Thing in Itself (Absolute) and things in themselves (beings) always remain unknowable .Third difference is in Hegel's system Absolute Spirit as philosophic spirit is complete Subjectivism in that the philosophic spirit sees his spirit as the Absolute spirit so the Thought is "I am Absolute spirit". We have seen that the focus shifts from I to Him so that it becomes He (Absolute Spirit) as the reality of all beings.

        This third spiritual plane of the Human Spirit is what Heidegger calls experience of Being. So according to him complete authenticity is only reached in this third plane. This plane is described as the realm Ereignis where there is appropriation of Dasein and Being-the belonging together of Dasein and Being. Realisation of this plane is described as Aletheia (unconcealment). This happens only in human being because human being is Dasein (Being there) means man is the opening or lightning place of Being. Aletheia as unconcealment is the opening of Being in Dasein or the arrival in and as Dasein and in the form as the historical space time play of the fourfold (earth, sky, divinities, mortal) and Language. Here there is no subjectivity or Ego as the focus shift from Dasein to Being. Dasein is the shepherd as the opening place of Being. The nature of Aletheia is such that Being conceals in this unconcealment as it withdraws in this arrival of beings. So there is always an Unknowable aspect of Being. This is what we name the Transcendent Absolute Being.


Chapter 2: The Transcendent, the Eternal and the Temporal

           From the above discussion we have seen that there are fundamentally three aspects or states or planes of the Absolute. In reality the one and only Absolute  when viewed in its Transcendent first  plane is called The Absolute Being and when viewed in second and third eternal divine and spiritual  planes is called The Absolute Subject&Spirit and when viewed in its fourh plane of temporality is called Absolute World.

     As we explained already the Transcendental first plane can be viewed from two angles. One is from the angle of reason or logic which satisfies the rational people. According to this the state of Absolute Being is logically prior to Absolute Subject&Spirit. Here the state as Unknowable Essence is prior to Essence as Mind or prior to the descend of Essence into Knowledge. The second is from the angle of intuition which is the view of self realised mystics. Here the priority is neither temporal priority nor logical priority but the priority of Essence or Being and is the ontological priority. In this view the Absolute is always with all the perfect predicates and all the states or planes but never defined or limited by them, on the contrary always transcend them. What ever way we look to the state of Absolute Being, here mind and world is negative and non being so nothing. This also means one cannot have realisation of this state as human spirit. If and when one ultimately reaches this state his consciousness is obliterated and there remains no one to experience this state as Absolute Being is independent of mind and world and He alone remains and He is as He always was and there is no change in Him.   .

      In the second eternal aspect we have Absolute Subject and Absolute Spirit. Second divine plane of Absolute Subject is when Absolute Being has dawning of consciousness. This as we explained is the state of potential mind with infinite vibration so as to make energy at rest. This is the state of pure subjectivity without any content. This is the state of Absolute without any predicates, attributes or qualities. This is Nirvishesa or Nirguna Brahman, as Sat-Cit-Ananada (Being-Consciousness-Bliss). As this is beyond even the concept of time and space this is an eternal plane. This is the final permanent station of mystics, In the third spiritual plane Absolute Spirit the Spirit or Subject is one but the predicates or attributes and qualities are numerous. The spirits (subjective spirits, mental spirits.. up to human spirits ) in spiritual realm are nothing but the particular and specific relations of the Subject with predicates or attributes or qualities. In spiritual  realm the One Absolute Spirit forms multiple spirits. These spirits have no separate being or existence of their own but depends on the Absolute Spirit for their being and existence. We can say at the plane of Absolute Spirit individual spirits exist as only the mental existence of the Absolute. As we explained earlier this spiritual plane can be roughly compared with an human subject making different concepts in his mind. This spiritual plane is the  reflective mind. The one Absolute spirit becomes the being of each and every spirit and act through these spirits itself. In Absolute Spirit spirits are only a possibility. Spirits are dormant or potential at the stage of Absolute Spirit. There is only distinction but no division in the attributes and qualities of the Absolute as Absolute or Creative Spirit. Attributes like life and knowledge are one and inseparable from the subject or in Absolute Spirit without undergoing division. . This is the state of unity in diversity. These two second and third planes are the eternal  aspect of reality. This Absolute Subject and Absolute or Creative Spirit are the eternal and immutable aspect of reality.

           The third aspect is the plane of manifestations or the Absolute World. As we told earlier there are two major manifestations-soul world and material (subtle &gross) world. We have seen that this is reflective mind-conscious and unconscious reflective mind. As we told earlier this manifestation can be viewed from two angles or two aspects. One is the internal aspect or as mind and the other is the external or physical aspect or the form of this same mind. As already explained both are one and the same. So internal aspect or self consciousness and consciousness of souls & beings like spiritual thoughts, mental discursive thoughts, imaginary thoughts, material thoughts which emanates from these spirits &beings and external aspect or physical &material bodies like cosmic, Gamma, X-ray bodies (spiritual); UV ray, visible light, infra red (mental); TV,Micro,Radio (astral); and sub quark bodies (material)&sub atoms, atoms, molecules, compounds, other gross material bodies are also one and the same.

     At this fourth plane of manifestation as Absolute World the One Absolute Spirit or Creative Spirit  is manifested as multiple beings. The one Absolute Spirit which is internal reflective mind on manifestations become separate and individual beings due to externalisation as active mind. This is as we explained is the reflective mind. As we explained the cause of this external manifestation is the Love of the Absolute for perfection and this manifestation is the Power aspect of the Absolute and this manifest  externally as energy with definite frequency. All physical and material manifestations are either active thought or active imagination of the Absolute Spirit. Now one being is differentiated from another in manifestation by separate being and existence while as Absolute Spirit the predicates or attributes are distinct but undivided due to one Absolute Spirit being the spirit of all. As we explained earlier  the manifestation of Absolute Spirit into particular and individual souls and beings also contain both internal subjective aspect  and external energy/material aspect of mind. So all the spirits in the eternal plane and all the corresponding souls&beings in the worldly plane are a combination of Absolute Spirits internal aspect as subjectivity and external aspect as ultracosmic energy or pure being. The mind's consciousness as pure subjectivity go on decreasing from maximum and the consciousness as energy/matter go on increasing from the minimum through spiritual, mental, astral, and material souls (soul world) ,then through subtle material world and gross material world till it reaches Earth which is Absolute Spirit's thought as minimum consciousness as pure subjectivity and maximum consciousness as energy/matter. This is the stage of involution or descent. From then on consciousness also go on increasing till it reaches human being as Absolute Man and in this as S1MAPor philosophic spirit which is Absolute Spirit's thought as maximum consciousness and maximum being. This is the stage of evolution or ascent.

       Now  we have explained that the Absolute Spirit as spirits in the third eternal state or in spiritual realm have an internal aspect or content that of thought or knowledge and an external aspect or form of this very thought as ultracosmic energy. So they are one and same thing looked from internal and external aspects respectively. All the spirits, and the plane of all these spirits  is the third eternal spiritual realm. Like this all the souls like spiritual, mental, astral, material &beings of the subtle material &gross material world also have these two aspects in the physical realm. The internal aspects of these beings as subjectivity and mind and the corresponding external aspect is the form of this thought as body is also one and the same thing. So both mind and  the corresponding bodies are one and same being looked through the attributes of thought and attribute of extension respectively. So all these manifestations both spirits and corresponding spiritual thoughts, discursive thought, imaginations, emotions, feelings and the corresponding physical and material existence like light, gamma photons, quarks (beings and bodies)  are  two sides of the same thing. So there is no soul world without this photons and sub quarks and no subtle beings without the corresponding Quarks, Sub atoms and Atoms. Similarly no mental ,emotional and imaginative faculty without corresponding physical and material existence and no physical and material existence without corresponding mental and imaginative faculties. So as Spinoza stated both thought and extension are one and the same substance one time looked through the attribute of thought and another time looked through the attribute of extension .or as Hegel put it being is implicit notion or there is real identity of being and thought. These manifestations both soul world &material world are the becoming aspect of reality. This is the temporal and mutable aspect of the Absolute.. {Here a word of caution. Only when a man is aware of his body is this knowledge and body one and the same thing but when a man is self conscious he is in the photon &sub quark body as causal body and this thought is not same as the gross body as we explained earlier. every knowledge realm has a corresponding body as the form of this thought}.

         Now the fourh plane or the Absolute world as soul world ,subtle material world and gross material world  entirely depends on the third eternal spiritual plane or Absolute Spirit or Creative Spirit for their  manifestations. The Absolute Spirit as permanent and eternal spirits are the reality of the Absolute World. They are the external expression of the spirits  which are their internal reality. These manifestations of world have no separate initiative or power until the creative spirit as spirits act through them. The eternal spirits  as subject  are the inner controller of the manifested world. The real existence is that of spirits  as subjects. All other existences and manifestations are derived from these subjects. Now the comparison of the world to its eternal spirits  is like a shadow to the original. The spirits  are real and eternal but the world is shadow and transient. Manifestations is the reflections of the spirits.. When one manifestation comes to an end a similar one replaces it. When we say the manifestation is the shadow of the essences it does not mean they are unreal. What we mean is they are only part of the real, which are the spirits.. They are the partial expression of the spirits. In this sense they participate in reality.

      The relation between the Absolute Spirit and the Absolute World Ibn Arabi describe in various ways. One of the comparison is as we have seen Absolute World as the shradow of the Absolute Spirit. Here the permanent spirits are the projecting surface on which the shadows manifest so without this support shadows are not sensibly existent. Another comparison is Absolute World as the imagination of the Absolute. What we have to remember is here it is not the material world alone that is called imagination but this includes soul world and subtle world as well .Here as we explained earlier Absolute Spirit or spiritual plane is the thoughts or mental concepts of the Absolute Subject and Absolute World is the cosmic imagination. Yet another comparison is Absolute world as Breath of the Merciful (nafas-ar-rahman). Here the permanent essences are deployed in the breath. Here Divine breath is ultracosmic energy called universal nature. We have seen that ultracosmic energy is the form of  reflective mind as Absolute Spirit. During expansion or expiration Absolute world is manifested. According to Ibn Arabi there is renewal of creation at each breath. During expiration world is created and during inspiration the world is annihilated. There is no temporal interval between creation and annihilation but only a logical succession. This means each moment the fourth plane of Absolute world appear from the third spiritual plane of Absolute Spirit and disappear again into Absolute Spirit as permanent essences and ultracosmic energy. Another comparison is women as universal nature (ultracosmic energy) or passive receptacle of the act. As the ontological rank of women is below man here the manifestation of permanent essences (forms) in universal nature (ultracosmic energy) by Divine Will and Divine Command (the Act-al amr) is compared with sexual act.

      We have seen according to Ibn Arabi from the perspective of the Absolute,  Absolute world is the shadow of the Absolute. The spirits depends on the world for the manifestation of existence and being and the world depends on the spirits  for their reality. Actually each depends on the other and one cannot exist without the other. The revealed part of spirits  is world and the concealed part of the world is the spirits. The only thing is the manifestation goes on changing while the spirits are eternal and permanent. This is what whitehead call the eternal objects The Absolute Spirit as spirits are eternal in the sense that Time itself as a concept begins in this eternal second state. But they are not eternal or everlasting in the same sense as the Transcendent Absolute Being because  they also last only one cosmic cycle. At end of one Cosmic cycle the Absolute Spirit as spirits also dissolve and Absolute Being alone remains with The Absolute Subject and Absolute Spirit in seed form. We we have explained that the essence of Absolute Spirit and Absolute World is predicates or mind  and since the predicates or mind is as eternal as Absolute Being even though they are negative and non being ,in this sense we can also say that the form of world is eternal. According to shaykh Abu Said Abul Khayar both the permanent essences and the world disappear in the stage in which the lover himself becomes the beloved.


Chapter 3: Creative evolution and dissolution

       Now the Absolute in the fist ,second and third plane as Absolute Being,Absolute Subject and Absolute Spirit is full of perfection. Perfect in both Being and knowledge. Absolute Being and Absolute Knowledge. Here Being is as we mentioned as Subject. This is perfection in essence and internal perfection.. Manifestation is nothing but the self expression of love for perfection. So the motive power of manifestation is love. Love of perfection. This is the manifestation of all perfect attributes. This is perfection in becoming. The perfection of becoming and relative knowledge.

     Cosmic Soul is the beginning of this evolution or development and the Soul World is evolved out of the Absolute Spirit as Cosmic Spirit. Since the Cosmic Spirit&Cosmic Soul cannot express all the perfection in detail further evolutions or developments are necessary. Here the Gamma spirit and Gamma soul evolves out of  Cosmic spirit &Soul respectively. The primary cause of this evolution is the love of the Absolute Spirit for self expression who is the real being of the Gamma spirit. This evolution also depends on the attributes and qualities of Cosmic spirit. Gamma spirit cannot express all the perfection of the Absolute Spirit  but partly restricted by the preceding Cosmic spirit and its attributes. So Cosmic spirit is the secondary cause out of which this evolution takes place. Every new spirit and  corresponding worldly being is a result of the Absolute Spirit as its spirit which is its real and primary cause and the preceding spirit which is its secondary and contributory cause.

    As we told earlier as Absolute Spirit predicates and attributes  are multiple but only one Subject or Spirit and also one Being or Existence, in other words the internal or subjective aspect is as Subject and the external or objective aspect is as ultracosmic energy.. This Absolute Spirit is not external to the attributes but the internal being of the predicates and their inner reality. All the evolution proceeds according to this law. The primary cause of evolution is the love of Absolute Spirit for perfection. The evolution is contributed or limited by the preceding spirit out of which this evolution takes place.

    We have seen that the real cause of manifestation is the Absolute's love of perfection. There is complete perfection only when all the predicates or attributes are manifested. We have seen that each individual beings of the world like universal subjective soul, cosmic imaginative being, planets like Mars or Venus or elements like Water or Air manifest only one of the predicates or some of the predicates. It is only when we look at the whole Absolute World(Macrocosm) there is manifestation of all the predicates in detail. As for the manifestation of all the predicates in summery as  in one individual being this begins after descent. As we explained the ascending arc begins with minerals. It is only in human beings all the predicates are manifested in summery. There are couples of complementary predicates like beauty and majesty, wrath and mercy. Man is the synthesis of all the predicates. So man is called Microcosm. But normal human beings are only potentially contain this synthesis and only in Absolute Man the complete form is manifested. So the Absolute's love of perfection and self development of the world culminate with the manifestation of Absolute Man.

        As we told earlier the spirits  are eternal and immutable when compared to the world which is temporal and mutable and which depends on these spirits  for their reality and existence.. What comes with time must dissolve with time. This universal dissolution is what is called pralya in Hindu philosophy. Before this universal dissolution individual things are perishing continuously. Whenever one thing is perished they are replaced by similar ones by their Spirits. But we have to remember that unlike human beings other animate and inanimate beings have no individual spirits but only species and subspecies spirit. After universal dissolution also the world again begins to evolve out of their Spirits which are in seed forms in the Absolute Being. This is what is called cyclic evolution and dissolution in Hindu philosophy and eternal recurrence by Nietzsche and Schopenhauer.

      This view of an external transient but stable world is from the view of the ordinary humans or from discursive consciousness. From spiritual perspective or from the view of the self realised man all manifestations, means the world is nothing but active thought and active imagination of the Absolute Spirit which think or imagine through the spirits itself and not external to it. This is what idealists mean when they say world as an idea or imagination. Not only the external manifestation a cosmic imagination of the Absolute Spirit through the spirits the entire manifestations are renewed at every moment. Every moment one world is annihilated and a similar one is manifested. The instant of annihilation or dissolution coincides with the instant of manifestation. There is no temporal interval between manifestations but only a logical succession.

    In modern physics this event is described as the subatomic event. According to quantum field theory in the subatomic realm by the instantaneous and local interaction of different quantum fields sub atomic particles are created. In the subatomic realm at each moment subatomic particles are annihilated and created. According to modern physics this subatomic particles are the ultimate unit of matter. So this world is created and annihilated every moment.

    In Hindu philosophy this is symbolised by the Nataraja or dance of Shiva. In Buddhism in the Sarvastivada of Hinayana this is described as the replacing of mental, astral and material dharma every moment by similar ones. In Islamic philosophy Ashiri's describe this as the incessant renewal of the world. In Sufism Ibn Arabi describes this process analogous to respiration. At each in breath or inhalation a world is annihilated and at out breath or exhalation a similar one is manifested. Creation and dissolution as exhalation and inhalation of Divine Breath through the spirits or essences themselves.


Chapter 4: The living world

      As we explained in the beginning every thing is mind and matter is only the form of this mind. Spiritual world is internal reflective mind, Soul world is conscious reflective mind and subtle and gross material world is unconscious reflective mind.  As we told earlier everything in the world is a manifestation of their spirits. These spirits are nothing but the special relations of the Absolute Spirit with attributes and qualities. So every spirit is fully conscious of its own nature. In this sense every thing in the world is conscious. I do not mean conscious like human beings. Since every spirit is conscious of its own nature its manifestation is also conscious in its own way. So there is nothing in the world what we call dead matter. Everything is conscious in their own natural way. They are conscious because they are the expression of one Absolute Spirit who is conscious. We have also seen that life itself is also a form of consciousness or mind and it is unconscious reflective mind. So everything in the world is conscious or is living beings This is what primitive society means by Animism and what philosophers like Plotinus, Schopenhauer, mean by Panpsychism. What Whitehead call Prehension. What Ibn Arabi and other mystics means when saying everything is a living being.

       Usually we identify beginning of life and rudimentary form of consciousness from plant kingdom. Indian Scientist Mr. Bose has scientifically proved rudimentary feelings in plants. The first external sign of life is growth. As we explained earlier plants are characterized by growing soul. Some minerals like coral reef has shown the signs of growth. Even elements like fire, air, water,   and earth have their own form of consciousness. This is because as we explained in the beginning everything is mind and the external material form is the form of mind so mind itself. Now up to mineral kingdom there is no external manifestation of consciousness. This is because as we explained minerals have only material self consciousness (Ps) and consciousness or thoughts as matter so they appear as unconscious in manifestation. This means there is no apparent sign of consciousness. The plants contains both gross material and subtle material (imaginal) self consciousness and consciousness. The material  manifest as physical body and both physical and physiological activity. The astral or imaginal  manifest as life, crude form of sensations, reflexes and instincts. The last ones are unconscious desire. In animal Kingdom besides material and astral  there also present a little mental self consciousness and consciousness. The astral  produce sensory knowledge and desire while the mental  produce crude discriminating knowledge and weak will. This makes it possible the domestication and taming of animals. The human beings contains spiritual, mental, astral and material self consciousness and consciousness.. Physical body and physical and physiological activities are produced by mind as matter or material self consciousness and living consciousness . Astral self consciousness and astral consciousness  produce sensory knowledge and desire. Mental self consciousness and mental consciousness produce rational knowledge and partial will. Subjective self consciousness produce self knowledge and  spiritual knowledge. So the self consciousness of man is a combination of all these essences or SMAPs and MAPb. Now besides this what distinguishes man from all other beings is he alone is capable of manifesting his spiritual plane as Absolute Spirit which is his innermost reality and also divine realm of Absolute Subject and even occasional manifestation of Absolute Subject.. This is the realm of Absolute or Free will.


Chapter 5: Conscious evolution

        Now in the process of evolution we can see that up to mineral kingdom the spirits are manifesting their full nature from the beginning of existence. In plants and animal kingdom the spirits are manifesting their full nature only during the life span of the organism. In humans there is a further difference. The human spirit is not fully expressed naturally during one’s lifetime. There is the possibility of conscious evolution in man. Those in whom the spirit is fully expressed during their lifetime are called Absolute Man, self realised men, perfect men or mystics. In perfect man besides the full manifestation of  self consciousness and  consciousness (Soul, subtle &gross material world) there is also full revelation of spiritual plane as Absolute Spirit, Divine plane of Absolute Subject and temporary manifestation of Absolute Being. itself according to his capacity.. In perfect man all the potentiality of the spirit becomes actual.

      We have seen that all manifestation is the out come of self expression as love for  perfection of the Absolute. World is a result of love for perfection and self expression. In manifestation also every physical and mental activity of the organism is an activity of the spirit as an act of love for perfection through self expression. Here also consciousness or knowledge is transformed to love or will before transforming to power or activity. Now take the case of plants. The plant spirit, which is material and astral essence is material and astral self consciousness in the soul plane or as pure knowledge or thought but transformed to love in imaginary or astral plane before producing physical and physiological activity in material existence like self preservation and self expression. In plants this love is identical with instincts and reflexes so these instincts are unconscious love. In animals also the astral self consciousness of soul world is transformed to love in imaginary plane of subtle material plane before producing activity in gross material existence. In animals this unconscious love is desire. Now take the case of human beings. If passionate nature predominates in the human Spirit(S3MAP) in the spiritual plane the self  is identified with passionate nature in soul world, this produce sensory knowledge in mental plane, desire in imaginary plane and sense gratifying activity in material existence. As we told earlier this desire is unconscious love. When menatal nature predominate in spirit(S2MAP) this produce discursive self consciousness in soul world  discursive in mental plane, partial will in astral plane and egoistic activity in material existence. This partial will is partly conscious love. When  subjective nature predominate in spirit(S1MAP) there is subjective self consciousness in soul world, rational knowledge in mental existence, this produce rational desire and will in astral existence and transformed to duty bound activity irrespective of self interest in material existence. This subjective will is full conscious love. Now in Absolute Man or perfect man  the perfect or complete nature of the spirit due to the manifestation of spiritual plane give him universal knowledge. This will make him identify his spirit with the Absolute Spirit hence with the whole creation. The perfect man ensouls the whole creation. This produces unconditional spiritual love in astral existence and transform to activities, which augment the whole evolution in material existence.

  We have seen that human spirits are fundamentally three types. predominant subjective or spiritual nature(S1MAP),predominant rational nature(S2MAP)and predominant passionate nature(S3MAP).From this it is apparent that the inclination for conscious evolution and self realisation varies in individuals according to their nature. But as everyone contain all the predicates and can become conscious of the spiritual plane as Absolute Spirit, self realisation is possible for the whole human kind. Self realisation is impossible without Divine Aid. Now this divine aid is the aid of one's own spirit as Absolute Spirit. All the prayer and supplication are ultimately directed to the Absolute Spirit. Without the company of holy men or self realised men ,realisation is almost impossible from this same point. Apart from this divine factor which is absolutely necessary what augments self realisation is seeking and striving oneself for this realisation. All the mystics are of the opinion that mere seeking and striving, however hard and sincere it may be alone never make one  perfect man but at the same time one who never seeks seldom find the Real. Now this conscious evolution depends on three factors. One is knowledge and conviction of this evolution and this as the real purpose of this earthly life.. Second is strong need and yearning for this evolution. Third is constant striving and activities which leads to this evolution. We have seen that self realisation besides human endeavor entirely depend on divine favor. This divine favor is nothing other than the favor of Absolute Spirit as that unique individual spirit. Unlike all other beings all human beings have the potential to realise the spiritual state as Absolute Spirit so divine favour may be received by any one without distinction. But as we already explained striving and seeking usually augment this divine favour. Now this seeking as we explained first of all depends on the knowledge and conviction that this self realisation is the true aim and purpose of one's life. Even prayer and supplication to the divine and keeping company with the mystics is impossible with out this knowledge as one cannot pray or supplcate for this state without a knowledge of possibility of such a state and such people either consider the company of holy men as foolish and waste or seek it only for temporal or psychological matters or heavenly benefit. Now even before this knowledge of such a higher state is possible one must be aware of one's ignorance of it. So first one must know one's present state and then only he can know his potentialities. This knowledge is about one's own nature and self consciousness. Only this knowledge will make one conscious of his various conditioning ,influence of religious, social and national indoctrinations, dominations of passions and egoistic tendencies .Only knowledge and dissatisfaction with this state may reveal the higher state possible for him and convince him that state as the real purpose of life. The second and third factors depends on this first factor. As we explained in the beginning one cannot will or desire what one does not know. So yearning, striving and seeking this state depends on this knowledge. Like this power for activities which actualize this state depends on this yearning and striving so indirectly on this knowledge. In fact these are complementary factors in the sense that activities further increase the desire and yearning and this in turn expand the knowledge. Now possibility of actualisation of the spiritual state is not equal for all. The first factor of possessing the knowledge and conviction of the spiritual state as the meaning and purpose of life is easy for the subjective nature and more difficult for rational nature and most difficult for the passionate nature. As power of activity depends on will and will in turn depends on knowledge the second factor of yearning and striving and seeking and third factor of  constant occupation of activities which augment the actualisation of this spiritual state is also easy for the spiritual nature when compared with rational and passionate nature. This means compared with spiritual nature  not only the others have to exert more and more will and have to struggle much more but even the inclination to do so is much less in these groups as there is also difference in other factors like knowledge and power of action. However since all human beings contain all the natures and there is only predominance of one nature over other only the relative proportions differ. In this sense self realisaton by conscious evolution is possible for all. We have already explained the means and the ways to conscious evolution in the section Absolute Man and will further discuss it in the coming chapter 'The path of the seeker'.

     We have seen that everyone has a particular nature which is his permanent essential nature as spirit. This means one cannot alter one's nature but only can actualise all the potentialities thus express his true spiritual nature. Take the case of a man with predominant passionate nature who has excessive anger. In normal unevolved state he is so dominated by passion as he is not much aware of his rational and spiritual nature. This leads him to blind anger in many occasions in life and effects and consequences arising out of it. What happens when such a man begins his journey and becomes aware of his self nature and gain self consciousness is not that he does not become angry at all but he becomes aware of his anger. In normal state when angry we are not aware of our anger. When he becomes more and more aware of his state and nature he may still get angry but the expressions, effects and consequences of this anger will not be the same as in unevolved state. Secondly self knowledge will enable him to see similar occasions which caused anger earlier in a different perspective thus reducing the frequency of episodes. But as he is a man of passionate nature he will still get angry but only in the right occasions and for the right purpose and his anger also will be more intense than the anger of other natures. We have explained in the beginning that everything is mind or knowledge and passions and emotions are a lower form and reason is an higher form of mind. So what happens is  self knowledge enable the passionate man to regulate his passions with rational and spiritual nature.

     We have seen that everyone is unique due to his unique spiritual nature. This means artistic genius like Picasso or musical genius like Beethoven are specific spirits. All one is capable is to actualise one's spiritual nature but he cannot alter it. In contemporary philosophy circles there is the notion that a man can become anything in life if  he try enough and has the proper environment. This conception was mainly derived from existentialism. Both the Gnostic Heidegger (philosophers describe him as agnostic but when one acquaint with later Heidegger and his assertion that meaning of life is experience of being it becomes apparent that he is not agnostic but Gnostic) and the atheist Sartre assert that unlike all other beings where essence precede existence in human beings existence precede essence. Now Heidegger use existence in an entirely different meaning from Sartre. Heidegger use existence n the sense of Transcendence. This is standing beyond other beings and capacity to understand their being. Man is the only one who question Being and can comprehend Being. Now this existence or ek-sistence is openness to Being and is due to the belonging together of Being and Dasein. This as we explained earlier is the ontological priority of man due to spiritual plane and unlike all other beings his potentiality of actualising this spiritual plane as Absolute Spirit. But Sartre's notion is different. According to him there is no permanent essence or nature in man so one is capable of making one's essence in life. Unlike all other beings which begins existence with a given essence (e.g.: plants, animals) man first exists and then he make his own essence. We have seen that this is a false notion as every one has a permanent essence and all one is capable is to actualise all the potentialities of one's spirit but cannot alter the nature of the spirit.                   .  


                           Chapter 6: The unique human spirit

        Now there are some basic differences, which distinguish the human beings from all other beings. The first and foremost one is only human beings are capable of manifesting the non eternal subtle and soul plane and also the three eternal higher planes of Absolute Being, divine plane as Absolute Subjec and spiritual plane as Absolute Spirit. This is what Heidegger means when he says man is transcendence by his very nature and the belonging together of Being and Dasein in the realm of Ereignis. As we have explained this spiritual manifestation is self realisation and man is born for this realisation and this is the sole aim and purpose of his whole life. As Heidegger says there is meaning in life only when we experience Being in this spiritual plane. What distinguishes humans from all other beings is he can consciously manifest his eternal spiritual plane. While in all other manifestations the Absolute Spirit is not fully conscious of its complete perfection, in human beings there is the possibility of full self expression for the Absolute Spirit. This is what J. Krishnamurthy means when he says in all other beings reality is expressed as perfect object but in man it becomes also subject.

     The second difference is unlike other beings the human beings are a synthesis of all the predicates. This is his potentiality and he can actualise this and can fully manifest all the essences, which are spiritual, mental, astral and material essences. This means human being contain the essences of all other manifestation from Cosmic wave to animal kingdom. This we can compare with the light spectrum. While all other beings can be compared to individual rays like UV rays or blue rays or a combination of some of them like indigo and blue rays human beings can be compared with complete light spectrum. As there is a difference between the frequency and energy of individual rays but the velocity of all the rays are the same there is a difference in the nature of every beings though the same Absolute Spirit is the reality of all essences. White light is a combination of all the light rays so its frequency is that of individual rays in it and its energy is the total energy of the individual rays. Like this there is a difference between human and other beings. But as the velocity is same of all electromagnetic rays the underlying essence and Spirit is the one and the same in human and all other beings.

     The third difference of human beings are while all other beings are represented by group soul human beings are characterised by individual soul. This means every individual is unique due to his unique soul. We have seen that human beings contain all the essences. So the quality of human essences are same in all but the quantity may be different. We have seen that all manifestation is self revelation of the Absolute Spirit. The one in whom the degree of self revelation is more will have more essences than the one in whom the self is less revealed. This means the degree of self revelation differs in every individual. According to this rule we earlier classified three types of human beings. Those in whom self revelation is maximum there is full pure subjective self consciousness. In this group wisdom dominate over will and power. We call this spiritual nature and earlier denoted by S1MAP.This is the philosophic sprit of Hegel. Those in whom self revelation is reduced there is reduction in pure subjective self consciousness. In this group will dominate over wisdom and power. We called this rational nature and earlier denoted by S2MAP.The religious spirit of Hegel. Those in whom self revelation is minimum there is only minimal pure subjective self consciousness. Here power dominates over wisdom and will. We called this passionate nature and denoted by S3MAP.The artistic spirit of Hegel. The one in whom the self revelation is more will be superior to one in whom it is less even though the essence is one and the same in both cases. This is because will always depends on wisdom. We can will only what we know. Like that power always depend on will. Because only will give rise to power and action. So wisdom is always superior to will and power. This superiority or hierarchy is similar to the hierarchy between different plants and plants and animals on the one hand and between different animals and animals and man on the other. This can be explained by our analogy to sunlight. Even though the white light has same individual rays, velocity and frequency everywhere the intensity and energy differs according to the distance from the sun, which is its source. Light, which is nearer to the sun, has more intensity and energy, which means more number of photons than the light, which is far from it. Like wise the one in whom more self revelation will have more essence than the one in whom there is less revelation. In reality there is only one Absolute Spirit behind all these spirits and it is the same Spirit which becomes the multiple beings in manifestation, according to the function and capacity of the spirits. So in reality all humans are equal since their Absolute Spirit is one and the same in all. The same law is applicable to sex, race and nations. In human spirit there is no distinction of sex, race, or nationality. During gradual evolution of human species and progression of history it is possible that the spirit of a higher nature manifested more or exclusively in a particular sex, race or nation. But this cannot be generalised, as the spirit has no distinction of sex, race or nation. The manifestation of higher or lower nature in a particular sex, race or nation mainly depends on historical time, geography and the surrounding society. Ultimately the manifestation of the spirits depends on the possibility of its transformation from potential to actual means its possibility of full self expression. As we told earlier the degree of self revelation is different in each and every spirit. Every individual is different. According to this rule every one is unique. No one can replace another. This is what Ibn Arabi says in Fusus that Divine Names never repeat itself . Each one has different capacity and different function. As we told earlier human species contain all essences, so all humans contain all three natures means spiritual, rational and passionate nature. These classifications are based on the predominance of one nature over the other natures. Now you can understand that each one is unique and represent a particular spirit. This is what Sufi Ibn-Arabi means when he says that each one represent a particular divine name. Each name is equal to all other names in essence but differs in its particular significance.

         The fourth difference of human spirits are while in all other beings the essences are fully expressed during their existence like minerals or during their life time like plants and animals the human spirit is naturally not fully manifested during a man’s lifetime. This means while in all other beings the evolution was unconscious in man there is the possibility of conscious evolution.

          As we told earlier every manifestation is an act of self expression of perfection and the motive power is love of  perfection of the Absolute. Every physical activity is also an act of self expression. Whether the act is conscious or unconscious they are the result of self expression of perfection through that being.. Even the activity of self preservation is an act of self expression. We feel fulfilled only when we can express ourselves completely by returning to our home or source which is the spiritual plane. For complete self expression self realisation is needed. All the frustration in life is due to false self identity or inadequate self expression. We feel root less the whole life without full self expression. After self preservation all the activities of men are for self identity. Running after money, fame, sex, power, association with groups, religions ,organizations, politics are really an attempt of self identity. In reality we experience alienation, despair frustration and meaninglessness because we are suspended from our source or home and all our attempts are to alleviate this dreadful experiences. As we are only suspended and not severed from our source and root,or in other words idea of separation is an illusion we feel fulfilled only when we reunited with the source. For complete self expression we have to know the nature of our spirit. This means only by manifestation of our spiritual plane we will have true self identity and authentic self expression. Only after self knowledge self expression possible. Inadequate self identity leads to inadequate self expression. As we told earlier action depends on knowledge. Here it means knowledge of one’s own nature. This nature is nothing but the reality of one’s own spirit. Partial knowledge produce incomplete action or expression hence despair and discontent. Total knowledge produce full self expression hence serenity and contentment.


Chapter 7: The path of the seeker

     We have seen that complete self expression depends on knowledge of the real nature of our spirit. Self realisation means complete awareness of one’s essential nature. Only by self realisation complete self expression possible. In other words self realisation itself produce spontaneous self expression. As we have already explained what is preliminary to self realisation is the awareness of the possibility of conscious evolution. Even before this awareness one must be aware of one's ignorance of one's present state. Only this knowledge of ignorance of one's own state leads to self inquiry and knowledge of our own nature. With this self consciousness and knowledge of our limited self's nature there comes frustration and dissatisfaction. Only out of this dissatisfaction with one's present state, nature and condition arises the awareness of the possibility of conscious evolution. In normal social life man is so heavily conditioned and indoctrinated by various systems like organised religions, politics and other groups which gives either a sense of false satisfaction or this self enquiry is discouraged in subtle ways. Besides one's indulgence in sensual self and ego centric activities further makes it difficult the knowledge of one's present state. This is what Heidegger describe as the fallen state of man. The only way to get out of this condition is to listen and obey one's conscience. During this whole forgotten life inherent knowledge of his own soul and acquired knowledge he casually absorbed form others or through books or other mediums continuously whisper to him and constantly remind him of the falsity of his present condition. Usually we ignore this whispering of the soul but if one constantly listen to this and obey it's warnings he will eventually comes to the full knowledge of his present state. Even for this hearing of whisper as conscience one need a little meditative mentality and the ability to observe one's thoughts. As we explained only after this knowledge of present state and dissatisfaction with it there comes the knowledge of the possibility of conscious evolution or actualising all the potentialities of one's real nature and attaining the spiritual state of self realisation. We have already explained that besides Divine favour there are three factors that leads to self realisation. These are knowledge, yearning and activities which leads to it. Now this knowledge which comes first out of this listening and obeying one's conscience is also most difficult to acquire for the passionate nature and easiest for the spiritual nature. As yearning and longing only comes out of deep conviction this also is difficult for others when compared with spiritual nature. Activities which actualise self realsation usually comes after this knowledge and yearning and here also for others it is more difficult to begin and maintain this till realisation. Mystics of all ages have developed various activities and methods to augment realisation. The essence of all this activities is as we earlier mentioned is the constant awareness and contemplation of the Absolute as the only reality of oneself and others and all activates like thinking seeing ,speaking ,acting proceeding from this awareness. This is the way to dissolve the limited ego and negative emotions arising out of it and act form the perspective of universal ego. The rationale behind this is, all our activities like thought, speech, mental and physical activities are heavily influenced by our knowledge or awareness of reality. Usually we think and act according to our concept of reality. Normally one thinks according to his concepts of reality and he speaks and acts according to his thoughts. The second factor which prevent us from right activities even after right awareness is hard habits formed by us during all these unaware state of life and also influence due to our specific nature like passionate or rational nature. As we explained not only these activities but even the inclination to do so will be more difficult for others than spiritual nature. All the various methods can be ultimately reduced to either different forms of this essential or methods which augment or make easier this essential. So methods like prayer ,meditation, contemplation, self mortification, self purification, detachment, renunciation leads to this way. Among all these things love and detachment is considered as the most important elements. Real essence and aim of detachment, renunciation and self purification is dissolving the limited ego. We have already explained how love and detachment augment self realisation in an earlier chapter.

      We have seen that the essence of activities which actualise spiritual realisation is constant contemplation of the Absolute as the only reality. But we neither know the form or nature of Absolute nor the nature of our own spirit and it's potentalities and capacities as Absolute Spirit. So we need some method or device so we can be aware of our own spirit and which further leads to complete self realisation. Here comes the necessity of the Master. Master is one who is a perfect man or Absolute Man. He is the one who not only realised his own self but can also lead others to self realisation. Like Osho Rajneesh’s words' he can point you the moon and even this pointing is an immense blessing and help'. The way to the self is full of obstacles and pitfalls and it is almost impossible to travel it without guidance. The master is the one who had traveled the path before and know all the subtleties of the human mind. The benefits of a living master on the way is immense and beyond description. A living master is absolutely necessary for self realisation and the exception to this rule is so rare that they can be neglected. Now apart from the presence of a living master who constantly watch and guide along the way the method consist the following.

          The nature of our own spirit we cannot realise by contemplating on the external world or by sensory experience, imagination or by rational thought. Internal contemplation of the spirit is only possible if we know the full nature of our spirit. But we do not know the full nature of our spirit because a perfect spirit in manifestation is represented only by a self realised man. Our own master is a perfect symbol of fully manifested spirit. So by the contemplation of our master as our Self we can contemplate on the nature of our own spirit. Another more difficult method is to contemplate the form less Absolute. Whenever we contemplate our master as our self, the knowledge we receive will be from our own spirit. It is not from our master. This is analogous to a mirror. Whenever we look at a mirror what we see is our own face. We will not see the mirror. The function of the mirror is to manifest our own form. The master is also a spiritual mirror. In this computer age we can also compare the function of master to the interface in a computer. When we contemplate our master as our self this is a soul  activity in soul world. Here we identify our spirit with our master. By conscious and continuous contemplation of our master as our self we become aware of the nature of our own spirit and gradually attain self realisation. So the method consists of conscious and continuous contemplation of our master.

      As we earlier explained when we continue our contemplation we first slowly become aware of our own present state and nature. This as we mentioned is our conditioned and indoctrinated self. As we already mentioned human spirit is a combination of material, astral, mental and spiritual essences and our foundation is the spirit in spiritual plane and it manifest both the soul ,subtle and gross material world.. As we mentioned these essences are responsible for three natures of all human beings, which are passionate, rational and spiritual nature. When we contemplate the master in and as self consciousness or in soul world first of all we become aware of the material and imaginary part of our soul(APs). The self  identify with passionate nature in soul world and produce sensory knowledge in mental plane, desire and passion in astral plane and sense gratifying activity in material existence. This material and imaginary self consciousness in excess is responsible for sense gratifying activities like excess drinking and smoking, excess food, sex, and sleep, visual and auditory pleasures, inertia and laziness. Passionate nature needs everything in excess because passionate nature never feels fulfilled. This passionate nature is also responsible for narcissism like excess obsession with body and adornment of body with ornaments and costly dresses. This nature also produce excess anger, excess desire for material possessions. This same passionate nature also yields to conditioning and indoctrination and is responsible for fanaticism, fundamentalism, intolerance, blind faith and blind conformity to social values. At this first stage the one in whom passionate nature predominate is more effected than others. At this stage one is almost helpless because imaginal self consciousness can only produce desire in subtle material or imaginary plane. At this stage rational nature is dormant so this desire can be prevented only by fear. Only obvious disadvantage to physical existence or threat to one’s own interest will prevent this desire through fear. This is the way wild animals are trained and this is the rationale behind religious laws and civil and criminal laws of society. As we explained those with passionate nature have to make more effort to sublimate and regulate this nature and even the inclination and will to do so will be less in them compared with spiritual nature. But when we persist in our conscious contemplation and continue our effort we gradually become more aware of our mental part of soul(Ms). The self identify with rational nature in soul world produce rational knowledge in mental plane, partial will in astral plane and egoistic activity in material existence. As the contemplation continues the self more and more identify with rational nature and gradually over shadow passionate nature. At this stage besides sensory knowledge we will have a discriminating type of knowledge. This is knowledge of the essence of things rather than phenomenon. One result of this knowledge is conscience. In rational nature or when mental part predominate in self consciousness desires are more easily regulated by will. At this stage even those in whom naturally passionate nature predominate are better able to regulate their desires and passions by partial will. This reason can moderate excesses and also give rational belief. This is the second stage of contemplation. But this rational nature is a manifestation of mental part of soul.. So this is the state of discursive thought. This will give rise to strong sense of self and non self; hence ego and individuality. So this rational nature gives rise to egoistic activity like activity for power, fame, and money, which are the ways to boost one’s ego. At this stage also those of passionate and rational nature are more affected than those of spiritual nature. But as we continue our contemplation gradually we become aware of our spiritual part(Ss) of soul.. The self identify with spiritual nature in soul world, produce spiritual knowledge in mental plane and spiritual desire and free will in astral plane and duty bound and action out of moral sense irrespective of self interest in material existence. As this contemplation continues the soul or self consciousness more and more identify with spiritual nature and gradually regulate both reason and passion.

    At first this spiritual nature will give rise to what existentialists called angst (anxiety) and despair. Spiritual nature first give rise to meaninglessness and emptiness and produce utter loneliness. We cannot identify the self with anything and self  seems like nothingness. When all objective contents like material things through senses ,imaginary contents and discursive thoughts are removed self consciousness becomes an object to itself. Without any content or beings it experiences as Nothingness. This is what Sartre say consciousness as nothingness. This is what Heidegger calls beings coming out of nothing in anxiety. Later spiritual knowledge will make him aware that separate being is an illusion of manifestation. At this stage egoistic activity is reduced and he will act more and more from an inner sense of right and wrong without considering personal advantage or disadvantage. Here partial will is replaced by  free will, which give rise to selfless activity. At this stage those of passionate and rational nature are able to regulate it by free will. This is the third stage of contemplation. This stage will continue till self - realisation is attained. Contemplation of the master as one’s spirit and identification of this spirit with spiritual nature and selfless activity and regulation with free will continue till self realisation is attained. This is an arduous journey. The activity accumulated during ignorance was made in to strong habits which need strong effort and continuous contemplation. The transformation of blind will or desire to partial will or reason then again to  free will is a long and difficult journey. Only continuous and constant effort as contemplation will produce result.

     Usually this contemplation ultimately leads to self realisation. But this is not the actual cause of self realisation. Self realisation is a spontaneous happening. This total illumination cannot be guaranteed by any methods. There are multiple factors, which determine a man's self-realisation at a particular stage in his life. Besides these unknown and unexplainable factors contemplation usually leads to it. All this contemplation and meditation are at the level of soul world or self consciousness. But our foundation or real nature is as spirits. As we explained the knowledge, experience and plane of this eternal spiritual plane entirely different from the world plane. Self realisation is attainment of this second, spiritual eternal Absolute Subject plane and defy any kind of description.Before this realisation one first has to pass through the subtle and soul planes which is also considered as minor form of illumination. At self realisation one is transported to the spiritual plane and here all contemplation and efforts ends. Here one realise his sprit itself as Absolute Spirit and this is not an intellectual knowledge but existential experience. All the action proceeding from such a man will be from a global perspective and without any effort. As spiritual plane of Absolute Spirit is the first stage of self realisation Divine plane of Absolute Subject is the final and permanent stage of self realisation. As explained this is a state of pure universal subjectivity without any content so this is plane of awareness and bliss without any action in the world. Lastly Absolute man is temporarily also transported to the plane of Absolute Being.

        Heidegger describe spiritual realisation as experience of Being He describe the spiritual plane, the plane of Absolute Spirit as the realm of Ereignis where there is the relationship of belonging together of Dasein and Being. As a preliminary to this path Heidegger suggest to avoid mechanical and calculative thinking. This is a form of manipulative thinking prevalent in modern society where when one deals with other human beings and other beings only think about one's own advantage and maximum exploiting others without least consideration to them. The second thing is moving away from the state of care. Normally man is involved with his world in three forms of care-epistemological, relational and existential. To experience being man must move away from all these three forms of care. The path of experience of being are three ascending path of essential thinking, dwelling in the neighborhood of being and seeing the truth of being. Essential thinking is meditative thinking on Being. According to Heidegger essential thinking is attained in release. Release is living in the world and using all the technology for one's need at the same time not dominated by it. This as we explained earlier is the essence of detachment and renunciation. This is same as the famous Sufi saying 'living in the world but not of the world'. We will discuss this in detail on the chapter on Heidegger.

  In Grdjieff's system the method of self realisation is described using Enneagram. As we earlier mentioned he consider all reality as conscious matter or hydrogen with different potency and density. This is conscious matter. Hydrogen with low values are with higher vibrations, high potency and low density and  and high values are with low vibrations, low potency and high density .like physical matter. Our normal automatic internal and external impressions of thoughts ,feelings, sensations are called H48 potency. This is transformed into high potency H12 by first conscious shock. This is by self observation and self remembrance. This is maintaining self consciousness while taking internal and external impressions and trying not to express negative emotions. Further by second conscious shock H12 is transformed to higher potency H6 and beyond. This second shock is a form of complete self surrender and acting with divine love towards all so as to transform negative emotions into positive ones. We have earlier mentioned that H6 corresponds to Soul world,H3 to third spiritual plane of Absolute Spirit, and H1 second divine plane of Absolute Subject. Gurdjieff summerises the way by the term 'conscious labour and intentional suffering'.

       It is appropriate to conclude this section with a quote from Ibn Arabi. In his Fusus Al Hikam commenting on the famous saying attributed to prophet Muhammed 'man arafa nafsahu faqad arafa rabbahu'-'He who knows himself, knows his Lord' Ibn Arabi writes "From this one may deduce, either that God cannot be known and that one will be unable to reach Him-which is perfectly valid-or that God may be known. It is necessary that you knows, first that you do not know yourself, and then you knows yourself and that, in consequence, you knows your Lord".


Chapter 8: Wisdom, love and power

      We have seen that the principle predicates or attributes of the Absolute as Potential Mind in the secondt plane of Absolute Subject are Being, Knowledge, Love (will) and Power. Now in the eternal aspect this second and third plane of Absolute Subject& Spirit is the plane of mind. Here the unknowable essence of Absolute Being becomes knowable essence as  reflective mind. We have seen that Being is Absolute Spirit as Subjective Spirit and Subjective Soul. What ever the plane may be, whether  mental, subtle or material, subject remain the same as one subject -Absolute Spirit but limited by the manifesting plane. But this subject is nothing but the Absolute Being Himself limiting himself  mind as essence of this subject in the second state. So Being is this subjectivity of the spirits, souls and beings of material plane. If we take Being as this subjective being or self the remaining main predicates are knowledge, will and power. We have seen that Subjectivity of Absolute Spirit is the unknowable Absolute Being himself in a lower state and like that subjectivity of worldly beings are subjectivity of Absolute Spirit or  reflective mind in lower forms. What this means is not only Being which is a form of mind but knowledge, will, power and all the other predicates are also different forms of mind in different states.. So predicates are mental essence itself and mental essence is also a lower form of unknowable essence. This is why some mystics says predicates or attributes are essence itself. So all the predicates are various forms or lower forms of mental essence and mental essence itself is a lower form of The Unknowable Essence.

     We have seen that Mind is the essence of third plane as Absolute Spirit and as Being is knowledge as subject or knower the principle predicates are Knowledge, Will and Power. Now these are mind itself. So these predicates are principal forms of mind. In vedanta we have seen that Sankara equate mind with maya and here these are called the three forms of Maya as Sattwa, Rajo and Tamo gunas respectively. Satwa is the wisdom aspect, Rajo is rational and activity aspect and Tamo is  passion and inertia aspect. We have seen that depending on the predominance one over others there are three basic nature and groups in all beings from soul world to material world. These are spiritual, rational and passionate nature respectively.

     The predicate (Subjective) Being may be equated with second plane of Absolute Subject, Knowledge with third plane as Absolute Spirit, Will or Love as the Divine Will or Divine Love which is the cause of manifestation and Power the plane of manifestation or Absolute World (soul, subtle and gross material world). The third plane as Absolute Spirit is a plane of knowledge. This give rise to love of self expression for perfection. This again transformed to power of manifestation and as a result world is manifested. In manifestation wisdom attribute give rise to soul world, love to subtle material world and power to physical and material world. In manifestation wisdom is identical with knowledge, love with will and power with action. In soul world predominance of wisdom to S1, M1,A1,P1souls,Love toS2,M2,A2,P2 souls and Power S3,M3A3 and P3 souls. In Subtle Material World and Gross material world also there are three groups of Being or beings based on the predominance of Wisdom, Love or Power.

   In humans S3MAP group: Here there is predominance of passionate nature in spiritual plane, so self identify with passionate nature or astral and material part (ASs) in soul world, produce sensory knowledge in mental plane of subtle material world, desire and passion in astral plane ,and sense gratifying action is material existence.S2MAPgroup: Here there is predominant rational nature in spiritual plane, so self or soul identify with rational nature (Ms) in soul world, produce rational knowledge in mental plane, partial will in astral plane, and egoistic action in material existence.S1MAP group: Here there is predominant spiritual nature in spiritual plane, so Self consciousness as spiritual nature (Ss) in soul world, produce spiritual knowledge in mental plane, free will in astral plane and selfless action in material existence. So there are basically three groups of beings, one with maximum pure subjective self revelation or wisdom nature, second medium subjective self revelation or will nature and third with minimal subjective self revelation or power nature. What this ultimately means is everything from Absolute Spirit down to material plane is The Essence or Absolute Being Himself as mind. Predicates are also forms of mind itself. Lower forms and different forms of mind in different planes and mind itself is a lower form of Absolute Being. So in the final analysis there is only One Being or Essence and everything is  the same Essence in different forms.


 Chapter 9: World of  Imagination

       We have mentioned earlier that If we compare the Absolute Spirit with a human subject the third plane of Absolute Spirit corresponds to form less concept or pure thought so this is the realm of Divine Thought. Similarly the fourth plane of Absolute World (soul, subtle and gross material world) corresponds to imagination. So all these worlds are Divine Imagination. Now if we compare the Absolute World with a human subject soul world corresponds to pure thoughts and concepts, subtle material world corresponds to imagination and sensory knowledge and gross material world corresponds to material body. We have seen that the second plane of worldly plane is subtle material world. This world as a whole is also called the world of imagination (Alam Kayal). We have seen that every thing as individual and particular has it's origin in the soul world and then it descends in the subtle material world  and lastly to the gross material world. In this sense the subtle material world  is not only more vast and include our material world but it is as real as this material world or more real. Every material activity taking place in our world is preceded by first it taking shape in the subtle material plane So Sufis call this world the world of patterns or similitude (Alam Mithal). When a man turns his external and internal senses from everything temporal and worldly and continue in his contemplation of spirit as we explained earlier this subtle material world is gradually opened to him. This is nothing but the expansion of his own consciousness. As we explained man's spirit consists of all the planes-soul, imaginal and physical. This we can illustrate with one looking at some event through a hole. When the hole is small the field of vision is small and if he looks through the hole at some one walking he sees the man and only a limited area at that particular moment. But if the hole is large he can see the event in a larger area so that what looked like past (before) and future (after) happening when looked through the small hole looks like happening simultaneously. A similar relation occurs between our material world and subtle material world.

      We have seen that the subtle material world consists of cosmic mental being, cosmic imaginary being and cosmic living being. From this the cosmic mental being is called higher astral world or absolute imaginal world (mutlaq). This is called so because this stage is more fine in nature and more resistant to change than lower stages. As this is more near to the soul world this stage is more a copy of the soul world and dreams and visions arising from this plane is always true. This is also called Devachan (abode of Gods) and Lawh al Mahfus (Guarded Tablet) and Alam Qalb.. What ever happens in the earthly plane is first formed here ,then it descends to the earthly plane so this is called original patterns. So what ever happens in the earth first happens here..

Cosmic imaginary being and cosmic living being  together called lower astral world or limited imagination (muqadas). This is called so because this stage is more coarse than the higher stage and undergo constant changes. This limited imaginal world is also called the world of effacement and establishment (Lawh al Mahvi al Isbath). This means at every moment this imaginal world may undergo change so that there may be new pattern replacing the earlier one. As this plane is near to the earthly plane what ever happens in the earth is reflected here and influence the patterns. So this is also called reflected patterns. So whatever happens here first happens in the earth and then reflected here. So the dreams and visions coming from this plane may not be true as they are colored by earthly elements. This is also called Kama loka (desire world) and Alam Nafs.

       Now we can see that every thing is not only determined already but also determining each moment of earthly existence. This we will explain in detail. As we have already stated the potentialities and capabilities of every spirit or every one is unique and they are permanent and eternal. So one cannot change one's nature and one is only able to actualise fully one's capabilities and potentialities during earthly life. This is what is called conscious evolution. Now the potentialities and capabilities are descending from the spiritual plane or the plane of Absolute Spirit first into the soul plane and from this plane it descends in to the higher astral or absolute imaginary plane From here it descends into the lower astral or limited imaginary plane and then to the earthly plane or the material world.. Now this is only one side of the coin. Simultaneously every action in the earthly plane ascend to the lower astral plane and modify this plane so that it will have an impact on the future earthly actions. Again this will ascend from this lower astral to the higher astral so that it can have an influence on the overall possibilities descending from higher astral plane to lower one. Again this will have an influence on the highest soul world so that  it can have an influence on those descending from the soul world to the lower planes and to the earth.  So there is not complete determinism in the sense that everything is fixed so that one is compelled to act in a determined  way.

    Take the example of man. As we explained his subjective or self consciousness is from the plane of the soul world and discursive thoughts and higher emotions and feelings are from the plane of higher imaginal world and imaginations and passions are from the lower imaginal world. We have seen that every word and action in the material plane is preceded by similar happenings in the higher planes. This means every action is preceded by thoughts and imaginations of the action. Every act first begins from the soul plane. Now the self consciousness of a man about his total potential in the soul plane depends on the potentialities actualised in the soul plane. Now we have seen that the activation of potentialities of the soul  depends on the activities of the earthly plane so that one's self consciousness of himself at any moment is the result of sum of his actions and words in the world till that time. Reciprocally whatever actions or words we make at any moment depends on the self consciousness of our capabilities at that moment and so we only act accordingly. Secondly when this self consciousness descends to the plane of higher imagination we contemplate about the action accordingly. Now this thoughts on the one hand depends on the higher soul plane from where it comes and secondly the intensity and practicality of this thought depends on the degree of  development of that persons higher imaginary plane which not only depends on the soul plane alone but also the result of his activities on the material plane till that moment. When the thoughts are weak or when we decides not to pursue that action then we could not act or may not act. So here the action depends on this higher imaginary plane. Thirdly when this thoughts descends into the lower imaginary plane where this action takes place in complete form before it takes place on gross material plane ,this happening in the lower astral world also depends on the one hand on the higher astral plane and on the other hand it also depends on the degree of development of this lower astral plane. We have seen that every action in the earthly plane produce a reflected pattern after the action and influence the degree of development of the lower astral world. Now take the case of some one who has penetrated into the imaginal world or some one who has constant self consciousness. Now when he acts this is a copy of his act in the imaginal world but as the man is self conscious from moment to moment so that these are conscious acts because every moment he is shaping his thoughts and imagination so that his imaginal world is changing and accordingly his material or physical action. But the case of a man who is not self conscious in his acts or who is a slave to habits and desires and passion and whose acts are unconscious and automatic are different. As there is nothing new in his thoughts and imagination each moment but a repetition so that his imaginal world is firmly established and does not change much from moment to moment.


Chapter 10:   Life & Death

 As we explained human spirit of the eternal third plane is the base or reality of human being. When this is individualised and particularised it is the human soul in the soul world or the soul plane. Now in the soul world the spirit have only self or soul consciousness as combination of SMAPs. At this plane as there is not yet subtle body or material body of subtle and gross material world so there is no consciousness or faculties like mental ,imaginative, sensory or physical etc. As the soul has to pass through in the descend through subtle world it has subtle body. The human soul first develops faculties  or come in conscious contact with the subtle and gross material world and becomes conscious of subtle and soul body only after it joins the human sperm in the male body and forming what is called astral body corresponding to the subtle and soul body. There is no point in saying that soul is inside the sperm or external since soul and subtle body in it's internal aspect is self consciousness&consciousness which ensouls the whole world and external aspect is as photons,sub quarks,quarks,subatoms,etc whose dimension may extend far beyond the sperm. So it is more proper to say sperm is inside the soul .Any way  a definite connection is established so much that due to this contact soul's self consciousness is lost and identify itself as this sperm body. As we know this sperm contain the cosmic living being of subtle material world but externally able to express only  in the form of mineral essence or what philosophers call mineral soul. So at this stage human soul is not self conscious as SMAPs but only as Ps+Pb (material self consciousness and consciousness) and this appear as  material faculty or mineral soul as life is unable to express through it. As mineral soul it has the character of maintaining the form of the sperm. Human soul as mineral soul is the one directing this particular and individual sperm towards ovum and making fertilization. Now from fertilization till birth the fetus is getting food from placenta in the uterus. Due to this food astral component of cosmic living being of subtle material world is fully developed and expressed in the form of living essence or what some calls growing soul or plant soul. So here there is the development of nutritional and vegetative faculties in the soul. So at this stage the human soul is Ps+Pb. This is the development of the corresponding astral living part of subtle body Now from birth till adolescence or adult due to food human soul also develops astral part of cosmic imaginary being and cosmic mental being of subtle material world in the form of animal and jinn essence or what is called animal soul. This is the development of sensations, imaginations and mental faculty like intellect, understanding etc. So at this stage human soul is MAPs+ MAPb.This is the astral component of mental& imagnal part of the subtle body When  man reaches adult hood there is full realisation of self consciousness of human soul. Now we can see that at adult hood a human being contain self consciousness or ( SMAPs)+ Consciousness (MAPB) or (subtle material world+ gross material world). This is the causal or soul body. We have seen that during life it is the soul which keeps the subtle material body and gross material body in a unity with it and preventing it from disintegration. During Normal life the astral part of the subtle material world (imaginal world) like animal soul is only manifested. But during dream sleep and also in one who refined his subtle body by self consciousness the astral part of imaginal world manifest in greater glory. Like this the human soul is manifested normally as self consciousness and only during deep sleep and in self realised state  it is manifested in its full glory. This imaginal world as part of human constitution of subtle body is called "Nusma" by Shah Waliyullah.

   We have explained in detail the human constitution before-the human spirit with its three main bodies-the first causal body or soul body, second subtle body (this has three parts-mental, imaginary, living) and third material body.We have seen that during life the astral body develops from various kind of foods(3 types of food.1food-normal food through mouth,2 food-breathing of air3 food-external impressions through senses and internal impressions). All the faculties of the subtle and soul body is expressed through this astral body. Now when a man dies both the human soul and the subtle body along with the astral body leave its connection with the material body or rather this disconnection is what is called death. Within a few hours or days the astral component of living part of the subtle body also disintegrates leaving the imaginary and mental part intact. We have seen that all the faculties like thinking, imagination and sensation is the property of the astral body so that this is retained. Death is followed by a condition similar to deep sleep and after some time the human soul and subtle body along with astral body(Nusma) woke up from the sleep. As we told earlier during normal life we are conscious of only the lower subtle( imaginal) world  as animal soul during dream and also this is the world of his worldly desires and imagination. So after death also upon waking from deep sleep the Nusma will manifest this world to him. This is mainly the intentions ,desires, hopes and fears of that man during life. So the man will feel pleasures or pain according to the contents of his imagination in the next world. So this world is similar to our dream world so it will be a subjective world so whatever he sees happening in this state will have only a subjective aspect so it does not affect the objective world. This means this world is not shared by others in the dream and it will not affect them objectively. But to the person experiencing this state similar to the state of dream it will be very real and he feels the pleasure and pain accordingly. secondly this state will last longer than dream. In religious term this is called the stage of grave. When further time passes the astral body or Nusma becomes week due to non availability of food after death and also by the exhausting of manifestation of the animal soul all the desires and imagination accumulated as subjective dream (stage of grave). At this time the astral part of lower subtle body (imaginary body) also disintegrates and the human soul and subtle body and the remainaing astral part again go to a condition similar to deep sleep. After waking from this sleep already weakened Nusma or astral body is completely passive (because this is the stage after active stage as subjective dream) hence is able to manifest the Soul and subtle body(mental&imaginal) and corresponding soul& subtle world completely.But those whose corresponding astral part  is not well developed will have only a dim vision of these subtle and soul planes. Here the human soul experience with the subtle body the manifestation of subtle material world according to his merits during the life time. This is described as being in heaven or hell in religious terms. Unlike the stage of grave this is not a subjective experience but this is an objective experience. As we explained earlier subtle material  world is as real or more real than this material world. Again with the passage of time the astral body (Nusma) becomes weak and weak and at last a time comes when it is completely lost. At this state those who can remain independent in their subtle body without the astral body can stay in the subtle world and gradually ascend from imaginal(desire) subtle to mental and from there to soul body and world. correspondingly during these journey first the imaginal and then the mental part of the subtle body is also completely lost so that the human soul is transported  to the soul world. With the loss of subtle body there is loss of all faculties like understanding. memory, discursive thoughts, imagination because all these faculties are carried by the subtle material body. So in soul world the human soul will have only pure self consciousness. This subjective or self consciousness depends on the degree of the development of the soul which depends on the potentialities and capabilities actualised during the earthly life. The fate of those who cannot stay in the subtle body without astral support are unable to stay and ascend and some say they again have to take human birth after the disintegration of astral body.This is the theory of reincarnation.

  What happens to the human soul after it loses the astral body there are various different theories among philosophers. Some say human soul will again take birth in earthly realm as human being or in other nonhuman forms according to merit and this continues till soul is capable of completing evolution in higher subtle words permanently without return and independent of astral body. Others of the opinion that there is no return to the earth and reincarnation but the human soul will gradually attain self realisation in higher worlds. Yet there are others who beleives the independent human soul will manifest again in other solar systems like ours but which are in a higher evolutionary scale than our solar system. When comes to the nature of liberation also there are different views. Some maintain that as individual experience is possible only due to causal or soul body human soul is permanent and there is no dissolution of soul at liberation. There are others like Ramanuja of Vishistadvaitha of Vedanta philosophy who maintains that as human spirits are permanent essences at liberation the human spirits without losing their own nature and reality as spirits in the spiritual plane enjoys the bliss of Brahman. Yet there are others like Sankara of Advaita of Vedanta philosophy who maintains that at liberation the human spirit becomes one with Brahman, hence non distinction and complete identity with Brahman as according to him state of human spirit and spiritual plane itself is a result of Maya (illusion).


Chapter:11 -The Concept of God

        As we finish the first section we can see that the correct concept of God is neither seeing him in simple unity nor in complete duality but the real nature of the Absolute is unity in duality. As Ibn Arabi says mere transcendence is also limiting Him like mere immanence. The correct conception is He is both transcendent and immanent simultaneously. Transcendence and unity include and overlap in itself immanence and duality hence predominance of unity and transcendence. We will discuss  in detail concerning his essential nature, predicates and opposing nature of predicates.

    We have seen that His Essence is Unknowable and His essential nature is beyond us mortals  because our essence as mind is a lower form of this Essence. Absolute Being is Pure Being and mind is only his predicate or a lower form of this Being so the complete nature of this Being is unknowable. As we explained in the beginning all the predicates like being, knowledge, energy or mind and all it's forms are either only potential at this state or the Being is always with all the predicates but transcends them and not limited by them. We have seen that Absolute Being is one Essence which contain in itself mind as negativity. Mind is negative and non being when compared with the Absolute which is Positive and Being. So the Being contain in itself it's opposite and transcend it. As mind is only the lower form of Being in this sense it is Essence itself. This is unity in spite of dual nature. Here in this state all opposition is submerged in the face of Unity of Being. As predicates are mind itself and at this state they are Essence itself. When we comes to the second and third plane of Absolute Subject& Spirit and fourth plane of Absolute World predicates like Being, Knowledge, Will, Power etc in the second and third plane or its form like Spiritual world, Soul world, Imaginal world or Material world in the fourth plane there is duality because the nature and essence of these predicates and worlds are mental essence so different and opposed to the nature of Absolute Being. But here also there is unity in this duality because we have seen that all these predicates or natures like thought, imagination and gross matter as mental essence is nothing, negative and non being to Absolute Being and only the lower form of this Being. So here also there is unity of Being in this duality. . When we consider the second and third plane of Absolute Subject &Spirit in itself we have seen that it's nature is mind. Here also there is apparent dual nature as mind and matter. But as explained at this state mind is positive and being and matter or energy is negative and non being when compared to mind. Matter is not a separate being but only the objective form of mind so mind itself. So we have to see this dual ,opposing nature of mind and matter in Absolute Subject&Spirit itself as subjective and objective aspect but mind is not only opposed to matter but overlaps and includes matter because we have seen that matter is mind itself as it's  form. So here also there is unity in duality in this second and third state of divine &spiritual plane as Absolute Subject&Spirit. When we view the predicates in itself like love and hate here also there is opposition and multiplicity but as their essence is mind itself there is also unity in this multiplicity. Thirdly when we look into the opposing nature of the predicates in itself like one and other, male and female, mercy and wrath, love and hate, majesty and beauty, good and evil, pleasure and pain infinite and finite, truth and false, heaven and hell etc there is duality and opposition among the predicates. But here also unity includes duality because finite is a form of infinite, other is a form of One, mercy and love include and overlaps wrath and hate and when correctly understood they are nothing but a form of Divine Mercy and Love itself for our evolution. Good includes evil and is a form of good itself. Hell is a form of heaven and what is heaven for the mystics are hell to the uninitiated and the heaven of common folk like money, luxury, power and fame are like hell to the saints. So here also there is Unity in this Duality. The complete perfection includes both opposing elements and transcend them. There is no day without night and the perfect experience of happiness and pleasure is impossible without comparing with the experience of wretchedness and pain.


Part II: Philosophy &Branches of Philosophy.     


Chapter: 1:Philosophy

      Philosophy cannot be defined easily. The word is derived from the Greek philo meaning to love and sofia meaning wisdom .So a simple definition is philosophy is love of wisdom. To philosophise is to examine things in thought. Unlike empirical sciences  philosophy is not satisfied with experience. The different empirical sciences have specific objects as their subject matter and look into the causes or laws pertaining to them. Philosophy is not on such groups and particular laws but try to explain the world as a whole or universal fact by first cause.From the object's immediate, individual and accidental character it passes into it's ultimate principle. Philosophy examines the totality of experience in the form an organic system in harmony with the laws of thought.  Philosophy is the rational explanation of the nature of reality and the knowledge of the ultimate source of everything. It enquire in to the fundamental reason and principles of everything. Philosophy seeks answers to questions which the theologians assert on faith and the science cannot answer. According to Kant philosophy is considered as the knowledge of world and life or in short philosophy is a scientific world view. This is a conscious and rational interpretation of the world and life. So the task of every philosophy is the formation of a scientific world view. Philosophy is examination of things -subjects and objects in thought. It differs from empirical sciences in that it looks at the grounds of things –in it’s final principles. According to Hegel Philosophy is the comprehension of the ultimate nature or essence of things. According to Hegel the nature or essence of Absolute is Mind as Absolute Spirit. In the beginning Mind is abstract and is as implicit Absolute Spirit. World and History is the self development of this abstract Absolute Spirit becoming explicit as concrete Absolute Spirit. Philosophy is the comprehension of this self development in pure thought. According to Heidegger it is neither world view nor comprehension of the ultimate nature as Absolute Spirit but Being is the proper and sole aim of philosophy. According to Heidegger this is because philosophy is not concerned with beings but only with the Being of beings. Here Philosophy is the Experience of Being

    Philosophy is broadly divided into Western philosophy and Eastern philosophy. Western philosophy in turn again broadly divided into Analytic philosophy and Continental philosophy. The basic categories of philosophy are Logic, Metaphysics, Epistemology, Aesthetics and Ethics. There are other categories like politics, philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Language, philosophy of religion etc

Hegel and Philosophy.

 According to Hegel philosophy aims at understanding what is unchangeable, eternal and it's aim is truth or what is real. Philosophy is not subjective opinion but objective truth. Truth consists in knowledge and it can be known only thorough thought not by senses or perception. The aim of philosophy is to find this truth in thought and conception. The aim is to know one truth as the base of nature, life and consciousness and everything and to lead these natural laws and finite mind back to one truth and from that source to comprehend them and derive them. This one truth is not solitary empty thought but one determined within itself. The product of thinking about mind is thought, but it is formal, more defined it becomes notion and finally idea. Idea is thought implicitly and explicitly determined. This idea alone is truth. It is in the nature of idea to develop and only through development it comprehend itself or become concrete or what it is. Thus the Idea as concrete in itself, and self-developing, is an organic system and a totality which contains a multitude of stages and of moments in development. Philosophy has now become for itself the apprehension of this development, and as conceiving Thought, is itself this development in Thought. The more progress made in this development, the more perfect is the Philosophy. So philosophy and history of philosophy is a system in development.

     According to Hegel philosophic spirit  is the final and complete form of Absolute spirit. Here the truth is realized in thought and as free mind. Here  the mind abandon the representational form of religion and becomes rational form. This is through philosophic spirit. The content of religion and philosophy is same but the container different In religion it is imagination and representation while in philosophy this is reason. philosophic truth is religious truth in the form of concept. It is realized truth. Here absolute spirit becomes perfect .Philosophy is comprehension in pure thought of the self development of the Absolute Spirit through history. The history of philosophy and individual philosophers are also stages in the development of Absolute idea as Absolute Spirit. According to Hegel the succession of philosophical systems corresponds to succession of logical categories in logic. They represent different categories. e g: Parmenides being, Heraclitus becoming etc. This culminate in Absolute idealism of Hegel as Absolute philosophic spirit

A: Continental Philosophy.

   Continental philosophy is used in opposition to analytic philosophy. Unlike Analytic philosophy which stress more on natural sciences continental philosophy stress on humanities. .This term is used by the English philosophers to describe philosophies like German Idealism, Phenomenology, Existentialism, Structuralism etc. It is broadly rest on the Kantian theory that Knowledge and experience have an a priori element.

       There are some common features in all continental philosophy. First it reject Scientism-the view that natural science is the only correct method to understand life and world. They argue in an a priori element in experience beyond natural science. Secondly continental philosophers believe in  Historicism .Unlike analytic philosophers who think philosophic truths are objective and independent like natural science they say philosophy is influenced by history , context. culture  etc. Thirdly according to continental philosophy as experience is dependent on history, culture etc so conscious human action can also change the experience. So they see unity in theory and practice and their philosophy is concerned with personal ,moral and political transformation. Another trend in continental philosophy is emphasis on meta philosophy. Due to the success of natural sciences  they  redefine the nature and method of philosophy. German idealism and phenomenology  hold the traditional view that philosophy is still the foundational a priori science .Others say that philosophy seek cultural or practical knowledge. Some others  disagree with any traditional view of philosophy.

B: Analytic Philosophy.

        Analytic Philosophy is opposed to continental philosophy and become widespread in 20th century among English philosophers. Analytic philosophy stress on clarity and argument and believe in natural sciences for revealing knowledge and uses the method of formal logic and analysis of language for solving problems. Gottlob Frege who helped develop predicate logic argued that unlike psychologism of Husserl which showed the concept of cardinal number deriving from psychical act of grouping objects and counting them, mathematics and logic have their own validity independent of the judgments and mental states of individual philosophers.

     The main features of Analytical Philosophy are first of all unlike the traditional view of philosophy as the highest science Analytic philosophy like positivism says that there is no specific philosophic truth and the aim of philosophy is only logical clarification of thought. So according to them philosophic knowledge is like natural science or subordinated to it. These  logical clarification of thought is possible only by analysis of the logical form of philosophical propositions. Logical form of a proposition is by formal grammar and symbolism of logical system representing it to show it’s similarity with other proportion of same type. Analytical philosophers reject grand theory of philosophical systems and instead advocate common sense and ordinary language. Logical positivism use formal logic for substantiate an empirical knowledge of world. According to them truth of logic and mathematics are tautologies and science is verifiable empirical facts. Only these two are of meaningful judgments and all else like meta physics, aesthetics, theology are neither true nor false but nonsense. They relayed on verificationism-that is meaningful statements must be either analytic or verifiable by experience.

     As explained earlier they provide logical clarification of thought by an analysis of  the language used. This is by formalism and natural language. Formalism try to understand language and through this the philosophical problem by formal logic. This is by formalizing the way philosophical statement made. They also try to understand philosophy by close examination of natural language used to express it  by emphasizing on using common sense. Some argue that language is the only tool for philosopher. Philosophy consists in  showing how language can be used. When language is used clearly philosophical problems automatically dissolves. This is called Quietism. Russell and Wittgenstein developed what is called ideal language analysis or formalism which is free from the ambiguity of ordinary language and helps in philosophical analysis. Wittgenstein  showed that world is a totality of actual states of affairs and they can be expressed in language of first order predicate logic. A picture of the world can be made by expressing atomic facts in atomic propositions and linking them by logical operators. Another turn is ordinary language analysis developed from later Wittgenstein philosophy. Here unlike earlier ideal language analysis where natural language is considered as ambiguous, ordinary language contain subtle distinctions unnoticed by traditional philosophers. Here philosophical problems are seen as misunderstanding of natural language..

    After decline of logical positivism and ordinary language philosophy Analytic philosophy mainly considered as analytic style in general characterized by precision about narrow topic as opposed to imprecise discussion of  broad topics.


   We have seen that there are different views about philosophy as world view, comprehension of Absolute in thought and as science of Being. Philosophy is knowledge of the nature and essence of things and ultimate essence of everything. We have seen that knowledge is mind and it is not limited to rational knowledge which is soul mind or conscious reflective mind. Besides this knowledge there is existential knowledge as spiritual mind or reflective mind and intuitional knowledge which are glimpses from this spiritual realm. Both of these are not behind rational knowledge but beyond reason. So these different views are not mutually exclusive but grades of knowledge. Science of Being as experience of Being is existential experience from spiritual plane and knowledge in pure thought and world view are from soul plane or rational plane about nature of beings and their ultimate nature.

  The view of Analytic philosophers about higher philosophical quest as nonsense is not correct. It is true that as logic and language are physical forms of thought better the language better the comprehension of realty in thought. But as we explained there are other dimensions of reality beyond rational thought such as existential and intuitional realm of mind. No logic or language can produce those experience as they are beyond them.

    The view of the continental philosophers like knowledge having a priori element and also influenced by history, culture etc is nearer to truth than analytic view. The view that conscious human action can change the experience hence the unity of theory and practice is also more nearer to reality. We have seen that spiritual knowledge, soul knowledge and subtle material knowledge are all a priori knowledge. Even though this knowledge begins with experience these are not derived from experience. We have also seen that Absolute Spirit is a becoming through history. So it is also true that Knowledge is modified by history, culture etc. We have also seen that the lower astral world (finite imaginal world) is constantly undergoing changes when there is conscious human activity in the material plane. This in turn ascend to the higher astral world and then descend to lower astral world and then to material world ,thus further changing the activity.


Chapter: 2: Mysticism:

      Usually mysticism is not included in philosophy as philosophy is considered as scientific and rational knowledge of reality. But as we explained existential knowledge and intuitional knowledge are higher form of knowledge than reason and more authentic as they are the highest forms of mind as  reflective mind and glimpses from this spiritual plane respectively. In this sense mystical philosophy is the highest form of philosophy as this state is the most authentic knowledge of the nature of ultimate reality.

  According to mystical philosophy the real purpose of human life is self realisation. This is  conscious attainment of a spiritual and divine state where we becomes aware of our eternal divine nature. This state is what we call self realisation or enlightenment. Mystics claim that all the great religions of the world are founded by the masters for this single purpose but they were corrupted in course of time by the followers and substituted for lesser purposes like sociological and psychological stability of people. According to this all individual, social ,national and international activities and aims are secondary importance and arise from man and society as a result of forgetting this real purpose of life. Mysticism devices various methods to awaken man form this deep sleep to his real purpose and also to help him attain the spiritual state. There are mystical sects in all religions like Sufism in Islam, Kabala in Judaism, Christian mysticism, Vedanta and Kashmir Shaivism in Hinduism. Zen in Buddhism and even non religious sects like theosophy, new age etc. What distinguishes these  mystical groups from all other sects and organisations is all are unanimous about the final aim and there is no hostility between the different paths and all agree that all the paths leads to the same goal and difference in paths are mainly due to the difference in temperament and other factors.      

   When we analyse the  different doctrines and methods we can see much similarity in all of them. First of all as we mentioned earlier all mystics are unanimous in stating that enlightenment or self realisation is a Divine favour and cannot be exclusively attained by effort. It depends on multiple cosmological and evolutionary factors and depends on the state and stage of one's life. But even though finding is not the result of seeking they are unanimous in stating that one who never seeks seldom finds. Second point stressed by all is the absolute necessity of an enlightened teacher or master. They agree that there are exceptions to this rule but they are so rare so can be neglected. The unknown territory of spiritual path is full of lurking dangers and the guidance of the one who traveled the path before and is familiar with all of them make the travel much easer and help to attain the goal. Thirdly in most of the mystical systems there is a group or community of the disciples and part of the training and advance of  the seeker take place within the community. Fourthly all the mystical systems suggest various means and devices and methods for the attainment of enlightenment. Vedanta advocates jnana (knowledge) and upasana (meditation). According to Sankara jnana is developed through sravana (study of scriptures), manana (reflection on it) and nididhyasana (meditation). Shankara elaborates four means which are necessary for the attainment of jnana through sravana, manana, etc. These are first ,Viveka (discrimination) , second Vairagya (renunciation), third six ethical virtues like Sama (calmness) Dama (Self control) Titiksha (forbearence) Shradda( faith) Samadhana (self setteldness) Uparati (self withdrawal) and the fourt and last is Mumukshuta (yearning for liberation). When we comes to Sufism there are methods like Mujahada (struggle with sensual self), Murakaba (contemplation), Musahada (witnessing) etc. In Christian mysticism also there are stages like purgation, illumination and union. Among all these mystics give most importance to three things. ,One discriminative knowledge of real and unreal which is needed for contemplation, second renunciation or detachment, as we explained real renunciation is renouncing the ego or detaching the ego and the third is divine love or bhakti (worship). As we explained earlier all these means and the final result  can be broadly divided into three groups. They are self purification or self purgation, contemplation or meditation and union. As we explained the essence of all these methods is constant contemplation of the Absolute as the only reality and the reality of oneself and all beings and proceeding all activities like thought, speech ,actions from this consciousness. What prevents this constant self consciousness is identification with our limited ego and negative emotions arising out of it.Sufis call this nafs ammara (commanding self) .We have explained this in detail in previous sections like Absolute Man, Conscious evolution and The path of the seeker.

       A mystic is one who is enlightened or self realised. One who realised the self as nothing but Absolute Subject is known as a mystic. To the Perfect Mystic the first plane of Absolute Being is manifested according to his capacity temporarily now and then during life and  the second eternal divine plane of Absolute Subject is his permanent state and he can revert to the third eternal spiritual plane of Absolute Spirit which is his state as human spirit thus revealed, which is always hidden from common man even though this spiritual plane is the base and reality of every one. Complete self realisation and self expression also means full manifestation of spiritual, mental, astral and material essences.So before self realisation there is realisation of subtle and soul body and corresponding subtle and soul world.This is partial illumination. We told earlier that total illumination is a spontaneous happening. One who identifies his self with spiritual nature regulates his rational and passionate nature with spiritual nature. When one  by conscious and continuous contemplation able to regulate his passionate and rational nature with spiritual nature self realisation or total illumination happens spontaneously. In this sense we can say contemplation leads to it. There is no single direct cause for self realisation.

      After self realisation the first plane as Absolute Being,  the second divine and third spiritual plane of Absolute Subject&Spirit is expressed through the mystics. We have seen that when the first state of Absolute Being reveal Himself the mystic lose his self consciousness so at this state Absolute Being alone remains. This highest plane is not a permanent state during life but manifest temporarily now and then and the mystic have consciousness of these state only when he returns to the second plane of Absolute Subject. We have seen that the second divine state of Absolute Subject is a permanent state.This is beyond the spiritual third plane of Absolute Spirit as human spirit so a state of pure universal subjectivity without any contents like predicates or attributes. As we explained there are those who remain in this plane without any activity or consciousness of world and those who can willingly return to the plane of Absolute Spirit and act in the world.  The manifestation  of the second plane divine plane is responsible for the ineffable experience of the mystics. Expression of this  plane without any consciousness of other is also the cause of utterances like "I am God" I alone Exist" among mystics. This is the nirvana of Buddhism. These experiences are expressed as oneness with God or merging with God. The expression of Absolute spirit in spiritual third plane make him aware that there is only one Subject and every thing is a manifestation of that Subject. The one and same Being assumes different forms in manifestations. It is the realisation that the Subject can manifest its infinite attributes only as multiple beings, but behind all these phenomena the real Being is one. At this stage he will identify himself with the whole creation. This is not an intellectual awareness but existential experience. This experience by mystics described as oceanic feeling or cosmic consciousness. Spinoza described this as seeing the world from the perspective of eternity or "sub specie aeternitatis." The awareness that a single essence and one conscious being behind all manifestation make him identify his self with the whole creation. The mystic ensoul the whole universe. This is the meaning of J. Krishnamurthy's famous sayings like "You are the world" "observer is the observed" and controller is the controlled. Besides indicating the state of conditioned self this is its deep and inner meaning. After self realisation what ever be the predominant nature of one's spirit one is able to regulate it and act from the perspective of the whole creation. When one's spirit is identified with the whole as creative spirit this spiritual knowledge is transformed to self love and compassion before transforming to activity. The motive power of action is not ego as in rational nature or sense of duty as in spiritual nature. The activity results from pure and unconditional love. There is the realisation that separate ego is an illusion and every thing is the expression of one cosmic self. Here there is no need for effort or will for activity. There is effortless and spontaneous action. He will never expect anything return for his action and never react to any unfavorable response. It is an action without any reaction. The mystic acts because he is overflowing with love and this action is his nature. His love and action will be for the whole creation. Behind every activity will be the love of the whole. This does not mean always turning the other cheek. This does not mean suffering all humiliation beyond human dignity oneself or advising others to do so. As a man readily amputate his cancerous or diabetic finger if it threatens his very life by going to spread all over the body the perfect man also take stern action if it is absolutely necessary for the whole evolution. This is the experience of unity in multiplicity.

    This unity in multiplicity is the first stage as second spiritual plane. Here one will experience his uniqueness and at the same experience the unity of all creation in its plurality. This is called the stage of wahidiyath in Sufism,the plane of Absolute Spirit.. After this there is the final experience of Wahdath (Unity) or second plane of Absolute Subject. Here unity dominate plurality and the multiplicity disappear in this unity. This is the state of Absolute Subject with four potentialities-Being, Knowledge, Love (Will) and Power. This is the last station of the Mystics. As we explained the first plane of Absolute Being isist beyond knowledge and when one attain this state he loses self consciousness and self identity. Here it is the Absolute Being revealing Himself  according to the capacity of the container. As the first plane is the state of Absolute Being, Who is independent of mind and world  this state  is beyond action and result, beyond pleasure and pain and even beyond consciousness of identity of oneself with Absolute Being as at this state there remains nothing besides Absolute Being to identify with It. About this state Ibn Arabi says in Fusus Al Hikam.

     "No one (particular being) attaches itself (as such) to God by virtue of His (supreme) Unity. It is because of this that the men of God cannot receive the 'revelation' in the Unity.; for if you contemplates Him through Himself ,it is He who is contemplating Himself ;-He does not then cease to be Himself contemplating Himself by Himself (fusus-Ismail)"

     Now as we explained earlier there are different views concerning the state of liberation after death. We have seen that the human spirit of spiritual plane is always with one or all of the bodies. It is the causal or soul body which makes individuality possible. Individual experience and bliss are not possible without this causal body. According to some as the mystics during life time experience the Absolute while he was in all the three bodies like wise liberation after death also maintain his soul body so he will enjoy the bliss of the Absolute without losing his individuality. A second view is that after liberation one loses all the bodies including causal or soul body and there is no return to this world but maintain the spiritual nature  so remain as the eternal human spirit of the second plane of Absolute Spirit with its unique, individual characteristics and enjoy the bliss of Absolute from this state. Among others Ramanuja of Vishistavaita hold this view. Yet a third view is that after death liberated mystic will remain in the  second divine plane of Absolute Subject so that there exists no more even the spiritual plane of Absolute Spirit and remains only Absolute Subject Himself without any sense of individuality as Sat-Cit-Ananda (Being-Consciousness-Bliss). Among others Sankara of Adwaita hold this view. We have seen that the causal body of the spirit is the soul body or what is called Vijnanamaya kosha (knowledge sheath) in Vedanta. Shankara  but identify causal body with Ananda maya kosha (Bliss Sheath) or spiritual plane of Absolute Spirit in Viveka Chudamni which is the reality of human spirit hence with the loss of this there is complete identity as Absolute Subject. Yet there are others who maintain that after death the complete mystic return to the source itself -the first plane of Absolute Being.


Chapter: 3: Metaphysics

   Metaphysics means study of subjects beyond physics or matter. Aristotle called metaphysics first philosophy. Metaphysics is a main branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature of  reality. It investigate the fundamental nature of beings. It not only looks into the relative nature of beings but also to their ultimate nature or foundation. Metaphysics try to answer problems like meaning of life, nature of objects and whether world has independent existence outside mind etc. Ontology and Cosmology are the two divisions of metaphysics. Ontology looks into the nature and relations of beings. Meta physics is also broadly divided into philosophy of Mind, ontology and epistemology.

   Some of the fundamental issues dealt in metaphysics are the following ones.

 1-Universals and particulars-Realism and Nominalism. Universals are common things like humanity, plants, predicates, attributes and mathematical objects etc .Particular are individual objects having many universal as their predicates or attributes or properties.. Now what is the nature of particular object and it’s properties. According to some universals are abstract objects having some relation with particular objects while others maintain that particular object is only a collection of universals. According to latter universals have real existence and they are more real than the particulars. This is called Realism. Plato and some of the idealists are realists. According to the former Universals have no real existence but only mental conceptions derived from the particular objects. Here particular objects are the only real objects. This is nominalism and Aristotle and empirical philosophers hold this view.

    We have seen that universals like life, knowledge have real existence in the spiritual plane or Absolute Spirit and they are more real and also the innermost reality of particular objects. Accordingly we favor realism.

 2-Cosmology-Cosmology deals with the whole universe of space and time and cosmogony deals with the origin of the universe. It asks question about origin, cause, nature and whether it is necessary and reason for it’s existence .Whether world has a purpose for it’s existence, What is the component of the world etc..

3-Detrminism and Free Will. Determinism views everything happening is determined and free will is an illusion. This is also called fatalism. According to free will man has control over their decision and actions.

4-Identity and Change .According to Identity this is the base of things and change is superficial and illusion. Parmenides is the proponent of identity or Being. According to others change is the basic nature of things and identity is an illusion. Heraclitis is the proponent of change or becoming. Those theory which support some form of identity or permanence in things are called Endurantism and those theory which support change is called perduranticism.

5-Necessity and possibility. A necessary fact it true every where while a possibility may be true somewhere. The theory of necessity is similar to determinism in that it denies chance occurrence and everything and all events as it is due to necessity. Possibility supports chance and denies necessity.

6-Theology.This is the study of Absolute and the nature of this Absolute. Concept of one God is monotheism, many Gods polytheism, not faith in God is atheism, inability and unknowability of existence or non existence of God agnosticism, God involving in the affairs of world is theism, sole function of God only as the first cause of world deism, identity of God and World is Pantheism, and different as in dualism.

 7-Space and Time. In idealism space and time are apriori elements so mental concepts used for organising perception. In realism space and time have real existence outside mind.

8- Nature of reality and Mind  and Matter. This involves nature of ultimate essence, matter and mind and the relation ship between them. The various doctrines can be classified in to monism, dualism and pluralism.

   A. Monism:

Monism is the view that there is only one single substance underlying all manifestations. Every thing is the expression of one single reality.

Monism is broadly divided into idealistic monism, materialistic monism and neutral monism.

i. Ideal Monism:

Idealism in general is the doctrine that mind or spirit is primary and matter is secondary. Ideal monism believes in a spiritual or mental essence behind all manifestations.

Ideal monism is further subdivided into absolute monism and qualified monism.

a. Absolute monism:-According to absolute monism all that exist is either one unknowable essence or mind. What we call matter is either mental projection or some form of  mind itself.

Hegel consider the essence as mind while Ibn Arabi is the proponents of unknowable essence.

b. Qualified Monism:-According to qualified monism also there is only one essence or mind behind all manifestation but manifestation is a different state and different entity. Here the relation is between the essence and its attribute. The proponents of qualified monism are Plato, Ramanuja and Suhudiya Sufis.

ii. Material Monism:

According to materialism the prime reality is matter. This is further subdivided in to dialectical materialism and mechanistic materialism.

a. Mechanistic materialism: -Proponents of this materialism reduce mind into matter and life and thought into motion of atoms. Main exponents are Democritus, Thomas Hobbes, etc.

b. Dialectical materialism:-According to this also matter is the prime reality and mind is a property of matter. Mind is the highest product of matter and qualitatively different from matter. Once evolved mind cannot be reduced to matter. This is the doctrine of Marxism.

iii. Neutral Monism:

There is a third type of monism, which is neither ideal nor material. According to this the ultimate essence is neutral. Neutral monism, identity theory and dual aspect theory represent this type of doctrine.

a. Neutral Monism:-This was expounded by William James and Russell. According to this spirit and matter or rather mind and body is one in its internal nature. It says reality is a single substance, which  is neither mental nor physical, but is capable of mental and physical aspects or attributes. The difference is due to the different arrangement of a neutral substance. This neutral substance is not one entity but different entity like ideas and experiences but of same fundamental kind.

b. Identity theory: -This is a materialistic theory which state being in a certain state of consciousness and being in a corresponding neuro physical state is same. Mentalistic or physicalistic term describe the same event. But unlike behaviorism it says statement of mental events not synonymous or analysible into physical events or state.

c. Dual aspect theory-This states the basic essence is neutral and from one aspect it is mental and from another aspect physical. This is what Spinoza says as Thought and Extension are one and the same looked from different angles.

B. Dualism:

According to dualism there are two eternal substances. One is consciousness and the other is matter. Aristotle, Descartes, Kant, Madhava and Ijadiya Sufis were dualists.

C. Pluralism:

Pluralism is not about the basic essence or type of reality, but the substances and attributes in manifestations. According to pluralism there are multiple substances. Democritus believed in a variety of atoms. Leibniz believed in the plurality of monads. Madhava believed every Jivatman or human spirits are different.


    According to our view Absolute Monism of unknowable essence is the correct view. We have seen that the ultimate nature of Absolute is Unknowable Essence and mind is non being and negative to this Being. Mind is a lower form of The Being as Absolute Subject&Spirit and matter is only the form of this mind so mind itself. Mind always has the form of matter either as energy or as matter. So there is no mind without matter and no matter without mind. Now the view of qualified monism of attributes as something different from essence.The predicates are in reality Absolute Being himself and the  reality is the Subject abstract or negate from everything so that he is the subject and the other his predicates. Mind or predicates are a lower form of Subject Himself.  The view of pluralism is from the plane of Absolute Spirit. This is the plane of multiple essences or spirits. The Real is not neutral as neutral monism says .It is beyond both mind and matter. Mind is nothing and non being when compared with the Being. Mind or matter has no reality of their own -They depend on Absolute Being for their reality. At the second logos or Absolute Subject, Wahdat (Unity) there is internal distinction of self and non self or subject and object. This is the stage of dualism. At third logos-Absolute as Creative spirit exists as multiple essences or spirits so this is the stage of pluralism. We have told earlier that predicates or attributes are not entirely different from the Being but Being itself that in this state manifest as essence and attributes or subject and predicates. Similarly the third spiritual state of Absolute spirit as multiple spirits and the fourth plane of Absolute World with multiple beings are also the same Absolute Being descending in his knowledge. Against materialism we told earlier that all material manifestation is the active imagination of the Absolute Being. In this sense also matter is a form of mind.

   About universals and particulars. What is known as universals are the principal predicates or principal names or principal spirits in the plane of Absolute spirit. We have seen that the synthesis of some of the predicates or all of them are the spirits and these spirits are the inner reality of beings of the world. In this sense universal are more real than these particulars.

 About Cosmology-we have seen that Absolute world begins with Cosmic wave. Both space and Time or space-time is this cosmic wave. Space as abstract object and time as abstract subject. Now all these stages such as first logos, second logos and third logos and manifestations are only a logical succession. In reality the ultimate is single essence and multiple essence at the same time. It is neutral, mental or material at the same time. Reality is nothing and every thing at the same time. Ultimately all differences are due to different point of view.


Chapter 4. Ontology:

 Ontology is a basic branch of Metaphysics. What we mean by ontology is the real and final nature and also basic categories of being and their relations. Ontology deals with questions such as what is being, what is the meaning of being, what are the categories of being. what is the relation between beings and how they are classified depending on similarities and distinctions. Categories are what ness (essence), howness (quality), howmuchness (quantity), relation to other being, and these categories help in comprehending being.  .Some says all noun refers to beings while others contend that some nouns only refer to collection of objects or events .According to this mind is a collection of mental events and society a collection of persons.

   Being is used in two senses. In one sense it is used for the entity or substance and here Being means Subject. In the second sense being is used as an attribute of the substance. Here being is Isness or existence of the entity. This is predicate of the Subject.. Basic constituents of being are essence and existence. Essence refers to whatness and Existence refers to way of being. There are necessary being and contingent beings. Necessary being is not just another being like contingent being which includes all other beings. Necessary being is the Being of beings and beings are the beings of Being. According to Heidegger ontology is the science of Necessary Being. According to Hegel being is implicit mind itself. Being is the immediate state of mind where knowledge is limited to Isness. According to Hegel major categories of Being are quality, quantity and measure.

Ontological argument. This is used to prove the reality of God. According to this we have the concept of a greatest Being and existence necessarily belong to this concept. There fore God has real existence. Some further augment this argument by saying as all are contingent existence it must have a cause and agent who is necessarily existent and this proves the real existence of God. Avicenna, Anslem of Canterbury, Suhravardi and Rene Descartes are proponents of various form of this argument..


We have seen that in the first plane as Absolute Being the essence is unknowable. Ibn Arabi, Mulla Sadra and Heidegger call this Absolute Beingt, as Being. Here Being is this One and only  Subject. If we take being as the predicate of the Subject this Isness or existence of Subject is essential to the concept of Subject. This is why both Ibn Arabi and Spinoza says the idea of essence involves existence. When we comes to the second and third divine and spiritual plane as Absolute Subject& Spirit this is the plane of mind. Here Subject is mind so in this second and third plane being as subect is  reflective mind. So in this state and all the succeeding planes being is as mind. We have also seen that all the planes are the descends of this same Absolute in knowledge .So the various forms of beings are spiritual being, soul being, mental being, imaginal being and material being. Here being is used either as subject or as a principle predicate of subject as existence. In both cases the essence is mind. Here also there is unity because being either as subject or as the predicate is one.


Chapter 5: Epistemology

   Epistemology is theory of knowledge. It is a branch of Metaphysics. Epistemology mainly deals with the origin, nature and validity of knowledge. It deals with fundamental questions like whatness, how it acquired,etc. It is concerned with the interaction of mind and matter in the process of knowledge. Epistemology is concerned first with nature of knowledge This is theoretical reason or 'Knowing that' rather than practical reason or knowing how.

    One form of knowledge is belief. But belief is subjective knowledge which may or may not be truth which is objective knowledge independent of subject's belief. Truth also has different definitions. One common criteria of truth is when subjective knowledge corresponds with the nature of object. But according to Hegel truth is when an object corresponds with the notion or idea of the object. Here truth is ideal or notion. According to Heidegger knowledge is not a relation between subject and object. According to him knowing is a kind of being which belongs to man's ontological structure of being in the world so it is prior to subject object distinction. According to Heidegger essence of truth is also not correspondence of reason with the object of knowledge. Truth is here uncovering of Being in beings. This is beings showing themselves as unconcealment (aletheia).

    One widely accepted definition of knowledge  is justified true belief. But according to Gettier all justified true belief cannot be counted as knowledge.To over come this defect some advocated infallibility-justification must be infallible. Another factor is indefeasibility-there cannot be defeating truth of the justification. Another factor is Reliabilism-here justification must be by a reliable belief forming process. One of the problem considered in knowledge as justified true belief is one justification for belief depends on other belief and this will lead to infinite regress. This impossibility of completing an infinite regress gives raise to skepticism. Skeptic says as no one can complete the chain to infinity there is no justifiable belief, so there is no true knowledge. Solution to this regress include infinitsm, foundationalism, coherentism etc. Infinitism says it is not impossible for an infinite justificatory series to exist. Foundationalism says some beliefs that support other belief does not need another belief to support them as they are foundational and self evident truth. Coherentism states that the infinite regress is not linear but circular. Here one belief is justified as it fits with other belief system of which it is a part

   Another theory of nature of knowledge and how it acquired is externalism and internalism. According to externalism for true knowledge condition external to the subject is necessary. This is mainly empiricists and positivists. Empiricists say all knowledge are derived from experience or they are a posteriori knowledge as they depends on senses. Constructivism is a form of empiricism according to which all knowledge is constructed as it is contingent on convention, perception and social experience. According to internalism as all knowledge external to the subject is gained through the senses they may be fallible as senses may be defective. So only reason can affirm true knowledge. This is rationalism. Rationalists say the primary source of knowledge or necessary and general character of knowledge is independent of experience and is derived from reason or it is a priori knowledge  According to Kant knowledge is limited to experience but besides experience derived from a priori innate ideas like space, time, causation and concepts and categories. One of the problem with knowledge is whether our knowledge of objects corresponds with the external objects. Idealists of the opinion that there is no objects external to the mind. Realists argue that there are objects independent of our mind and our knowledge corresponds with the nature of objects. Kant agrees about the independence of objects but argues that apart from our knowledge of them the 'thing in themselves' are unknowable.


    We have seen that the most real is the spiritual plane as Absolute Spirit as this is the reality of all beings as their spirits and all the succeeding planes are faint copies of this plane and material plane is the least real when compared with this spiritual plane of concepts. So truth as the correspondence of reason with the object is wrong and here the idea of Hegel about truth as the correspondence of object with the concept more nearer to truth. What we have to remember is there are two planes of concepts ,one is the concepts of spiritual plane and other is the concepts of soul plane and mental plane. Here the concepts of spiritual plane is meant. Heidegger's idea of truth as unconcealment of being also indicates this spiritual plane as spirits are the essence and base of beings.

    In the theory of knowledge internalism and rationalism and apriori knowledge are nearer to truth. We have told earlier that the cause of knowledge or knowledge is stimulated by experience as empiricists say but the source is the essences as the human spirit. Discursive thought is concept about these essences. As we explained material plane is the least reliable source as they are faintest copies of the spiritual plane. So depending solely on gross senses without the aid of reason only gives illusionary knowledge. The scope of our knowledge is limited to experience according to Kant and empiricists. As we told earlier we can have knowledge of not only material and astral essences but also mental and spiritual essences. There are so many supra sensual knowledge like moral sense, aesthetic sense, subtle emotions, philosophical and mathematical or logical knowledge, concepts, causation, categories which cannot be reduced to experience. There are rational and spiritual elements in this type of knowledge. Above all  one can have spiritual knowledge about one’s own essence. At self realisation there is perfect and complete knowledge of one’s spirit.

     Kant is right in saying that we can have only knowledge of objects as phenomena or noumenon means by appearances or by rational concept. The Dingansich (the thing in themselves) are unknowable. Even after self realisation only our own essence is perfectly revealed to us. Other beings as things in themselves always remain unknowable. As our own essence is a synthesis of all essences we can have relative knowledge about other essences only as much as our self reveal them. This ultimately depends on the grade of our spirit in the hierarchy of beings. As we explained earlier in the spiritual plane the human spirits are only potentiality as they have no external or individual existence. Human Soul is only the individual and external existence of these spirit in the soul plane or this is causal body of the spirit.. Now Knowledge or experience starts only when this individual human soul is connected with a specific sperm. When connected then this soul is the controller or director of this sperm and is called the mineral soul. Like this in the womb this appear as the growing soul or plant soul. Up to adolescence Animal soul .At adult there is full development of human soul. Now all these developments are due to the subtle body of the spirit. All the faculties of knowledge are attached to these subtle cover (subtle material body). Now we receive knowledge with the faculties of the subtle body when they are in contact with the corresponding subtle pane. Like this only the perfected human soul can have contact with the soul plane and derive knowledge. So the development of these faculties and transmission of experience through these faculties to the soul depends on the connection with the body and the experiences gained from it.

    It is true that we cannot have knowledge of objects independent of our mind. But our knowledge corresponds with the nature of the objects this is because human spirit is a synthesis of all the essences so his knowledge of himself reveal also the nature of objects. This is what Heidegger says man as being in the world. Every spirit is unique so complete knowledge of other is impossible but as man is a synthesis of all natures our knowledge of other beings and other men is not illusion but corresponds to their real nature.


Chapter 6: Logic

      Logic is a branch of Philosophy. Logic is the science of correct thinking. In philosophy it is connected with epistemology. Logic is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. Logic is mainly concerned with the correctness of argument. and is used in dialectics Logic may be divided into two forms .deductive logic and inductive logic. Another is analytic logic and synthetic logic. Analysis is from the whole object examining the parts and synthesis is form the parts arriving at the whole object. It is said that validity of an argument is determined by logical form, not by content. So logical form is important in logic. Logical form analyse and represent the form of any valid argument. Form of an argument is made by substituting it's sentences into formal grammar and symbolism of logical language to make it's content usable in formal inference. We have seen that logic is divided into two forms,deduction and induction. Deduction is making conclusions from definitions and axioms and induction is general conclusions form specific examples. An inference is deductively valid only if there is no such situation  that all it's premises are true but conclusion false. An inductive argument can be neither valid nor invalid but it's premises give only some degree of probability and not certainty to it's conclusion.

Broadly there are two types of logic.  Formal logic and informal logic

  Informal logic: is the study of natural language arguments and includes study of fallacies. Argumentation theory is the study and research of informal logic, fallacies, and critical questions as they relate to every day and practical situations. Specific types of dialogue can be analyzed and questioned to reveal premises, conclusions, and fallacies.

  Formal logic: is the study of inference with purely formal content making the content explicit. Formal Logic must have the properties of consistency, validity, soundness and completeness. Sub types of formal logic are syllogistic logic and symbolic logic. Types of symbolic logic are mathematical logic, propositional logic and predicate logic.

 Syllogistic logic:- This deals with categorical propositions .The parts of syllogistic were the analysis of the judgments into propositions consisting of two terms that are related by one of a fixed number of relations, and the expression of inferences by means of syllogisms consisted of two propositions sharing a common term as premise, and a conclusion which was a proposition involving the two unrelated terms from the premises.

Symbolic logic-This is the study of symbolic abstractions that capture the formal features of logical inference

Propositional logic-Here formula representing propositions can be formed by combining atomic propositions using logical connectives, and a system of formal proof rules allows certain formula to be established as theorems.

Predicate Logic.-Predicate logic is generic term for symbolic formal systems such as first order logic, second order logic, many sorted logic and infinitary logic. It allows sentences to be analysed into subject and arguments in several different ways. predicate logic can give an account of quantifiers enough to express all arguments occurring in natural language. It can also solve the problem of multiple generality.

Modal logic-In language modality deals with the phenomenon that subparts of a sentence may have their semantics modified by special verbs or modal particle. Aristotle started the logical study of modality with the alethic modalities of necessity and possibility which is dual..

Mathematical logic-This is extension of symbolic logic into other areas and study of model theory, proof theory, set theory and recursion theory. This includes both the application of formal logic to mathematics and also reversely mathematics to formal logic. The main application of logic to mathematics is logicism This maintained that mathematical theories are logical tautologies showing by means of reduction of mathematic to logic. The application of mathematics to logic is proof theory and model theory. Other two theories are  set theory and  recursion theory which deals with the idea of computation in logical and arithmetic terms.

Philosophical Logic-. This deals with formal descriptions of natural language. They believe normal reasoning can be understand by logic if there is a right method of translating ordinary language into that logic.

Hegel and Logic.

According to Hegel Mind or Thought is the whole reality. Logic is the science of Thought. Thought in it's nature is dialectical and passes to contradiction is the main lesson of logic. As Thought itself is the Absolute logic is the study of pure Absolute Idea in and itself. Pure because it is studied in the medium of thought. As Absolute is Truth ,Truth is the object of logic. Science of logic study thought in it's actions and productions of other thoughts so the theme of logic is the supersensible world. Logic coincide with metaphysics as it express the essential reality of things. As logic is the study of pure thought forms philosophy of nature and philosophy of mind are applied logic and logic is the soul of them. As thought is dialectical logical form has three stages. First the thesis-abstract side of understanding, second anti thesis-dialectical, that of negative reason and third synthesis, speculative or positive reason. First thought posit something as true and this is thesis. Then it is contradicted by another thought and this is antithesis. Lastly a richer form which contain the truth of both and devoid of their negative element is reached. This is synthesis or speculative truth.

 Thought is both subjective and objective so absolute reality. Both intellectual and natural things are derived from thought., the development of logical categories are through the above dialectics. This consists of this thesis-antithesis and synthesis. the resulting synthesis becomes a new thesis.As logic is the science of Absolute in thought the categories of logic are reality itself. The major categories of logic are Being,Essence,Notion.

1-Being .Here the Absolute Idea is implicit and in germ. Major sub categories of Being are i-Quality ii-Quantity iii-Measure. Sub categories of Quality are  a-Abstract Being b-Determinate Being c-Being for self. Sub categories of Quantity are a- Abstract Quantity b-Quantum c-Degree  

.2-Essence .This is thought in it's reflection and mediation, the being for self and the show of notion. Major sub categories of Essence are i-Ground of Existence, ii-Appearance, c-Actuality. Sub categories of Ground of Existence are a-categories of reflection b-Existence c-Thing .Sub categories of Appearance are a-world of appearance b-content and form c-relation. Sub category of Actuality are a-substance b-cause c-reciprocity

3-The Notion .This is Idea's return into self. and it's developed abiding by itself-the notion in and for itself. Major categories of Notion are i-Subjective Notion, ii-Object, iii-Idea. Subcategories of  Subjective Notion are a-notion as notion b-judgment c-syllogism. Sub categories of The Object are a-mechanism b-chemism c-teleology. Sub categories of The Idea are of a-life b-cognition general (theoretic and volition) c-Absolute Idea.


Chapter.7: Philosophy of Mind.

      Philosophy of mind is a branch of metaphysics. What we mean by philosophy of mind is the science of final and real nature of consciousness. Philosophy of mind studies nature of mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness and relation between mind and body. Some of the problems studied in philosophy of mind are mind -body relation, mental causation, self and free will.

 A-Mind-body relation

 About the relation between mind and body there are Monistic and Dualistic theories.

 I. Monism

According to monism there is only one substance so mind and body are not ontologically distinct. There are three types of monism. They are idealism, physicalism or materialism and neutral monism.

a: Idealistic Monism.

 This theory held by idealists like Hegel, Ibn Arabi and Sankara. According to this view there is only Mind and Body is a form of this Mind.

b: Materialistic Monism.

This is also called Physicalism. According to this only physical entities exist and mind will be explained in physical terms as science evolves. Here mind is not something separate from the body. There are two types of physicalism-reductive and non reductive physicalism.

  i-Reductive Physicalism:

According to this all mental states can be ultimately explained by scientific explanation of physiological states. These are behaviorism, identity theory and functionalism.

  1) Behaviorism:-According to logical behaviorism all psychical function can be defined in terms of behavior. Every thing can be reduced to stimulus, response &reflexes. According to them unverifiable statements of inner mental life is senseless. Mental states are just descriptions of behavior

  2-Identity Theory.-According to them mental states are material and identical to internal states of brain.

  3-Functionalism.-Here mental states are analyzed in terms of non mental functional properties. Mental states are characterized by other mental states and sensory inputs and behavior outputs-non mental functional properties.

 ii-Non Reductive Physicalism:

According to this even though mind is brain based mental state cannot be reduced to behavior, brain states or functional states. These are Anomalous Monism, Emergentism and Eliminative materialism

    1-Anomalous Monism-According to this mental states supervene on physical states but cannot be reduced to them. This is a form of functional dependence and there will be no mental changes without changes in the physical.

    2.Emergentism-According to this one reality is arranged in layers of increasing complexity and each corresponds to it's special science. Some maintains that the emergent properties causally interact with more fundamental levels while majority maintain that the higher order properties supervene over lower levels without direct causal interaction.

    3.Eliminative materialism.-This is an extreme form of materialistic monism. They say mental states are fiction introduced by folk psychology.

c: Neutral Monism:

According to this there is a neutral substance and body and mind are properties of this substance. These are neutral monism, identity theory and double aspect theory. We had discussed their view elsewhere. According to Spinoza also mind and body are two aspects of one substance. Thinking mode and extended mode are two attributes of one substance.

II: Dualism

According to dualism mind and body are two separate substances and realities. Aristotle, Descartes, and samkya philosophy advocate dualism. In samkya philosophy there are two entities Purusha (spirit) and Prakrit (matter). According to Descartes the  two are thinking substance and extended substance. Dualists says our normal experience of mind is distinct from body experience. Another point is mental and physical have different and irreconcilable properties. Mental events have a subjective quality while physical events have objective quality. This subjective aspect of mental events is called qualia. emotions like pleasure ,love cannot be reduced to physical. There are two types of dualism, substance or idealistic dualism and materialistic dualism

a: Idealistic or substance Dualism:

Here mind is a separate independent substance or reality. How the mind and body interact and influence each other is explained by different theories. These are Interactionalism, parallelism and occasionalism.

     i) Interactionalism:-Descartes is the proponent of Interactionalism. According to Descartes mind and body are two separate and independent things some how mysteriously connected through the pineal gland. The theory of interactionalism, which is derived from this, states physical events cause mental events and vice versa.

    ii) Psychophysical parallelism:-Leibniz also believed in the independence of mind and body. According to him there is no interaction but both are acting and working by pre established harmony. Theory of psychophysical parallelism, which is, derived from this, states that physical and psychic events occur separate and parallel to each other. There is causal relation between psychic and psychic and between physical and physical only.

   iii) Occasionalism-According to this theory the sole agent of causal relation between mind and body is God. Our will is only occasional and there is direct intervention of God and there is divine act in every causality.

b: Materialistic Dualism (emergent materialism):

Here mind is not a distinct substance but a group of distinct, independent  properties that emerge from body but cannot be reduced to body. These are Epiphenomenon and property dualism.

   i) Epiphenomenon:-According to this theory mental states are not the cause of physical changes but they are the effect. Here physical events can cause both physical events and mental events but mental events are inert and only the by product of physical events so they cannot cause anything.

   ii) Property Dualism:-This is a form of emergent materialism. According to this Mind is not a separate substance. When matter is organised in special way mental faculties emerge from the brain. These are independent properties and cannott be reduced to the brain.

   There are philosophers like Wittgenstein who consider the mind-body problem as illusory. According to them human experience can be described in different ways-mental and biological vocabulary. The problem arises only if one tries to describe one in terms of other vocabulary or if mental vocabulary used in wrong contexts.

Externalism and Internalism.

According to internalism mind is internal to the body and mind depends only on factors happening inside the body. Here neural activity is sufficient to produce the mind. According to externalism mind is external to the body so it also depends on factors outside the body so world is in some way constructive of mind.

B-Mental Causation.

This is the problems of whether Mind is responsible for initiating changes in the physical body or influence the physical in any way. There are both idealistic and materialistic theories.

According to idealism Mind can influence and initiate changes in physical body

Materialistic Theories:

a:: Epiphenomenon:-According to Epiphenomenon mental events are caused by physical events and they have no power to cause physical or other mental event.

b: Mental Realism: According to this mental causation is possible and there must be laws connecting mental to physical.

c: Anomalous Monism:-According to this mental events cause physical events due to property causation. Mental events are causes and effects of physic events This means mental event has a physical property such that an appropriate law connects this property with the property of the physical event. Here it is not clear how these mental properties can be causally efficacious properties. Two theories which deals with this problem is

1-The counterfactual account-According to this theory mental events due to mental property can cause physical events because sometimes appropriate psychophysical counterfactuals are true..

2-Supervenience account:-According to this mental properties supervenient on physical properties .So a mental which is supervenient on one physical base can be a supervenient cause for another physical event.


According to idealists self is an eternal and immutable substance having independent existence. But from the physicalist point of view there is no such self.

D-Determinism and Free Will

According to materialistic determinists as mental state and will are material, human behaviour is completely determined by natural laws.. Some extend this further and says man cannot decide what he want or what he do so he is not free. According to compatibilists like David Hume freedom is not indetermination. A free act is that where one can act otherwise if he chooses so, and in this sense one is free even if determination is true. According to incompatibilists like Kant the course of the world and especially will is not completely determined by natural laws so will is potentially free.

 In continental philosophy discussion of mind is less focused on language and logical analysis but on reason and other forms of experience. Phenomenology of Husserl focus on the content of mind and how phenomenological process influence our experiences. Existentialism focus with the content of experiences and how mind deals with these experiences.

Hegel and Philosophy of Mind

According to Hegel Mind is the Absolute and Real. In it's logical form it's complete developed form is called Absolute Idea and as manifestation it's complete development take the form of Absolute Spirit as Philosophic Spirit. So according to Hegel Mind is also the truth of nature. In nature Mind is in the form of Being. Mind's formal essence is freedom-extracting itself from everything else. It’s material essence is manifesting as mind-as conscious rationality-intellectual  universe as it’s kingdom and  building a structure of objective rationality. In mind the subject and object of the idea are one. Essential feature of mind is freedom when considered in it’s abstract self contained negativity. In order to know itself explicitly as free it must pass through certain stages of development.Mind undergo development through history to become explicit what it is implicitly. Development through 3 stages.

1-Subjective Mind. In the form of self relation. subdivisions are a-soul-.This is mind in it’s immediacy as spirit in nature. (with further division of i-physical soul ii-feeling soul ii-actual soul). b-consciousness-mediated mind. This as identical reflection into itself and to other things. Mind in correlation. (subdivisions are i- consciousness proper ii-self consciousness iii- reason) c-Free Mind-mind defining itself in itself as an independent object. (sub divisions are  i-theoretical mind ii-practical mind iii-free mind.)-

2-Objective Mind. In the form of reality. World produced and to be produced by the mind. Here freedom is as necessity. sub divisions are a-Law ( subdivision  i-property ii contract iii-right vs wrong) b-morality of conscience (subdivision of i-purpose ii-intention and welfare iii-goodness and wickedness). c-social ethics (subdivision i-family ii civil society iii state).. Subjective and objective mind are finite mind. finite here means disproportion between concept and reality.

3-Absolute Mind-This is unity of subjective and objective mind. As ideality and concept. Mind in it’s absolute truth.-sub divisions are a-art b-revealed religions c-philosophy


The term mind or consciousness we use in two different meaning. One is contrasting with matter and the other is contrasting with human body. In the second sense it is identical with human mind. We have seen that all knowable reality is mind, whether as internal  reflective mind or conscious or unconscious reflective mind. We  have also seen that matter or energy is not a second reality but only the objective form of mind so mind itself. When compared with the subjective aspect which is positive and being this objective aspect of matter is non being and nothing. So the idealistic view of mind as the only reality and matter as illusion is nearer to reality. When we comes to the Human being we have seen that he simultaneously exist in all the four planes-spiritual plane or  reflective mind, soul plane or conscious reflective mind, unconscious reflective mind or subtle material plane and gross material plane even though he may be focusing only in one of his planes. So in what ever plane he is focusing we have seen that for that plane there is an internal subjective or consciousness aspect (mind) and correspondingly an external objective material aspect (body) which is the form of the same  mind. The material aspect maybe either electro magnetic energy, sub quarks, quarks, sub atom, atom, molecules and compounds depending on the plane. So there is no mind without body and no body without mind. As objective material aspect is form of mind or mind itself in this sense human mind means human spirit with it's three bodies, causal (soul) body subtle body and gross material body.. but usually when we say body we mean the physical body alone. We have seen that human being is not a single thing but different planes in a unity. There is spiritual plane at the base or as foundation and then soul plane, subtle plane and gross plane. Further we have seen that each plane has an internal, subjective consciousness aspect and an external, objective material aspect which is nothing but the forms of these mind. So each exist through other and one cannot exist without other. So mind and body is one and the same thing looked through different angles or more correctly body is mind itself or form of the mind. But commonly we use the word body only for the gross material plane and mind for all other planes combined-spiritual, soul, subtle planes. Here it is correct to say mind is independent of body as the planes are changed and this mind exist even after the annihilation of the body as after death.

.    About mental causation these monistic and neutral theories come nearer to reality. As we explained what we usually call mind is human spirit with two of it's bodies both causal (soul) and subtle body Now the real cause is the spiritual plane. So both causal ,subtle and material bodies are different expression of the same spirit. Their nature depends on the nature of the Spirit. When the essential nature reveals there is change in all the bodies. So soul, subtle and material body are not depending on each other but both depends on the human essence or spirit. So not only the material body but even the subtle and soul bodies are the effects. But the cause first descend into soul plane from spiritual plane, then to higher astral plane and lower astral plane. then to material plane. In this sense we can say the higher influence the lower.. But as we explained earlier both unconscious and conscious action in the material plane becomes a cause in the lower astral plane and then higher astral plane. This is the reflected pattern .This again descends into lower astral plane and effect the material plane. So in the final analysis mind and body influence each other and they are not separate but different aspect of the same but the cause is always the spirit. We told earlier that when passionate nature dominates the essence or spirit,  self identify as passionate self, there is sensory knowledge in mental existence, desire on astral existence, and sense gratifying physical activity. The body cannot act or has no power unless the human spirit acts through it. Nay, the body is the mere expression of the spirit. So the view that body or repeated physical activity cause or change mind or character is wrong. The repeated physical activity itself is a result of revelation in essential nature. Like this when by contemplation rational nature dominate the human spirit or essence, self identify with reason, produce rational knowledge in thought or mental existence, will in astral existence and will regulated activity in physical body. Here also the view that soul and subtle body cause body or physical activity is wrong. Here also it is the revelation in essential (spiritual ) nature, which is responsible for both reason and action. So the bodies can influence each other to some extent but the real cause of all activity is spirit.

    About Self-Philosophers use self for different things. If by self we mean human spirit in the spiritual plane we know that it is eternal. Even during universal dissolution when spiritual plane is dissolved spirits exists in seed form in Absolute Being so that at the beginning of next cycle of manifestation it will come out and form the plane of Absolute Spirit. We have seen that this spirit or self is the cause of everything and all causality is ultimately return to one's spirit. Some mean by self the human soul. As we have explained already this is the spirit with it's first body (causal) . Now the spirit during manifestation always have either one or all of the bodies. This bodies are responsible for individual existence. The spirits depends on the bodies for individual existence and external manifestation and the bodies depends on their spirit for their reality. In fact each depends on the other and one cannot exist without the other .So the human soul is also eternal till the end of one cycle of manifestation. The fate of subtle and material body is different. As we explained these are not eternal.

   About determinism and free will-We have seen that every human spirit is unique and special having a specific nature. we cannot change our nature. In this sense there is determinism. But the spirit is only full of potentialities. The actualisation and perfection of our nature depends on conscious activities as we have explained. In this sense there is free will


       Chapter 8: Philosophy of Language

    Language is considered as a separate branch of philosophy in Analytic Philosophy. Philosophy of language is the enquiry in to the nature, origins and usage of language Analytic philosophers are concerned with four problem in philosophy of language. These are the nature of meaning ,language use, language cognition and relation between language and reality. Continental philosophers treat philosophy of language only as part of logic, history or politics.

     The main issue is nature of meaning which try to explain what we understand by meaning. This include nature of synonymy, origin of meaning, possibility to know meaning and also study into how sentences are made into a meaningful whole out of its parts.

     According to some linguists there are two different type of linguistic meaning. conceptual and associative. Conceptual deals with definition of words and features of these definitions. This is done by the technique of semantic feature analysis. Conceptual meaning include both definition (connotation, intention) and extension (denotation.) Associative meaning deals with individual mental understanding of the speaker. There are 6 subtypes-connotative, collocative, social, affective, reflected and thematic.

     There are mainly 6 theories explaining linguistic meanuing.1-idea theories of meaning. According to this meaning are mental contents provoked by signs.2-Truth conditional theories. According to this meaning to be the condition under an expression may be true or false.3-use theory-According to this meaning involve or related to speech acts and particular utterances ,not the expression themselves.4-reference theories of meaning (semantic externalism). According to this meaning is equal to those things in world that are actually connected to signs. Two sub types are social and environmental.5-verificationist theories of meaning. According to this meaning of a sentence is it's method of verification or falsification. There is also a modified form of verification which states that the meaning or comprehension of a sentence consists in the hearer's ability to recognise the demonstration (mathematical, empirical etc) of the truth of the sentence.6-pragmatist theory of meaning. It states the meaning of a sentence is determined by the consequence of it's application.

      According to the principle of compositionality a sentence can be understood on the basis of the meaning of the parts (words, morphemes) and it’s structure (syntax, logic) Another solution by Tarski is explaining lexical parts of a sentence by appealing to their satisfaction conditions. This is by looking at the extension of the word-the objects which are governed by certain meaning. Linguists have developed two methods to understand the relation  between parts of a sentence and how sentence is made. Syntactic and semantic trees. syntactic tree looks on the words of a sentence with grammar in mind while semantic tree looks to meaning of words and how these combine to give semantic facts.

    Another issue is the relation of language to truth and world. Here it is not which sentences are actually true but what kind of meanings can be true or false.

   The nature of language's interaction with the world are called theories of reference.1-mediated reference theory. Here semantic content of sentence is divided into two part  sinn (sense) and Bedeutung (meaning, reference, denotation etc). The sinn of a sentence is the thought it express. This is abstract ,universal and objective. Sense of sub sentence consists in contributing to the sense of embedding sentence. Sense determine objects and mode of presentation of objects. Reference are the objects in the world in the sentence. Sinn are thoughts while referents are truth value. (true or false).

   According to direct reference theory some terms have no two components but only denotation. According to Russell there are direct referential expression only in logically proper names (I, Now, Here). Proper names are abbreviated definite descriptions. Definite descriptions are denoting phrases which are analysed into existentially quantified logical constructions. They denote in the sense that there is an object of that description. Such objects are not meaningful on their own but only in the proposition. So they are not directly referential like logically proper names.

   Another issue is what speaker and listener do with language in communication and also social use. Topics include language learning language creation and speech acts.

Vagueness-Meaning expressed by speaker is not precise as the listener wants it.

Problem of universals and composition-One opinion is that universals are real abstract existing in the world –called philosophical realism .others say they are some collection of particular individual rocks that we make a common category. -nominalism

The nature of language-Semiotics says language is manipulation and use of symbols to draw attention to signified content. According to Chomsky syntax has important role in language. As about the difference between one language from another one view is that there is no clear general and principled difference. This opinion favors Chomsky’s theory that language means I-language (internal) of persons based on certain rules which generate grammar. Another theory is E-languages which is language use in specific community  with specific set of well formed utterances in mind.

 Innateness and learning-Problems common to philosophy of language and mind  are is language innate? Is language acquisition a special faculty in the mind? connection between thought and language. There are three views on language learning. First behaviorism which states that all language is learned mostly by conditioning. Second is hypothesis testing perspective which says the child’s learning of syntactic rules and meanings involve the postulation and testing of hypothesis trough the faculty of intelligence. According to third view some of the syntactic settings are innate.

    About faculty in the brain associated with language also there are various views. connectionist model says a person’s lexicon and thoughts operate in a distributed associative net work. Nativist model says there are specialised devices in brain related to language acquisition. computational model gives a representational language of thoughts and logic like computational processing performed by brain. Emergentist model says this complex system emerge out of simple biological parts. Reductionist model reduce higher mental process into low level neuro physiological activity of brain

 Language and thought-Another common problem of philosophy of mind and language is relation between thought and language. One view is that language is analylitically prior to thought. Opposite view is that thought or mental content has priority over language. According to this spoken and written language derive their meaning from an internal language encoded in mind. This is possible because structure of thought and structure of language share a compositional systematic character. Another reason is it is difficult to explain how signs and symbols on paper represent any thing meaningful unless meaning infused by the mind.. A third view is that language and thought are co-extensive and one cannot explain with out the other..

 Social interaction and language-It is agreed that language is influenced by social convention. Questions concerned are first what is convention and how can we study it. It is stated that convention is a rationally self-perpetuating regularity in behavior. Secondly to what extend convention matter in study of language. Noam Chomsky of the opinion that language could be studied in terms of I-language (internal) of persons. This is in favor of conventions and comes under meta semantics. This is the study of development of semantic facts. Meta semantics include study into the social condition that associated with meaning and language, Etymology (study of origin of words) and stylistics (philosophical arguments of what makes good grammar, relative to particular language)’ In sociology symbolic interactionism says human organisation is based on meaning so any explanations of social structure (eg :institution) involve shared meaning which create and sustain that structure.

Formal versus informal approaches-About the use of logic in language study there are opposing views. According to some formal logic can be used to analyse and understand languages. This is by development of formal languages. According to others (ordinary language philosophers) natural languages must be studied without formalisation because social and practical dimensions of linguistic meaning cannot understand by logic. Speech acts theory deals with the kind of things can be done with a sentence (assertion, commend, inquiry, exclamation) in different context of use in different occasions..

Another issue is how language relate to minds of speaker and listener. Topic include successful translation .

Translation and Interpretation-Quine argued the indeterminacy of meaning and reference based on the principle of radical translation. semantic holism hold that meaning is not associated with single word or sentence but the whole language. Radical interpretation says meaning of a sentence can be determined only by giving meaning to all utterances and also his mental states and attitudes.

In semiotics (study of meaning of signs and symbols) language is one among others humans use to take advantage and manipulate the world to create meaning for themselves and to others.

Language and Continental Philosophy

In continental philosophy language is not studied as a separate subject but as part of logic, history and politics. This is dealt with in various fields like phenomenology, hermeneutics, existentialism, structuralism, deconstruction and critical theory.

Heidegger and language.

Heidegger with hermeneutics and phenomenology  made some contribution to the study of language. According to him language is one of the most important concept of Dasein because Language is the House of Being. So through proper language we can understand Being. But existing terms are inadequate due to overuse to describe Being so he coined his own philosophical terms and his own ontology. Heidegger makes his own theory of language centered around speech. According to him speech (talking, listening, silence) is the most essential and pure form of language. writing is only a supplement to speech. Most important feature of language is projectivity-idea that language is prior to speech. This means when Dasein is thrown into the world from the beginning there is a pre comprehension of the world. According to Heidegger the essence of language is not that it is an expression and activity of man. In order to understand language we must let the language to speak to us in it's being. According to him essence of language is a showing or letting appear. It shows or make appear the world. The naming of an object is calling of a thing to it's being. Language is Being as worlding in it's revealing concealing character and which unfolds in the history in time-space play. So the language as saying is the house of Being. Language protect the presencing of Being by gathering everything in it so that they find their essence, name and their being in language. Language needs man in order to speak of Being. Man is neither the inventor nor the speaker of language but the co speaker passing the speaking of Being. Man co speaking pre supposes a listening. Only in listening man lets himself be spoken to.

  Gadamer describe language as the medium in which substantive understanding and agreement takes place between two people. He says world is linguistically constituted and cannot exist apart from language. He also says every language provide a world view and this linguistic nature of world free one from objective environment.

Hegel and Language.

According to Hegel language is the perfect expression of the mind as physical appearance. Here Mind which is the only reality makes it's perfect material form in language.


 About realism and nominalism-We have earlier explained that universals are not mere names for particular real objects but they are more real than particulars and most real. We have seen that universals are predicates which forming special relation are the spirits or essences of the second plane as Absolute Spirit. They are the base and foundation of particular things and comparing with them particulars are not real. 

Language as innate-As according to our philosophy mind is not blank at birth as empiricism says but a spirit with all it's potentialities we favour the theory of language as an innate capacity

Thought and language-We have seen that concepts as spirits is prior to material existence. All the categories of thought are apriori but becomes active only with experience. Language begins with the experience and the ingredients of language is supplied by these categories. So thought is prior to language or co extensive with language.


Chapter 9:Aesthetics.

      Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy and many consider it as same as philosophy of Art. It deals with the nature of beauty, art, taste, it's creation and appreciation. Aesthetic judgments involve senses, emotions and reason. According to Kant beauty has a universal and objective character. Aesthetic judgments are also influenced by desire, values, culture and social institutions. One major issue is how judgments of beauty is unified across different art forms like sculpture, painting poetry, music, literature etc.About the nature of art and aesthetic judgment there are different opinions. Art deals with senses and real art has no moral or political purpose. Art usually mean creative arts. Here skill is used for the expression of creativity or to engage audiences aesthetic sense or to reveal to them the finer, subtle and truth concealed in nature or objects. Earlier it was considered that the essence of art is beauty. In twentieth century mainly with cubism the idea that beauty was central to art is changed. Now this is replaced by ‘expression’ or ‘sublimity’.It  looks for beauty, sublimity and harmony. About factors  involved in an aesthetic judgment also opinion differs.Aesthetics also has learned and culturally conditioned and preferential elements. It is also linked to will and  desire so to judgments of economic, political or moral value. According to savanna hypothesis some positive aesthetics are based on innate knowledge of productive human habitats. About judgments questions like whether to judge the art, or the work of the artist or art in it’s context of presentation. Ontologically, how are we to think of the work of art? Is it a physical object? Several objects? A class of objects? A mental object? A fictional object? An abstract object? An event?. Some say there is some underlying unity to aesthetic  judgments to different art  forms like beauty of  music, painting and mathematics. Others say there is no unity  and each art form has it’s own system for judgment so that the beauty of music is different from  the beauty of mathematics.About the goal and value of art some says each artistic medium try to make it unique among mediums and purify itself of other than itself as form. According to Dadaism the goal is destruction of corrupt and mad social order. Formal goals, creative goals, self-expression, political goals, spiritual goals, philosophical goals, and even more perceptual or aesthetic goals have advocated..About the values many views it give insight into human condition. It reveal us reality without covering. Give us spiritual pleasure and scientific and religious values. Philosophers are searching the relation between psychology and aesthetics and looking evolutionary psychology and cognitive science. Denis Dutton identified seven universal elements in aesthetics.1-Expertise or virtuosity- Technical artistic skills are cultivated, recognized, and admired. 2-Nonutliarian pleasure- People enjoy art for art's sake, and don't demand that it keep them warm or put food on the table. 3-Style-Artistic objects and performances  satisfy rules of composition that place them in a recognizable style. 4-Criticism- People make a point of judging, appreciating, and interpreting works of art. 5-Imitation- With a few important exceptions like music and abstract painting, works of art simulate experiences of the world. 6-Special focus- Art is set aside from ordinary life and made a dramatic focus of experience. 7-Imagination- Artists and their audiences entertain hypothetical worlds in the theater of the imagination

History of aesthetics.

Ancient Aesthetics-To Greeks aesthetic objects were beautiful in itself .In Greek art, beauty of material form especially human form and anatomically correct proportion is evident. According  to Plato beautiful contain proportion, harmony and unity. Aristotle also identified beauty with order, symmetry and definiteness.

Islamic Aesthetics. In Islam mosaic, calligraphy, architecture, music (quawali's &ghazals) and poetry (Rumi) are various art forms.

Indian Art. Indian art emphasis on inducing spiritual or philosophical states with the help of art or they represent spiritual state symbolically. Main forms are architecture ,sculpture, music, poetry and  painting. Temple architecture are examples of this. Indian poetry, drama and dance contain Rasa which is the emotional flavours contained in the art. There are nine Rasas.

Western medieval  and renaissance aesthetics-Here art is mainly in religious form.. Here religious inspiring is more important than figurative examination. Nature, aim and aesthetic experience is also considered in religious terms like skill of the artist as God given for the purpose of informing God to mankind. During this period St Thomas Aquinas art theory is the most prominent. Aquinas consider beauty as transcendental like truth and goodness. Three main features of beauty here are integrity, consonance and clarity. During renaissance art becomes secular in form again.

Modern aesthetics-According to modernism beauty is central to art. To Kant aesthetic experience of beauty is subjective judgment but universal. To Schiller aesthetic beauty is perfect reconciliation of sensual and rational in human nature. . To Schopenhauer experience of aesthetic beauty is the freedom of intellect from will, because here we seek perfection of form without any thought of worldly gains.British modernists are divided into intuitionists and analysts. Intuitionists believed aesthetic experience disclosed by some mental faculty. To some beauty is the sensory version of morality. To others beauty is subjective .Analysts reduce beauty to attributes. Hogarth, thinks that beauty consists of (1) fitness of the parts to some design; (2) variety in as many ways as possible; (3) uniformity, regularity or symmetry, which is only beautiful when it helps to preserve the character of fitness; (4) simplicity or distinctness, which gives pleasure not in itself, but through its enabling the eye to enjoy variety with ease; (5) intricacy, which provides employment for our active energies, leading the eye "a wanton kind of chase"; and (6) quantity or magnitude, which draws our attention and produces admiration and awe. Later analysts linked beauty to theory of psychology.

Post-modern aesthetics-In post modern times the concept that beauty is central to art is challenged. According to some expression is central  to art. Another view is art is counter-environment in that it makes visible what is usually invisible in society

Hegel and aesthetics.

   To Hegel Art is the first stage of manifestation of Absolute Spirit in and through imagination and senses and it is not subjective but objective form of beauty.Absolute Spirit in its immediacy present to sensuous intuition as beautiful or art. Beautiful is the appearance of idea through a sensible medium. To the beautiful there are both thought and matter. They are inseparable. Matter is the outer appearance of thought and should express only thought through it. Different way in which matter and form connected are the different forms of art. .In symbolic matter predominates and idea expressed with difficulty. In classic art ideal has full expression in matter. In romantic art mind predominates and matter only a sign As art is the first form of Absolute Spirit here the Absolute Idea transform matter in its image. But Idea is limited by immediacy, intuition and imagination. different form of arts are

Architecture-Here as first stage of art idea and form are distinct. the materials for architecture are the grossest matter so the form only suggest idea without fully expressing it .It is symbolic art.

Sculpture-This also employs gross matter but the dualism of idea and form is lost. It not only suggests but fully express the idea.Sculpture unlike architecture which only symbolises, spiritualise matter.

Painting. Matter of painting is less gross than sculpture as three dimensional is reduced to plane so depth is reduced. Here the soul itself is revealed to the eye and also it can express only a moment of life. Here also idea is bound to matter and extension.

 The above three forms of arts which are external ,visible and material are called objective arts.

Music-This is immaterial, invisible and  subjective art.Music is spiritual art which reproduce the human soul in its infinite shades of feeling. It is the opposite of objective art so it is also incomplete art.

Poetry. This is the union of subjective (music) and objective art. so this is the perfect art. Poetry is art with speech so this can express everything and is universal art. Music and poetry both uses sound but in music it is a symbol and vague like feeling but in poetry in become definite like language and bring the idea to nature and history. Architecture and music shows Theistic religious ideas while sculpture and poetry shows pantheistic ideas. Poetry as perfect art contain all the rest so it constructs like architecture, sculptures and design like sculpture, paints like painting and sings like music. Corresponding to objective art-architecture, sculpture, painting there is epic poetry-this represents childhood poetry. Epic poetry like objective arts narrate natural wonders and historical glories. Lyric poetry corresponds to music-it falls upon the invisible world of soul. Perfect poetry is dramatic poetry. This reproduces history, nature and human soul with its passions and emotions.

Art has corresponding to three forms has historical development in three epochs. Oriental art is mainly symbolical. It is powerless to overcome matter and this feeling revealed in it’s works. It is not self explanatory but must be interpreted. Greek art symbolism overcome by direct expression. Here idea fully descends into form. This is also imperfect because the idea sacrificed to physical form and outer beauty. The perfect art is romantic or Christian art. Here attention shifted from the physical to the ideal so physical subordinated to spiritual. Here the idea of beautiful is spiritualized .Instead of physical beauty alone  moral beauty purity and holiness adored. Here the material form is inadequate to express moral ideal. So the romantic art relapses into contempt of form and excessive spiritualism.


   We have seen that Reality is one but they are expressed through different planes. In imaginary and material plane the reality is expressed through sensual forms. When we consider the differnet view of art as beauty, expression or counter environment they all indicates the perception of the essential reality of the perceived object. This essence is also the truth of the object. Even though this perception is a subjective act the truth or reality of the sensed is objective so art has universal validity. We have seen that art is the truth or reality of the object perceived through senses. Now the truth of everything is their spirits as essences in the spiritual plane. This is mind as reflective mind and  form of concepts. So in viewing art and knowing it's beauty which is it's truth and reality besides senses, emotion and reason is also involved. So higher the form of art lower is the attention fixed on senses and emotion and higher on spiritual and reason. Here the sensual and emotional are not an end in themselves but the means and medium through which one come in contact with spiritual and reason. As Hegel says these highest forms can be seen in literature. Naturally the contents of such highest forms are spiritual and philosophical. Such forms are seen in religious scriptures, the poetry of Rumi and others, philosophical work of Plato, Spinoza, Hegel etc and in modern times novels and poetry containing philosophical or spiritual themes.


Chapter 10: Philosophy of Religion.

  Philosophy of religion is a branch of Metaphysics. It is the philosophical study of religious problems like nature and existence of God, prayer, miracles, evil and good and relation between religion and science, ethics etc. Philosophy of religion asks whether there is reason to believe in God’s existence. It examines the epistemological, logical, aesthetic and ethical foundations inherent in claims of religions. Other topics of concern  are nature and rational of miracles, prayer, relation between faith and reason, morals and religion, status of religious language etc.

 Aristotle describe first cause as a topic in metaphysics. This first cause is called unmoved mover or prime mover. About the nature and essence of God involves answer to questions like what is God? what is the meaning of the word God. To answer this first we must be familiar with the conception of God. There are three views.

1-  Monotheism.

Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, Islam) believes in one God. or Monotheism. The principle predicates of God are Omnipresence (All pervading), Omniscience (All knowing), Omnipotence (All powerful) . Monism believes that there is only one essence or substance behind everything.In Deism God after the creation does not interfere in day to day activities of the world. In Theism God is always active in world affairs.


In polytheistic religion there are many gods. This vary from dualism as in Zoroastrianism to many in Hinduism.Polytheism believe in different gods but Hindu philosophy make it clear that they are manifestation of one God.

3-Pantheism and Panentheism-

According to pantheism God is itself the universe. Panentheism contain both immanent and transcendent aspect so apart form God as world God is more than the world. Here the world is in God so God is in world but as He also transcends the world his definition is not limited by world. The famous pantheists and panentheists are Spinoza, Ibn Arabi and Shankara

      To the question concerning the Existence or non existence of God there are four major positions.1-Theism-belief in God based on faith.2-Deism –belief in God based on reason or common sence.3-Agnosticism-Belife that existence or non existence of God unknowable.4-Atheism-Not believing in God.

Hegel and Philosophy of Religion

According to Hegel man is unable to give ideal an adequate material form so religion springs from art. Art is  idea for intuition while religion idea for representation. Primitive art are religious in nature and natural religions are artistic in nature. Idolatry is the link between art and religion. Religion become conscious and part from art by denying idols. This is seen in Judaism. Bible condemns idolatry because it recognizes man’s inability to express the infinite by matter. Though it forbids from picturing  the invisible it does not prevent from picturing it ourselves-it does not prevent imagination. This is because religion is representation. Art represents the infinite in intuition, but the religion represents it to itself as a personal and extra mundane being.. So anthropomorphism is it’s characteristic feature. In religion unlike art the finite and infinite are disjointed. it is dualism. but it separates the two in order to unite them. The essential elements of religious idea is :infinite God, finite man and their relation and seek their union. This prevail in the history of religion.

In natural religion of orient the idea of infinity predominates. it is pantheism. This is acosmism Here God is power of nature infinite and everything, and man is finite and nothing. Hinduism shows this character. Here the act of creation and the will of sustenance come from God, man has neither will nor liberty. Higher idea of God is seen in religions of spiritual individuality. Here God is looked upon as subject. Exalted subjectivity ,wise and powerful as in sublime religion of Judaism, or Greek religion of beauty where there is union of divine and human. God with finite and form and related to earth. Here religion is art and art the worship of humanity or as an absolute end of state as in religion of understanding of Romans These two extremes are united in Christian religion. Here God is neither the abstract Father nor man in the abstract but the concrete unity of divine and human in Jesus. The God Jesus revealed to us is neither infinite like oriental nor finite like Greek but who is both God and man the God-man. Here heaven and earth meet because God comes down and live an earthy life then dies and rising from dead enter his glory. Christianity to other religion is like poetry to other arts. It includes and purifies and complete them as it is the synthesis of all religions, The Absolute religion.

  The defect of religion is, it is in the form of representation. Here three stages of development of reason-idea, nature and mind represented as three persons-Trinity.. The union of infinite and  finite in human consciousness  happening through out history represented as only once happened in Palestine long ago. In religion this dogma is imposed as external authority and not experienced as free realization


   As we explained there is only one reality which we call the Absolute or God. All existences are the different planes of One Being. As Absolute Being It is unknowable essence and here mind is non being or nothing. The one is Positive and Being containing in itself negative and non being. When we comes to the second plane and all the succeeding planes the essence is Mind. Here also Mind is positive and being which contain matter as negative and non being. So there is only One Essence or Being and all planes are the gradations or forms of this Being. According to this view Panentheism is the correct view. The world is nothing but God in manifested aspect and as he has a transcendental aspect he is more than this world.

   We have seen that to Hegel religion is not the highest form of Absolute as it represent the idea in imagination and representation and not in pure thought as in philosophy. This distinction is not correct as in both philosophy and religion the man who attained unity experience the same form of God and in the same medium. The philosopher and the founder of religions experience the same state and when communicating the difference arises. The philosopher who is not concerned with the masses but only a limited intellectual group express the idea more boldly while the religious founder who is concerned with the uplifting of the whole society present these spiritual truth in a way that is within the understanding of all. Further  in organised religions the original teaching often corrupted by the followers so that the teaching as a means of self realisation is lost and used for secondary aims like psychological and social stabilisation.

    When speaking about the merit of revealed religions Hegel is silent about the religion succeeding Christianity-Islam. Where he criticizes Islam he says like Judaism The God of Islam is as essence and not as subject. Let us look at the facts. Even a casual reading of Quran will shows that the God of Islam is an Absolute Subject. The definition of God is most perfect in Islam. As Ibn Arabi shows one Ayat (sentence) in Quran describing God is "Nothing is like Him. He is the Hearing, Seeing." This single sentence covers both the transcendental (first part) and immanent aspect (second part) of God. Throughout Quran God is described as an Absolute subject with predicates like knowledge, will, power, compassion etc. He is described as a living God who is not indifferent to man but communicate himself to his devotees through revelation, speech, vision and other forms .Now about Man. Man is not insignificant and impotent in Islam. He is  the image of God which means he is the only one which contains all the attributes of God. He is the representative of God upon earth and he is capable of raising spiritually above angels and attain self realisation or illumination. 


Chapter 11:Political Philosophy

   Politics is a branch of Philosophy. Political philosophy  deals with state, government, liberty, justice, property, rights, law etc. Three most important issues are political economy by which property rights defined and access to capital regulated, demands of justice in distribution and punishment, truth and evidence that determine judgments.

    In ancient philosophy Plato’s republic contain many issues like forms of government like Aristocracy, Monarchy, democracy, forms of justice and social organisation etc. Aristotle’s Nicomachean ethics and politics contain many theories like ‘polis’ needed to bring good life to society etc. In India Chanakya's Arthasastra is a political treatise containing rules and guidelines for social law and political order in society. In medieval Christianity in social and political matters reason was subordinated to faith. Aquinas stated that there are 4 kinds of laws. God's cosmic and scriptural law, natural laws of universal relevance and human specific law for specific circumstances. In medieval Islam Mutazilites advocated reason above revelation in social and political matters while Asihari's opposed and made the place of reason below revelation.

    During renaissance Machiavelli’s The prince contributed much to politics. He presents a pragmatic and teleological view in which good and evil are only means for an end-the secure and powerful state. John Locke in his 'Two Treatises of Government' state a natural theory founded through contractual obligation. According to him man seeks to be happy in a state of social harmony as a social animal. He refute the divine right of king theory and also Hobbes's theory of absolute ruler. For him natural law is based on equity and reason, seeking peace and survival of mankind. During enlightenment Locke, Rousseau and Hegel were important figures. Two basic issues were reason for formation of state and best form of state. This involved distinction between  the concept of state and government. State is a set of enduring institutions through which power would be distributed and its use justified. Government is a specific group of people who occupy the institutions of the state, and create the laws and ordinances by which all the people would be bound. Locke in state of  nature described a social contract theory based on citizen’s fundamental rights. He argued for a government with power limited to protection of private property where morality in society is independent of government interference. Rousseau considered social contract as an expression of general will and argued for absolute democracy where people are sovereign.

   During modern age and industrial revolution one marked political philosophy is Karl Marx’s Marxism. Marxism and socialism was a response to capitalism. His historical materialism argued historical dimension to understanding  society, culture and economics. He created the concept of ideology in the sense of belief that shape and control actions and introduced class division as a mechanism of governance and social interaction. In the last century analytic philosophers expressed skepticism about the possibility that normative judgments had cognitive content and political philosophy declined.Contemporary philosopher John Rawls used a thought experiment called original position where representative parties choose principles of justice for basic structure of society from behind a veil of ignorance .He also offered a criticism of  utilitarian approaches to question of political justice.

Hegel and Politics.

According to Hegel politics comes under objective mind. This is divided into Law,Morality of Conscience and Social Ethics

1-Law (sub division. i-property ii contract iii-right vs wrong) Law is the objective mind or free will first in it’s immediacy so it is abstract and is as single being-this is as person. The existence of the person gives to it’s liberty as a direct external thing .This  is property  The free will in order not to remain abstract give itself reality-sensible material of this reality are external objects-so as property.-freedom conceded and guaranteed to all. This is the sphere of formal and abstract right, to which belong property in the more developed form of contract and also the injury of right-crime and punishment. here the person or subject is free independently and give himself reality in things (property). When individual will oppose this is wrong. The right as right is formal-abstract right.

2-Morality of Conscience (subdivision of i-purpose ii-intention and welfare iii-goodness and wickedness). The abstract right of Law is direct reality  which is not enough for freedom and negation of this is morality. When the will is reflected into self to have existence inside it and to be characterized as particular is right of the subjective will which is contrasted to the universal, here the idea is divided .The right of the subjective will is in a relation of contrast to the right of the world.. Here idea exists only implicitly. This is morality of individual conscience. In morality one is not directly free but free subjectively-freedom within. This is the sphere of insight, intention and end and external is considered indifferent. This is objective mind becoming subject. Morality is legal system of heart. ,the law of the will of individual is conscience.There is removal of opposition of the universal and particular will in the subject in morality. In morality freedom of will carried to self determination of subjectivity and abstract right becomes duty and virtue. Moral stand point is that of conscience-right of subjective will-right of free ethical decision. In strict right there is no question of one’s view or purpose but in morality it is the purpose of the will. To Hegel this moral reflection and dutiful action for a reason is morality. This has 3 elements1-resolution2-purpose3-good.

3-Social Ethics [subdivision i-family ii civil society (sub division a-system of wants b-administration of justice c-police and corporation) iii state (subdivision  a-constitutional law b-external public law c-universal history) This is unity and truth of the other two abstract elements.. The thought ,idea of the good is realised both in the will turned back to itself and the external world. Here free will is the substantial will ,made actual in the subject and conform to the concept  and as necessity-it is ethical life in family ,civil society and state.The good is the universal end which must not confine to internal of individual but to realise itself. The subjective will must receive external reality and good must be completed in external reality. So morality like formal right is also abstraction and it’s truth is reached in ethical life.In morality conscience and abstract good opposed. .The concrete union of both is ethics, union of subjective and objective will. Ethical life is the unity of the concept of will with the subject. The primary reality of ethical life is natural in the form of love and feeling. This is family life. Here the individual transcend his personality becomes one in a totality. The fundamental moral institution is family, both civil society and state rests on family.Ethical mind in natural form and in immediacy is marriage and family. When the family becomes separated and multiple this is civil society. Here independent members are bound by wants, constitutional right and external administration. In the  stage of civil society there is loss of natural ethical existence and formation of substantive unity. Here family falls and members become independent and held together by bond of mutual need.. Civil society is grounded on family. Its aim is the protection of individual interests. Civil society passes into state. So third stage of ethical life is state. State differ from civil society because it try to realize idea and ready to sacrifice individual for the cause. family and civil society become the means and state is the the end-kingdom of objective mind. Here individual independence and universal substantively are in union. It is freedom in most concrete form.Here individual interest loses in ethical whole. This is ethical idea actualised. The difference between civil society and state is in civil society society is the means and individual is the end while in state individual is the means while state is the end. The ideal state is constantly realised through history –through historical states. Each state is only certain side of the ideal. One state is replaced by other which express more of the idea .This forms the dialectics of history .States like individuals rises and falls in world history.This is national history. When one state falls another more perfect comes to the top and represent world spirit. This is international history. In the various form of government Republic is not the ideal state because here individual has more importance’ Monarchy is the best political form. In the free and sovereign action of ruler the idea finds full expression.


We have mentioned earlier that manifestation is the becoming of the Absolute so that He is perfect in relative being and relative knowledge. Politics, state and governments are these gradual becoming of the Absolute through history.


Chapter 12: Social Philosophy.

Social philosophy is the scientific study of man as a social being. It looks into the nature of a wide range of subjects like laws, social contract, revolution, effect of science on culture etc. It studies the pattern, changes and tendencies of societies. Ethical philosophy, political philosophy, jurisprudence, philosophy of language are some other forms of social philosophy.

Hegel and Social Philosophy.

As we explained earlier in Hegel's philosophy society comes under objective mind. Here the Idea as intelligible substance unlike family particularise into many persons who are connected each other for their particular interests. Developed totality of this connective system is society. This has three elements.

1.The system of wants. Various wants are satisfied from general stock. This need the possessor's will and the exchangers labour. Indefinite number of wants and their means produce division of labour. Training in these produce nominal culture. This division of general stock into different masses depending on talent, skill etc give rise different estates or ranks. There are 3 fundamental ranks. Natural estate whose capital is the soil and ground ,reflected estate has social capital and these are the middle men and thinking estate has capital both by his skill and by the whole society.

2-Administration of justice.-When society is thus developed it has the concept of liberty as formal right. This right with universality and authority is law. The positive form of laws promulgated and made known as laws is a condition of the external obligation to obey them. Legal forms get the necessity in judicial system. Abstract right exhibit itself to court as proven

3-Police and Corporation-In civil society the aim is to satisfy individual need and as the needs of many conflict each other and as the capacity of individual differs it needs an external universal force to control and make harmony and  this is police. Corporation provide the citizen to secure his stock and at te same time and in it he emerges from personal interest and acct for a universal end.

Chapter 13: Philosophy of History.

 Philosophy of history here means speculative philosophy. It is concerned with the significance and the final aim of history. Speculative philosophy deals with three basic issues. First is the unit to study history, whether individual, city, nation, culture, civilisation or the whole humankind. Second is common pattern in history like progress, cycles and deterministic or is it random events and impact of great men in history. Thirdly if it is progress the driving force behind it and it's ultimate aim.

    Some  historians believed it is their duty to make mankind better and  this influenced their history. Others were more faithful to facts. Ibn Khaldun the Muslim historian was the first to critically examine the data and thus to introduce scientific method in writing history. Another trend in history is to consider it as linear or cyclical.. Most eastern and ancient historians believed in cyclical nature alternating between dark and golden ages. This is the doctrine of eternal return of Egyptians, Indians, Pythagoreans and Stoics. Usually there are four great ages, Golden, Silver, Bronze and Iron or Satya, Treta, Dwapara and Kali Yugas in Hindu philosophy. Greeks believed that as man's nature is different during each ages so is the state. Democracy and monarchy are the form in golden ages and oligarchy and tyranny in dark ages. Another concept in history is teleological sense in history or theodicy. According to this history is progressive and proceeds according to the divine plan to it's ultimate end. To most modern thinkers this theodicy is immanent in human history itself. Judaic and Christian scholars, Augustine, Aquinas Leibniz and Hegel, Fukuyama were it's proponents. Others like Nietzsche and Foucault deny any theodicy and see history characterised by discontinuity and ruptures.

     To most western historians with their belief in causal relation history is linear. During enlightenment history is seen as linear ,irreversible and leading to social progress and infinite perfection through time. Rousseau, Comte (positivism), Immanuel Kant advocated this view. Comte's social evolutionism consists of three stages, theological stage, metaphysical stage and positivist stage of modern science. Social Darwinism, Herbert Spencer, and unilinear evolution are other forms of social evolutionism. According to this society starts from primitive stage and become more civilised over time and some identified this evolution with western culture and progress. Recently Fukuyama in his 'The End of History and the Last Man' make similar claims and identify liberal democracy of the west as the best and most progressed system. Another issue is the role of great men in shaping history. According to Hegel the head of a state or nation like Monarch is the perfect manifestation of the Absolute Spirit as Objective Spirit. So such figures are the base of progress in history. According to Thomas Carlyle history is the biography of great men. Others instead of particular individual stress on social individuals such as social class, national groups, political groups, religious groups, social movements as the shaping factor of history. According to Marx's historical materialism class struggle and underlying economic factors are important in shaping history. Another issue is the historical account of writing history. When history is written by those in power or their supporters there is possibility of biased history and also using it as propaganda. Victors always try to conceal the loser's perspective and use factors like theodicy and progression to propagate their own cause and reason.

 Hegel and Philosophy of History.

According to Hegel history is rational because world and history is the actualisation of Absolute Spirit itself. According to Hegel's philosophy Absolute Spirit externalises through and as nature and history. So history is this unfolding of Absolute Spirit in it's perfection. As a result of this Hegel focus on world history rather than regional or national history. Hegel sees history in a teleological sense. As history is what is implicit as Absolute Spirit becoming explicit through historical process it is rational as it is reason itself. So According to Hegel history is the divine design and is progressive as its aim the full externalisation of Absolute Spirit. Hegel's conception of history is based on dialectics as the driving force throughout history. According to Hegel all the major events ,evil and good can be seen as one set of ideas or systems as thesis replaced by opposite set of ideas as antithesis and later these two sublated and reconciled in a higher third called synthesis which contain the positive elements from both and much more. This synthesis in turn form the thesis for the next cycle of change.

    Absolute Spirit is Absolute freedom. So history is the development of spirit's consciousness of it's freedom and consequent realisation of that freedom. The history begins from Africa passes through China, India, Persia and Greek and Romans and culminate in European history. Along with this progression of history there is simultaneous realisation of freedom. According to Hegel Asians knows that only one is free, Romans and Greeks only some men are free and Europeans and Germans know all men are free. So this consciousness of freedom moves from despotism where only a few are privileged to be free to the idea that humanity is free in and for itself. Hegel see highest form of freedom in constitutional monarchy where the monarch represent the spirit of the state.

Heidegger and Philosophy of History.

According to Heidegger history is the spatio-temporal manifestation of Being. So history is history of Being. As to the cause of this manifestation according to Heidegger there is no ultimate cause but this is the play of Being. Man as existence is a co- player in this play.

     According to Heidegger man is historical in a primordial sense due to his temporality and historicality, and historicality of other beings are secondary as related to man. Historiology is ontologically rooted in man's historicality. This is because every entity thematised for historiology is primarily related to man who has been there at that time and again they can be meaningfully studied and asses only on the basis of the historicality of the contemporary historian who do the investigations. So in the authentic historicality of man, manifested in the repetitive disclosure of what-has-been-there, lies the existential foundation of historiology, as a science. Since the past human being who has been there is the basic theme of historiology and can be disclosed in repetition as a resolute fate, a true historian who treats this theme historiologically, can disclose the history of the past in his potentialities so powerfully that he may have telling effects on the future. Therefore, historiology takes its starting point not from the present moving towards the past, but from the future. Such an historiology is not subjective in the limited sense but the authentic historicality of the historian make it objective historiology. If the historicality is genuine, authentic and founded on the fateful destiny of man, then historiology is used for life. Founding historiology on inauthentic historicality would amount to abusing it.


   We have seen that world and history is the manifestation of the Absolute and the purpose behind this is the love of perfection. The Absolute who is perfect in Absolute Being and Absolute Knowledge by this becoming perfected also in relative being and relative knowledge. So theodicy is true as it is the Absolute Himself Who is manifested as the world and history. Now as we can see this Divine govern is not as something external to the world but Absolute is the real actor immanent in them and act in and as themselves. As perfection is the motive force behind this history it is progressive and is capable of infinite perfection through time. This also means the future is not completely determined as a finished product and as Absolute as Absolute Spirit is not only a thinking subject but also a willing subject. So it is not only knowledge alone that  takes the world as it is but also as will which makes the world as it ought to be, Absolute Spirit not as already produced and finished but constantly producing itself, Absolute as determinative of the content or as thinking will, Absolute Spirit as accomplished and accomplishing Itself. We have also seen that conscious manifestation of the Absolute Spirit is the Absolute Man as self realised or enlightened men. We have seen that the Absolute Spirit is acting not from without the beings but through the beings themselves and as these enlightened men are the perfect vehicles of Absolute and It consciously act through them as Absolute Spirit the governing and the affairs of the world and it's destiny is solely carried out through these realised ones. In this sense both Hegel and Carlyle are right and the history of the world is the biography of great men. We have seen that this becoming or manifestation is eternal. As Absolute always love perfection there is always manifestation. The perfect manifestation is the perfection of all the predicates and we have seen Absolute contain contradictory predicates like mercy and wrath, life and death, day and night etc. As we explained even though when we consider Absolute in Itself there is no duality or opposites and there is only unity and positive which contain in itself negative when we view the world and history this contradictory predicates give rise to golden and dark ages so history of the world is not linear but cyclical. There is also cyclical occurrence in the Absolute's state of rest and activity. During activity the universe appear and during rest or Pralaya there is dissolution of universe. In an ultimate sense this cyclical process is the nature of reality itself as we have seen every moment during inspiration or in breath of the Absolute, world is annihilated and next moment during out breath or expiration world is created.


Chapter 14: Ethics; good and evil.

    Ethics or Moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy. Ethics is the study of ideal conduct. It is the study of values and customs of individual and society. It is concerned with right and wrong, good and evil, justice and virtue and responsibility. All moral activities stems from some purpose or aim. Now the source and basis of this moral idea may be God, nature or society according to different moral philosophy. According to all organised religions God is the source and basis of all morality. An action is good or evil depending on whether it conforms to God’s will. This is called theological ethics. According to Herbert Spencer and Marxism the source and basis of morality is society. Spencer believed morality is not innate they are natural to individual only due to habits formed by the society. According to Marxism ethics is super structure developed from infrastructure. These are means of production and production relations of society. Historically developed society is the source and basis of morality. According to ethical naturalism nature either cosmic or human is the source and basis of morality. Main branches of Ethics are Meta Ethics, Normative Ethics ,Applied Ethics, Moral Psychology and Descriptive Ethics..

a. Meta ethics:

Meta ethics is about the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions and how it's truth value can be determined. It is not concerned with the content of ethics but the logic of morality itself. This is the study of the concept of ethics. and it’s nature. It deals with such problems, as whether there is any relation between moral belief and facts and whether morality is subjective or objective reality. Meta ethics deals with second order questions about morality mainly semantics, epistemology and ontology of ethics

  Semantics of ethics divided into descriptivism and non descriptivism. Descriptivism says ethical language (commands and duties) is subdivision of descriptive language and has meaning in virtue of the same kind of properties as descriptive propositions. Non descriptivism deny this and says ethical propositions and their meaning cannot be reduced to descriptive propositions. Epistemology of ethics is divided into cognitivism and non cognitivism. Cognitivism is equivalent to descriptivism and says ethics is concerned with judgments of the same kind as knowledge judgments about facts. Non cognitivism is same as non descriptivism and claims ethics reach beyond the scope of human cognition and it is concerned with action not knowledge. Ontology of ethics concerned with idea of value bearing properties-kind of things that correspond to ethical propositions and is divided into realism and non realism. According to descriptivism and cognitivism which are realism  ethics is objective so the validity of different ethical values can be judged ,According to objectivism morality is objective truth irrespective of personal and majority tastes or desires. According to Hegel Ethics is Objective Spirit and in its most complete form it is represented in State in its constitution and laws. According to non-realism ethics do not require specific ontology since ethical propositions do not correspond to objects as descriptive propositions. Here ethics is subjective so an objective assessment of different moral values not possible.

    According to the doctrine of emotivism moral attitudes are neither subjective nor objective truths but only expresses the feeling of the subject. Their aim is to persuade others to share one’s own attitude. Their reality cannot be verified by experience. According to subjectivism moral attitudes are subjective truths. They may depend upon the natural taste and desire of the majority. According to subjectivism ethics must be supported by evidence for objectivity. According to ethical relativism also moral values depends on the social environment and historical time. There are no universal standards of moral values like good and evil or right and wrong.

b. Normative ethics:

This deals with the practical means of determining moral action. This discusses problems of the meaning of human life and aim. This is mainly concerned with the contents of moral principles, good and evil and right and wrong. This is a theoretical substantiation of moral norms, principles and ideals.This is the study of ethical norms.-the way to determine moral values.  There are three theoretical forms, virtue ethics, deontological ethics and consequentialism.

1:Virtue Ethics: This is elaborating on good habits we should acquire for ethical life. According to Socrates knowledge is the base of ethical life. One who knows what is good and right naturally do it so evil is the result of ignorance. He equated knowledge with virtue and virtue with happiness.Plato and Aristotle also believed good and justice is due proportion of everything with its own nature and evil as an error.According to Aristotle when a man act according to his nature and develop all his potential he will do good and become happy. Happiness is the aim of life. For this development moderation is necessary and this moderation or middle path is virtue. Courage is the middle between the extremes of cowardice and recklessness. According to Hedonism ethical principle is maximum pleasure and minimum pain. Cyrenaics supported even immediate gratification of sensual pleasures as to them pleasure is the only good. On the other hand to Epicureans who also advocated hedonism, the greatest good was prudence exercised through moderation and caution. They also preferred intellectual pleasures over sensual ones. To the Stoics greatest good was contentment and serenity. They considered good as a life consistent with nature.The aim of life is not happiness but peace of mind (Apatheia). This is obtained by self mastery over desires and emotions or by the unconquered will. Contrary to hedonism they advocated abstinence in the face of temptations.According to Spinoza moral life was a life of regulation of passion and a life of reason. Schopenhauer and Nietzsche also identified inner sense with morality. But Schopenhauer’s moral nature was will of want and Nietzsche’s will to power. . According to existentialism moral sense is natural but special to each individual. There is a trend in Neo-Platonism, Advaita of Sankara, Buddhism, Gnosticism and some other mystical philosophy to consider all manifestation as evil and worldly life as evil. Nirvana or Moksha is liberation from Sansara. Sansara is repeated births and which is evil and suffering.

2-Consequentialism.According to this consequence of an action is the basis for moral judgment. Main proponents are Jeremy Bentham and Stuart Mill. The main issues in consequentialism are what are good consequences, how it is judged and by whom and who is the primary beneficiary. According to hedonistic utilitarianism a best action is that,  which result in most pleasure for the greatest number.Utilitarian ethics is morality from the practical aspect. Utility is greatest happiness of greatest number. According to this theory actions are right in proportion to promotion of happiness. Happiness is described as the presence of pleasure or absence of pain. In eudemonic consequentialism a full flourishing life is the aim. In aesthetic consequentialism it is production of  beauty, which may also include material equality, political liberty, is the ultimate aim..

3-deontological ethics. Here ethical right is made from the act so looking at duties and rules. Here neither consequences (consequentialism) is considered nor intentions (virtue ethics). We have a duty to act that are inherently good as acts or to follow objectively obligatory rule. Kant is the proponent of this theory. Kant also believed moral sense as innate and apriori. According to him it is categorical imperative means authoritative and applicable to all situation due to objectivity.According to him highest good is good in itself and good without qualification and he identifies it with good will.

c: Applied ethics:

This  is the use of ethics in practical life. It is used to decide public policy. It involves moral choice in issues like abortion, euthanasia, immigration, affirmative action etc. Applied ethics are very important in formulating policies in politics, economy, professions (medicine, law, business, journalism) and environmental policies. .

d: Moral psychology

This deals with how morality develops and it's nature. Main topics in this field are moral responsibility, moral character, moral development, altruism, psychological egoism, moral luck etc. Some psychological theories are based on the idea that ethical behaviour is due to moral  reasoning. This is divided into stages which refers to set of principles one uses for ethical judgment. One famous theory of this type is Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. Another psychological theory is Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory in humanistic psychology .According to this highest human need is self-actualisation which means fulfilling one’s potential and trying to correct what is wrong in world. R.D.Laing also deals with many moral issues through interpersonal psychology. According to evolutionary psychology theories ethical behaviour is seen as an evolutionary adaptation .Here Qualities like altruism towards members of one’s family seem to promote one’s inclusive fitness. Contrary to this theory some sees morality and guilt as a mal adaptation of the evolution of rationality.

e: Descriptive Ethics. This is morality practiced in actuality. Some rely on descriptive ethics and choices made and challenged by society and culture to make categories. This leads to situational ethics and situated ethics. They view aesthetics, etiquette and arbitration as more fundamental for the existence of theories of value or conduct. Descriptive ethics examines the following subjects. Ethical codes applied by various groups, informal theories of etiquette, practices in arbitration and law, observed choices made by people with out expert aid or advice..

Hegel and Ethics.

According to Hegel Ethics is objective mind in it's second and third morality of conscience and social ethics.

Morality of Conscience (subdivision of i-purpose ii-intention and welfare iii-goodness and wickedness). The abstract right of Law is direct reality  which is not enough for freedom and negation of this is morality. In morality one is not directly free but free subjectively-freedom within. This is the sphere of insight, intention and end and external is considered indifferent. This is objective mind becoming subject. Morality is legal system of heart. ,the law of the will of individual is conscience.There is removal of opposition of the universal and particular will in the subject in morality. In morality freedom of will carried to self determination of subjectivity and abstract right becomes duty and virtue. Moral stand point is that of conscience-right of subjective will-right of free ethical decision. In strict right there is no question of one’s view or purpose but in morality it is the purpose of the will. To Hegel this moral reflection and dutiful action for a reason is morality. This has 3 elenents1-resolution2-purpose3-good. When the will is reflected into self to have existence inside it and to be characterized as particular, this is right of the subjective will which is contrasted to the universal, here the idea is divided .The right of the subjective will is in a relation of contrast to the right of the world.. Here idea exists only implicitly. This is morality of individual conscience..

Social Ethics. [subdivision i-family ii civil society (sub division a-system of wants b-administration of justice c-police and corporation) iii state (subdivision  a-constitutional law b-external public law c-universal history). This is unity and truth of the other two abstract elements.. The thought, idea of the good realised both in the will turned back to itself and the external world. Here free will is the substantial will ,made actual in the subject and to conform to the concept  and as necessity-it is ethical life in family ,civil society and state. The good is the universal end which must not confine to internal of individual but to realise itself. The subjective will must receive external reality and good must be completed in external reality. So morality like formal right is also abstraction and it’s truth is reached in ethical life.In morality, conscience and abstract good opposed. .The concrete union of both is ethics, union of subjective and objective will. Ethical life is the unity of the concept of will with the subject. The primary reality of ethical life is natural in the form of love and feeling. This is family life. Here the individual transcend his personality becomes one in a totality. The fundamental moral institution is family, both civil society and state rests on family.Ethical mind in natural form and in immediacy is marriage and family. When the family becomes separated and multiple this is civil society. Here independent members are bound by wants, constitutional right and external administration. In the  stage of civil society there is loss of natural ethical existence and formation of substantive unity. Here family falls and members become independent and held together by bond of mutual need.. Civil society is grounded on family. Its aim is the protection of individual interests. Civil society passes into state. So third stage of ethical life is state.According to Hegel as ethical life is objective the complete form of this ethics is developed as Objective Spirit in the State, in its laws and constitution. Ethics attain its perfection when there is union of this objective will and Subjective will. In a perfect state the laws are followed by the people who have complete subjective freedom. They follow the law out of their freedom.State differ from civil society because it try to realize idea and ready to sacrifice individual for the cause. Family and civil society become the means and state is the the end-kingdom of objective mind. Here individual independence and universal substantively are in union. It is freedom in most concrete form.Here individual interest loses in ethical whole. This is ethical idea actualised.. The difference between civil society and state is in civil society, society is the means and individual is the end while in state individual is the means while state is the end. The ideal state is constantly realised through history –through historical states. Each state is only certain side of the ideal. One state is replaced by other which express more of the idea .This forms the dialectics of history .States like individuals rises and falls in world history.This is national history. When one state falls another more perfect comes to the top and represent world spirit. This is international history. In the various form of government, Republic is not the ideal state because here individual has more importance. Monarchy is the best political form. In the free and sovereign action of ruler the idea finds full expression..


     We can see that in the metaethical issue ethics is objective facts as according to us also it is the manifestation of The Absolute through society, state and history. In normative ethics when comes to base of moral action it can be seen that as Socrates says right knowledge is the base for morality. Now the highest form of this knowledge is self knowledge which include in itself objective knowledge. As the best knowledge is that which enable one to act from a universal perspective this automatically produce as a byproduct best consequences and happiness and peace not only for one self but for the majority. So neither is the intention as happiness, pleasure or peace of mind as in virtue ethics nor the consequences as in cosequentialism is base for moral action but they are usually the out come of right action. Similarly self knowledge makes one aware that duties ,rules and obligations as family, society ,state, nation or international citizen is the law of the Divine itself as these are the manifestation of Absolute Spirit and He is the real actor behind all these laws and the necessity of these laws for the evolution of human kind. Such a one always act within the law and according to duty and rules so deontological ethical view is also one factor of this self knowledge and not the sole base. When we comes to the actual practice of an ethical life besides this knowledge, will also becomes an element. As we have explained earlier both the knowledge and will depends on the basic nature of man and those with passionate and rational nature will have to struggle more to maintain an ethical life than spiritual nature

    We have earlier told that moral sense is coming from our spiritual nature. Every human beings contain spiritual nature but in different proportion. In reality one creative being is acting through all the spirits. So moral sense is objective and corresponds to facts. Every individual is unique due to his unique spirit. The degree of self revelation is different in every one so moral sense and moral requirement may also differ. Besides every one is at different stages in the evolutionary scale. When one is regulated by passionate or rational nature one may consider cheating or hurting others as wrong. When after conscious evolution the same one is regulated by spiritual nature he may consider not helping others or preventing injustice even at personal peril or risk as wrong. So morality has a subjective aspect. In short morality has both absolute and relative aspect. The real moral sense arises from one's own spiritual nature. God is expressing as creative beings through the beings themselves. So the basis and source of morality as God or nature is true. Morality depending on the historical development of society is morality of rational nature and relative morality. As we told earlier morality has also absolute value. The practical ethics of utility forget about the human nature. An activity, which is directed to the well being of the entire universe, may not produce happiness in the short run. Conversely as an immediate effect it may produce pain to the majority. The majority is regulated by passionate and rational nature and cannot appreciate activities, which ultimately benefit them. Like the mystic saying ''what we want may not be the thing we really need:'' so real ethics are directed to the real need of man and society and not towards the illusory wants. According to our view the world is reality expressing itself. The perfect man is the synthesis of all essences. Through the perfect man the ultimate reality is contemplating itself as single essence and multiple essences at the same time. So the world is not evil but good in its very nature. What Buddha says as root of evil is three things. One is desire and this is the passionate and rational nature. Second is hate and this also comes when one is regulated by lower nature. Third is illusion. This is false identification with body or material world or reducing the entire reality to material existence and not in the sense of world as unreal or evil.

     We have seen that every thing in the world is expressing their essential nature. Up to human being everything in the world is completely and spontaneously expressing their essential nature. In this sense all beings up to man is beyond good and evil. Neither the dove good nor the vulture evil. Neither the peacock beautiful nor the toad ugly. Every being up to man is good and beautiful because they are fully expressing their nature and this nature is nothing but reality itself. According to this view moral sense and ethics has relevance only with human beings. All moral principles can be classified into two groups. One concerned with the evolution of the individual himself and second concerned with the evolution of the world. From this perspective all individual activities, which make one remain in his present nature or further degrade him to lower nature, can be called evil. Like this all conscious efforts, which gravitate him to his higher nature and help in perfecting his whole nature can be called good. This is what Stoics, Plato and Aristotle called good. Good and justice as due proportion or everything with its own nature and evil as error.According to Spinoza also moral good is regulation of passion with reason and co-ordination of one's whole nature. In this sense attainment of perfect nature and self realisation is supreme good. This is what Plato means by at the top of the ideal world is the form of good. This is the ethics of self realisation of personalism. This is individual moral attitude or personal ethical life. Second is the moral attitude towards the world. World include society and all other beings. Here as the exponents of evolutionary ethics say the ideal moral attitude is to promote the evolution of the world and not to hinder it. So every activity that augments total evolution is good and every attitude and activity that retards or devolute the world is evil. We told earlier that every being up to man is beyond good and evil. But from an evolutionary point of view we can grade relative goodness according to the hierarchy in the evolutionary scale. In this sense plants are more good than minerals, animals more good than plants and mammals more good than vertebrates and humans more good than other mammals. The ideal attitude will be to promote the evolution of all beings and interfering only when lower forms threatens the survival of higher forms or when for the existence, survival or natural expression of the higher form lower form are essential. This is the moral sense of using mineral as chemical fertilisers for plants, removing weeds for cultivation of crops, using vegetables, fruits and plants as food for animals and man. The same moral sense is behind using pesticides, destroying bacteria, mosquitoes and other harmful vectors. It is this same moral sense behind taking animal foods like fish, fowls and meat.

     In society we have seen that there are three groups of people depending on the predominance of nature due to degree of self revelation. These are predominant passionate nature or rational nature or spiritual nature. We have told earlier that in the unevolved man or before conscious evolution one is regulated by his predominant nature and this will rule over his whole nature. But with conscious evolution by contemplation or other methods even those with predominant passionate nature are able to regulate it with rational nature and later regulate rational nature with spiritual nature. This regulation with spiritual nature continues till self realisation is attained. Perfect man or self realised man is a special category because what ever be his predominant nature he is able to regulate his action in harmony with the whole world. In human beings also there is a hierarchy like other beings. Self realised man or perfect man is at the top. As we have seen with Hegel as Absolute Spirit also most perfect is philosophic spirit(S1MAP) followed by religious spirit(S2MAP) and artistic spirit(S3MAP). Below this the man regulated by spiritual nature, then those regulated by rational nature and lastly those ruled by passionate nature.

   In society also the ideal moral attitude will be to promote human evolution and not to hinder it and to resist the forces of devolution. Such a man will view every one with compassion. He neither hates any one nor condemns any activity. He knows that every one is acting due to his predominant nature and due to his unevolved state so he compassionately persuade others to regulate passion with reason and those with rational nature to regulate it with spiritual nature. His moral attitude and final aim will be to lead others to self realisation. He will be strongly advocating the strict law if he thinks it will benefit the whole and will be lenient and forgiving if he knows it is better than implementation of law. This moral attitude of curbing the passionate nature is behind the religious and state laws of liquor, adultery, theft etc. The same attitude of rational nature is behind movement against fundamentalism, movement of feminism, movement of equality, liberty and fraternity. Such a moral attitude will always resist any factors, which hamper the societies evolution and produce devolution. Such a one will resist whenever a passionate group try to dominate the rational group and society or rational group try to dominate spiritual group or those of spiritual nature trying to dominate self realised men or perfect men.

Part III: History of Philosophy.

Chapter 1:Introduction.

     History of philosophy is the study of philosophic ideas through history. Issues dealt in this are historical changes in philosophy, cause of philosophical ideas in historical context, etc. There are philosophies in all nations and all cultures across the world. History of philosophy classify and categorise these various philosophies. According to culture and nation history of philosophy is broadly classified into

1-Western philosophy

2- Eastern philosophy

3-Abrahamic philosophy

4- African philosophy

   Philosophy is an integral part of the social and political life of a nation. So the philosophy of a nation and it's history is influenced by the evolutionary and cultural state of the society during that period and is influenced by religious political and social conditions of the race. So the circumstances of men's lives do much to determine their philosophy, but, conversely, their philosophy does much to determine their circumstances. We have seen that philosophy and empirical sciences have reciprocal relation so empirical science condition philosophy but also conditioned by it. As a result in history of philosophy succession of different philosophical system advancing along with  progress of empirical sciences and universal, civil and social cultures. The object of history of philosophy is to represent the content, succession and the inner connection between different philosophical systems. As every philosophy is  philosophic expression of collective life of that time, different system reveal an organic movement and form one rational and internally connected system. This is the striving of the spirit for more higher point of consciousness and knowledge  

Hegel and History of Philosophy: According to Hegel history of philosophy shows great and noble men with the power of reason penetrated into the being of things, nature, reason and Being of God. In the history of philosophy the tradition of  the past is preserved and transformed to higher level by the succeeding minds. Noblest thinking is when thought is not indulged in other things but thinking of itself-about thought or mind itself.. History of philosophy is mind finding itself. It is the nature of mind that it finds itself only by producing itself. It exists and actual only in finding itself .Various philosophical systems are this production of mind.

   The aim of philosophy is to find the truth in thought and conception. The aim is to know one truth as the base of nature, life and consciousness and everything and to lead these natural laws and finite mind back to one truth and from that source to comprehend them and derive them. This one truth is not solitary empty thought but one determined within itself. The product of thinking about mind is thought, but it is formal, more defined it becomes notion and finally idea. Idea is thought implicitly and explicitly determined. This idea alone is truth. It is in the nature of idea to develop and only through development it comprehend itself or become concrete or what it is. So for knowledge of truth these two principle of development and concrete are important. To understand development three terms are needed ,being in itself or potentiality and being there or actuality and being for itself which is the unity of being in itself and being there. Being in itself is the abstract initial stages of the history of philosophy and being for itself is final stage of concrete Idea after passing through successive stages of development through different philosophical systems in history. Thus the Idea as concrete in itself, and self-developing, is an organic system and a totality which contains a multitude of stages and of moments in development. Philosophy has now become for itself the apprehension of this development, and as conceiving Thought, is itself this development in Thought. The more progress made in this development, the more perfect is the Philosophy. So philosophy and history of philosophy is a system in development. Succession of different philosophical system in history follows the succession of logical idea from abstract to concrete. So the study of history of philosophy is study of philosophy itself. All the philosophies except the last had forms different from content which is truth or Absolute Idea and the last have absolute form identical with content. different forms are elements in the idea. So the first philosophy is the most abstract and the last most concrete. So history of philosophy is not conceived as isolated disconnected theories but as logical development evolution from abstract to concrete, simple to complex and gradual advance towards truth.


We have seen that empirical sciences, social ,political and religious conditions of the existing society have an influence on the philosophy of that period. When we analyse this influence we can see that this is neither in the form nor in the content but as the generating cause of a new philosophy. This is as because we have seen that all the systems like philosophy, religion, politics, civil society is the expression one and the same world spirit. In all these realms Spirit is the subject as the self consciousness of the time but in philosophy as thought or knowledge of this content spirit becomes also an object to itself. Philosophy is the thinking of what is substantial in that period. As it knows the substantial it makes it an object against itself .In self-knowledge spirit posits itself as distinct from what it is; it posits itself for itself and develops in itself. Here there is a new difference between what it is in itself and what its actuality is; and, thus, a new manifestation emerges. This knowledge of itself is the actuality of mind, the self knowledge of mind of itself which is not present in other forms as in all other forms like politics, art etc mind is as subject and not an object to itself as in the medium of thought. Now through this knowledge spirit makes a distinction between this knowledge and what it is actually as the whole system, the present form of the spirit becomes an object to thought and it's deficiency and imperfection becomes knowledge and this knowledge produce a new form of development. This new form are first only as new mode of knowledge as the new philosophy and this is the inward cause of the new form of spirit which becomes actual form later in the form of new political, social and government form.

  The idea of Hegel of succession of philosophical systems in history corresponding to succession of logical idea face criticism. Similar is the idea that art and religion is same to philosophy only in content but the forms are different. According to Hegel the object of all three is the Absolute but in art it is presented in sensory objects and in religion in imagination and representation and only in philosophy Absolute becomes an object to itself in thought. We have seen earlier that in logical idea the realisation that Absolute as Subject comes only in the end. Before this mind is seen as being and essence. But in the case of history we can see that philosophers and mystics who had self realisation having the same concept of the Absolute as modern philosopher like Hegel. As we explained when one reach the third spiritual plane he will have the knowledge that there is only One Absolute Spirit or Subject and he himself is not different from from this Subject.Similarly when one attain the second divine plane of Absolute Subject he will have the realisation that only this subject exists and all other is illusion. This we can see from the Ancient Indian philosophical systems like Veda and Upanisads where there are reference like Aham Brahmasmi(I am Absolute) and Tat va ma si (you are that) etc. In Pythagoras, Plato, Stoics etc also we can see the highest conception of the Absolute and development of methods for self realisation. So the reality is in the course of development of man and history, one man or few men develop this spiritual consciousness. Spiritual organisations like family, civil society, political systems, nation comes after them and they are the driving force and architects of these systems. So as Hegel say it is not the concept of Absolute as Subject and mind from that of being and essence that is developing through history of philosophy but the form of the Absolute that is capable of infinite perfection. This form is socio politico ,national form of the world. Now it is these spiritual organisations that is developing through history as the systems of one period is the self consciousness of the world spirit during that period. The driving force of these development of systems through history is also the mystic or philosopher, as the Spirit of the people becomes an object to him in knowledge or thought and he can differentiate this knowledge from what is actual at that period and what ought to be. As we explained a new philosophy as forms of knowledge is the seed from which a more developed systems comes into actuality in the future. Similarly the origin of art and religion is also from the same self realised minds as mystic or philosopher. Here also it is not that the concept of Absolute is sensuous or representation for these great founders but the medium of presentation always depends on the self consciousness reached by the world spirit at that period. So when the majority of the society can conceive the Absolute only in sensuous form it is presented in Artistic medium and when they can conceive only in imagination and representation it is presented through religions. Another point in religion is when  self realised men conceive the best form of presenting the reality for the development of world spirit is religious form. So it is not in the realisation of the spirit that religious founder or ancient mystic who presented it in artistic form differs but on presenting this knowledge that is best suited to the time, place and people which enhance the development of world spirit. Only when the self consciousness of world spirit developed in a society enough for them to conceive the Absolute in thought philosophy arises. This is why in history philosophy comes after art and religion amongst a people. So the succession of philosophical systems in history is successive development of the form of the Absolute Spirit while the essential content remain the same. We have explained in the beginning that Absolute Being is the Being aspect and Absolute Spirit is the Becoming aspect. This becoming is due to love of perfection. Perfection of relative being and relative knowledge. This Absolute Spirit is the Spirit of the world. The state of the world at any time is the self consciousness of Absolute Spirit reached during that period. We have seen that in all other systems like politics, society, nation etc it is as subject and not become an object to itself, Only in self realised men as philosophers and mystics it becomes an object to itself in knowledge. Absolute Spirit as Human Spirit become actual only when it becomes aware of itself or becomes conscious of itself. Now development and more perfection is only possible through this self consciousness of itself as object so there exists a difference between knowledge and actuality. New forms of knowledge gives birth to other forms of actuality later and this continues till complete development and complete perfection is attained. Now the final aim is the Absolute Spirit becomes an object to itself and we have seen that this happens only in self realisation and so the final aim is self realisation of all.           


Section A: Western philosophy

Chapter 1:Introduction

Western philosophy  is classified mainly into four divisions.1-Ancient or Greek philosophy 2-Medieval philosophy.3-Modern philosophy 4-contemporary philosophy.

Ancient or Greek philosophy.

This is Grecian and Graceo-roman philosophy. Ancient philosophy mainly Greek philosophy. The era include Greek philosophy and philosophies up to the fall of  Rome.

Medieval philosophy

This extends till 1400 and Renaissance. These philosophers mainly concerned with the nature of God and application of Aristotelian logic. Important figures are Thomas Aquinas, St Anselm, Duns Scotus etc.

Modern philosophy.

This is the period of abstract or individual subjectivity. This starts with Francis Bacons.17th-century philosophers were René Descartes, Leibniz, Berkeley, Spinoza. John Locke, Thomas Hobbes. etc. The 18th-century philosophers were those of the early period of enlightenment. These are Voltaire, Rousseau. Immanuel Kant, David Hume etc.19th-century philosophers include Hegel and Schopenhauer.

Contemporary philosophy

Main figures are Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre. Other figures are john Dewey, Karl popper, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Bertrand Russell, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, Gadamer

Division I: Ancient Philosophy.

Chapter:1: Greek Philosophy.

     The Greek have always a  sense of freedom and beauty. In their arts we can see that  there is substantial unity of natural and spiritual in the medium of beauty. But here mind governs as the determining subject so nature has no importance than expression of the spirit Greek philosophy started in 6th century B.C. in the time of Cyrus and in the period of decline in the Ionic republic in Asia Minor. This was a period of transition in Greeks  from patriarchal systems of kings to one of law. This was first the time of seven sages.. They were men of understanding and law givers. They gave their understanding expressed in sayings and also as moral maxims in civil laws. They were practical men and most of them were statesmen. Their names vary. Thales, Bias were representatives of Ionic towns., Solon was administrator and law giver in Athens. Others are Periander, Pittacus, Chilon and Cleobulus. Some of the wise sayings are Solon’s ‘Law’s are like a spider’s web; the small are caught the great tear it up’; ‘speech is the image of action’; ‘Nobody is to be esteemed happy before his death.’. Chilon says ‘Stand surety, and evil awaits you.’;’Ally yourself closely to any particular thing, and unhappiness will fall upon you’

   The Greek philosophy  can be mainly divided into 3 periods. Pre Socratic period, Socratic period, Post Aristotelian period. .

i- Pre-Socratic period-This is from Thales to Sophists. This is the first period of Grecian philosophy. Ancient philosophy started with Thales of Miletus around 585 B.C. His students were Anaximenes and Anaximander. In the next centuries in Greece main philosophers were Heraclitus, Anaxagoras ,Empedocles and Democritus. There is then the Eleatics (Parmenides and Zeno). Then sophists. At this time philosophy was concentrated around Athens. The first philosophers of Pre Socratic philosophy enquired about the basic element of nature.. Here Philosophy seek reality not in thought but in nature. Anaxogorus returns to reality as thought as nous. In sophists reality is seen as particular subjectivity. This is mainly the analytic period. .

ii- the Socratic period. This include Socrates, Plato, Aristotle. Here reality is idea or objective thought...

iii- Post Aristotelian period- This is after Aristotle upto Neo-Platonism.

   The most important philosophers of Greek philosophy are Socrates, Plato who was the disciple of Socrates who found the Academy. and Aristotle who was Plato's student


i. Pre Socratic Period.

Chapter 2: Ionic philosophers

     This is the period of realistic philosophy. Most of these philosophers placed one material as the basic principle. Everything arises from this and all is dissolved into this again. This principle remain the same and changes only in it’s particular quality and is called element. They enquired about the basic element of nature. So most of the ancient philosophers were natural philosophers. They mainly studied the sensual elements and the changes in nature. This is the analytic period. Ionic philosophers started with the concrete like water, air etc. Ionic philosophers made sensuous principles the basic principle like one water, or air or chaotic matter. The Ionic philosophers differs from one another only in the question of what constitute the primordial natural substance as the first principle. Three points of these philosophy are 1-They enquired the universal essence of concrete being.2-They found this in material essence.3-They derived all beings from these principles.

 A: Thales

     Philosophy start with Thales He is the first Ionic philosopher. He is not only the first philosopher but first physicist, astronomer and geometrician among Greeks. Thales lived when Ionic towns were under Croesus. He was born at Miletus in Asia Minor around 640 or 629 B.C. He was a statesman partly with Croesus and partly in Miletus. Due to his ethico political wisdom he is counted among the seven wise man. He was in  Egypt in old age and learned geometry. He discovered how to calculate the distance of a ship at sea from observations taken at two points on land and taught the Egyptians to measure the height of the pyramids by shadow-by taking the relation of a man to his shadow. He is credited with first calculating and predicting  the eclipse of the sun on 28 May 585 B.C.. He fixed that solar year should have 365 days. One anecdote says ’In gazing at and making observations on the stars ,he fell into a ditch, and the people mocked him as one who had knowledge of heavenly objects and yet could not see what lay at his own feet’. Some of his sayings ’A wise man, if he wishes can easily acquire riches’; ’It is not many words that have most meaning’. According to him all is divine and all things have soul in them and is alive. According to Aristotle Thales consider soul having capacity for motion. He says magnet has soul because it moves iron. One of his saying'' world is animated and full of demons’ According to Cicero ‘Thales says that water is the beginning of everything but God is the mind which forms all that is out of water.’. According to Diogenes the golden tripod given to the wisest man was given to Thales first and after circulating around it once again came back to Thales. Thales died aged 78 or 90 in 543 B.C. while at games due to heat and thirst. It is said that he had written 200 verses on astronomy and some maxims. He was familiar with the phenomenon of magnetism and with the attractive property of polished amber. He urged the Ionians to unify and name a single capitol.

    Thales identified water as the basic substance. water is the nature of all things. According to him ‘the principle of everything is water, from water all arises and into water everything returns’. According to Seneca ’Thales considered that the whole earth has water as it’s support, and that earth swims there on and derive it's nourishment from water'. According to Aristotle Thales chose water because all nourishment is moist, and warmth itself comes out of moisture thus sustain life, and other reason is all germs are moist and water is the principle of moisture.. According to Aristotle The modification into particular things are through condensation or rarefaction or through grater or lesser intensity. Here quantitative difference gives rise to qualitative difference. Water through rarer becomes air and through denser becomes earth.


   Anaximander was also from Miletus and was a friend and disciple of Thales and is younger than him. His birth was in 610 B.C. and he died at ninety. He wrote book on his philosophy and also about nature, stars, etc. He developed some map showing boundary of land and sea. He also made sun dial and chart of starry heaven.

   According to him the original principle is an infinite atmosphere called boundless and this indistinct infinite matter is the mother of heavens and earth. This ‘unlimited ,eternal and unconditioned’ principle which cover and rule all things and as it lays at the basis of all finite and changeable, itself is infinite and indeterminate. Any way it was not immaterial or incorporeal but some base material,, as the basis of four elements, as this will give rise to warm and cold and wet and dry which is the basis of elements. According to him the primal matter cannot be any of the four elements but must be a neutral one other wise due to their opposition except the primal one the rest vanish after some time. This infinite  element .is  the principle of all; becoming and passing away. The opposites such as warm and cold, dry and wet which do not exist in this indistinct matter gradually parted from this principle and form nature with it's opposite qualities and separate elements. The first opposition is between warm and dry which occur on earth and cold and wet which takes place on heaven. Every thing exists owes it's being to this principle and comes out of it by separation and goes back to it by the appointed time by fate so that new forms arise out of it again. 'At long intervals infinite worlds or gods rise out of it, and again they pass away into the same’ .It does not need any other material for continuous origination, contain everything in itself and rules over all, it is divine ,immaterial and never passes away. The opposites contained in it. Everything in the manifestation is there in undetermined form. or contained as possibility.. The part of the infinite changes but whole itself is unchangeable. This infinitude is in size and not in number. Aristotle says his principle is thicker than air but thinner than water.. In the infinite the like separates it self from the unlike and unite itself to the like; so what is in the whole potentially gold becomes gold etc So nothing originates as it is already there. the infinite becoming finite is by condensation and rarefaction. This is by warm and cold. Warm rarefies or disintegrate form and cold unite them..

    According to his cosmogony  there is eternal motion and due to this ‘out of the infinite, infinite heavenly bodies and infinite world have been set forth but they carry within them their own destruction, because they only are through constant dividing off .The earth has the form of a cylinder, the height which is third part of the breadth. Both the eternally productive principles warm and cold separate themselves in the creation of the earth, and a fiery body is formed round the air encircling the earth, like the bark around a tree. As this broke up the pieces were compressed into circles, and sun ,moon and stars formed. Earth floats freely in an infinite ether, being in equilibrium due to it's equal distance from all heavenly bodies. Infinte worlds are formed and destroyed. The first animals were produced from water and from them arises more advanced species. Man comes from fish. Individuals and species perish but the indefinite matter is indestructible because it is uncreated. It envelops everything, governs everything and produces everything. It posses vitality and is the supreme divinity.

 C: Anaximenes.

He was born around 560-548 B.C. at Miletus and was a friend and student of Anaximander. His basic principle was Air. According to him soul is air. Out of it everything comes and into it everything is resolved. It is immeasurable, infinite and in constant motion. It is endowed with soul. .This selection of air  may be due to as breath sustains life and air surround all things.. He thought air is infinite, eternal and mobile which due to motion out of necessity on rarefaction form fire and on condensation forms first clouds, then water, then earth and rock. Condensation and rarefaction also change temperature as condensed air cold and rarefied air hot. So here the difference between things are only quantitative. According to him earth is shaped like round table.


    The positive point of the ionic philosophy is they found a basic element behind this world. This means they were aware that  this diversity and finite manifestation is not in itself reality but behind these multiplicity the real is One. They have also understood that everything is a form of development from this basic element and dissolve into it again. Secondly a deeper examination of their philosophy reveal that all have some concept of immaterial God as the ultimate cause.  The negative point is they identified material or physical principle as this basic element. As we explained objective aspect of mind either as energy or matter is only the form of mind and it has no independent reality. So what they say as air or water is not matter but mind in the form of matter. Secondly the development of water, air etc is not the beginning so they are not the basic element but the basic is cosmic photon.. The gross material world develop only after the development of soul and subtle material world. Thirdly the cause of finite manifestation is ignored. Cause of motion or becoming is the love of Absolute as Absolute Spirit in the third plane. As we explained cause of motion and manifestation of world is love of Absolute , love of perfectio.n External reality is the manifestation of the spirits,  so the spirits are the ultimate causes.


     Pythagoras born on 608 B.C. or 584 B.C. He was contemporary of Thales and Anaximander. He was born at island of Samos in Asia minor. His youth was spent at the court of Polyerates. From here he journeyed to the main land of Asia minor and here acquainted with Thales. He was first the pupil of the theologian Pherecydes and later perhaps also of Anaximander during this time. Then he traveled to Phoenicia and Egypt. He was initiated into the mysteries of Greeks and barbarians and also got admission into the order of the Egyptian priesthood. This might have influenced him in his formation of brotherhood. He was also introduced to geometry in Egypt.. After a long time returning from Egypt and after a brief stay in Samos, he traveled to Italy and settled in Crotona in Magna Greacia..

.     He started as a public teacher and made an order for moral, religious, social, political and philosophical reform and regeneration of lower Italian cities. It is said that he preached to animals. He considered himself some what divine as he is reported to have said 'There are men and gods, and beings like Pythagoras'. Physically he was handsome and have a majestic appearance. He wore white linen clothes and was a vegetarian. He had great eloquence and profound perception. He not only thought his followers and public theoretically but also associated them in a particular life to make them skillful in professions and good in morals. His popularity brought much envy and he died in the year 504 B.C. at the age of 80 or 104.In history he was often confused and identified with Buddha .This is because there are many common threads in their philosophy. These are dualism. pessimism, metempsychosis, celibacy, common life according to rigorous rules, frequent self examinations, meditations, devotions, prohibitions of bloody sacrifices and animal food, kindliness towards all, fidelity, truthfulness and justice. The Pythagoreans possessed all sciences in their time-astronomy, medicine, geometry, music and acquired overpowering influence among Doric people. They dominated croton in Sicilian republic until middle of fifth century when democracy expelled them, and then they settled in Athens and their influence counteracted sophism and brought spiritualistic reaction of Socrates and Plato against materialism and skepticism.

    His religion contained in a religious order called order of brotherhood, which in some places controlled the state and established the rule of saints His order of brotherhood was a regular community formed for the purpose of spiritual knowledge  and moral culture which will last one’s whole life. His school exerted great influence on the life of Greco-Italian states.  The order of brotherhood had the character of monastic order. In order men and women admitted equal terms, common property, common way of life. Before being admitted one’s education and obedience is tested. Information is collected about conduct, inclinations and occupations. Members given special training and divided further into exoteric and esoteric groups. The former had to go through a training of five years. The latter initiated into spiritual knowledge and also engaged in active politics. Each member must surrender his belongings to the order and received it back on retirement. In probationary period silence was enjoined. In the league a life regulated in all respect was advocated. All members should wear similar dress –the white linen of Pythagoras. A strict time table was set for each day. The morning after rising must spend in recalling the events of previous day. In the evening severe self examination must be done to know whether the work done in the day are right or wrong. They also had to learn by heart from Homer and Hesiod,  and all day studying music, physical exercises like wrestling, racing, throwing etc were also compulsory. They dined together. Honey and bread were principal food. water principal and only drink. Meat and fish prohibited .From vegetables beans are forbidden. Some of the rules of the order were 1-Abstain from beans,2-not to pick up what is fallen,3-never touch a white cock,4-not to break bread,5-not to step over a cross bar,6-not to stir fire with iron,7-not to eat from a whole loaf,8-not to pluck a garland,9-not to sit on a quart measure,10-not to eat the heart,11-not to walk on highways,12-not to let shallows to share one's roof,13-not to look in a mirror beside a light,14-When the pot is taken off the fire, not to leave the mark of it in the ashes, but to stir them together,15-when rise from bed clothes roll them and smooth out the impress of the body.

   His metaphysics was founded on mathematics. The philosophy of Pythagoras can be considered as a transition from the Ionic realistic philosophy to intellectual philosophy. In ionic philosophy we see the abstraction of matter from  everything to it’s essence and .Here this abstraction go higher when no sensible and qualitative properties like water, air etc considered but only quantity. Determination of quantity is number. Number is between sensuous intuition and pure thought. Here there is identification of number and what is numbered, measure and measured. According to Pythagoreans number is the reality of things and the whole universe composed of an harmonious system of numbers and of their relations. Number is the material and formal cause of things, elements of number are elements of things, even and odd elements, even unlimited, odd limited, one comes from both, and other numbers from one. Numbers have magnitude. Pythagoreans were fascinated by the proportion of things and considered number as the essence of things. It is not sure whether number used in a material sense-number as the material of things or a formal basis-number as the archetype of things. It may be possible that some Pythagoreans thought number as the substances and others as the archetypes. According to them "number is the essence of things and everything is number. In the phenomenon of nature there is a rational order, harmony and conformity to law and these laws can be best represented in measure and number". What impresses Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans is the immaterial in matter, the order which prevails in the world, the unity, proportion, and harmony in its contrasts, the mathematical relations underlying all things. In geometry, in astronomy, and in music, everything is ultimately reduced to number. Hence number is the principle and innermost essence of the world and things are sensible numbers. Every being is a number and the final aim of science is to find each being's number. Infinite series of numbers, which are same as all things is derived from unity. As number is the essence of things, unity is the essence of numbers. There are two kind of unities, the unity from which all the numbers are derived and which comprehend them all, the absolute and unopposed unity, the God of gods. This unity is neither even nor odd or both even and odd, singular and pleural ,God and world. This is identity as continuity and positivity.-this is the universal essence The relationship of this one to concrete existence is through simulation. The elements of number are even and odd. Even is infinite and odd is finite and unity proceeds from both and out of this again comes number. The first One they also identified  beside God, with mind, Hermaphrodite (odd-even). The second unity is the One ,first among the derived numbers. This is opposed to two, three etc plurality and limited by them. The second is opposition or undetermined duality, unit added to unit –two. According to this theory there are two principles  in things or participate in things- one is unity-through which all number-units are units. The second is unity and multiplicity or undifferentiated duality-which is two. Undetermined duality through which all determined dualities are dualities. Duality is as important as unity.-unity is like form and duality is like matter. The duad they also called matter, principle of unlike, strife etc. The next is Third or triad .Here monad reach reality and perfection. Monad proceed through duad and again brought into unity with this undetermined multiplicity-this is triad. They say all and everything is determined through triplicity. Triplicity has absolute form, triple-or the number of the whole has beginning, middle and end. Four or tetrad is triad more developed. It is the most notable number. Tetrad has the source and root of eternal nature within itself, because it is the logos of the universe, of the spiritual and the corporeal. Decad is another form of tetrad. Decad contain within itself the first four numbers,1+2+3+4 makes 10.The opposition between one and many is the source of all the rest. All contraries of nature like warm and cold, wet and dry, male and female, good and evil, finite and infinite are varieties one and the many or odd and even. There are 10 basic categories of antithesis to which all things are traced. These are 1-the finite and the infinite.2-the odd and the evEn.3-the one and the many.4-the right and the left.5-the male and the female.6-resting and moving.7-stright and crooked.8-light and darkness. 9-good and evil. 10-squre and parallelogram

   Matter and motion are to them negative and absence of ideal unity. they also deny origin. According to them world existed eternally without beginning. Pythagorean cosmogony represent eternal unity as a compact sphere in which parts are not distinguished and which float in infinite. The ideal opposition between odd and even, one and many becomes real opposition between full and void. In the beginning full was without void or external to it. The cosmos begins by void breaking into the full. This process is like perpetual breath which agitates the world. The universe has grown from a primal unit which breathes in air or void and then splits up, imposing limits on the previously unlimited. The void penetrate the disc and breaking it into infinite number of infinitesimal particles, smaller images of disc. Since in geometry quality is reduced to quantity and form, these particle differ only in quantity and figure. They form either cubes, pyramids (tetrahedron), octahedrons, icosahedrons, dodecahedrons. The unity reacts against this separation so these elementary particles are again joined according to their geometric affinities ad form elementary bodies as ether, fire air, water and earth. Fire is the element par excellence a it is formed of tetrahedrons. It is the symbol of divine principle in nature and concentrated into a central sun, the hearth of universe and abode of supreme God. Around this revolve 1-Ouranos ,enveloping counter earth and earth,2-the cosmos proper consist of moon, sun and planets,3-Olympus with fixed stars. The distances separating the spheres are proportional to the numbers which express the relations that exist between tones and the respective length of vibrating strings, and their  revolutions around the axis of the world is a divine harmony which only perceived by musical genius. The harmony is the soul of the universe. Different beings form an ascending arc according to the degree of perfection with which they reflect the universal harmony.

   From this numbers to finite concrete reality emanation is as follows. The point corresponds to unity, It is indivisible and the principle of lines like unity is that of numbers. The motion of elementary being the physical point produces the line which is duad, line moves and produces the plane or surface which is triad, plane produce solid body which is tetrad. So what is material is formed from numbers ,then from them also proceed definite bodies like air, water earth and the whole universe and they are harmonious. Like this from this sensation, perception and intelligence gradually arise by emanation. Harmony also consist of numerical relations only.  So music is another thing determined by numbers. The difference in music shows as various relations of numbers. Relation of tones to one another is found on quantitative difference whereby harmonies formed and others by which discord is formed. So in music consonance and dissonance is a mathematical arrangement.

    As decad is the perfect number they maintained that the heavenly bodies are ten. These are 1-milky way.2-saturn.3-jupiter.4-mars.5-venus.6-mercury.7-sun.8-moon.9-earth. 10-Antichthone.This ten bodies due to movement makes tones, each makes different tones so a harmonious sound arise in the heavenly region. We do not hear the sound because we live within it.

Pythagoreans know the morning and evening star are one and the same and moon get light from the sun. He thought of numbers as shapes and invented cubes and squares of numbers. The greatest discovery of Pythagoreans was the famous Pythagorean theorem, proposition about right angled triangles; the sum of the squires on the sides adjoining the right angle is equal to the squares on the remaining side-hypotenuse. In physics the Pythagorean Philolaus taught the circular motion of earth. Earth is not at the center of the universe, but swings in a circular motion around a central fire, which motion produces day and night

      In ethics they taught and practiced asceticism and strict culture of character. According to him we are strangers in the world . One of his parable is there are three kind of men in world similar to men who come to Olympic games. The lowest come to buy and sell, the middle to compete and the best group is who simply watch. So the greatest purification id disinterested knowledge, the man who devote himself to this is the true philosopher who is released himself from wheel of death. They considered earth (lower world) as inferior, they opposed suicide, considered body as prison of soul According to them soul is also number .Thought is 1 ,knowledge is 2,opinion is 3 and sensuous feeling is 4.The individual is mortal as he is the union of material elements according to a ratio that varies within certain limits. when these limits are exceeded there is disproportion which result in unequal struggle, disease, decay and death. As the ideal content of the body ,the soul is beyond this destruction. They believed in immortality of the soul, transmigration of soul and also metempsychosis (human soul living in animal body). Soul is transformed to other kind of living things, so nothing is new and everything that comes into existence born again in the revolution of cycle. So all living things considered akin. Soul is a fixed number in the eternal scale of things, a portion of world soul and a thought of God. So it is immortal and at death it passes into a state inferior or superior to past earthly life according to whether the soul has lived for God, for the world or for itself.

 In practical philosophy they advocated 10 virtues. Among them first was justice. Some of their maxims are ‘honour the oath and the illustrious heroes’;' honour to be paid to parents and relatives’ They established  morality  through brotherhood among it’s followers. According to them to see truth we must purge, as medicine purge body, music purge soul.


The positive point of Pythagorean philosophy is unlike Ionic philosophers they found a more abstract thing than sensuous material as the basic principle. So they even abstracted elementary determinations like quality and reduced matter to quantity (space and time). Number is between sensuous and thought. It is a non sensuous object of sense. The primary defect of this philosophy is they identify number with mind and spirits-which are pure thought with the form of essence of energy or unexcited strings. These spirits are the archetype of things and not numbers. Secondly like the Ionics they does not explain the cause of formation of world from numbers-the cause of change, becoming and motion. Thirdly they fail to adequately explain sense qualities

What Pythagoreans says as the first unity which comprehend all numbers and which is beyond odd and even is the plane of Absolute Subject of unknowable Essence. The second unity or one is the first manifestation of Absolute Spirit as universal subjective being from which emanate all the succeeding beings. Decad as the perfect number consists of all the planes; 3 eternal planes+4 divisions of soul world +3 divisions of subtle material world.

    In Pythagoras we can see the union of the being aspect of reality of the Eleatics and the becoming of Heraclitus. This is the breaking up of the sphere into infinitesimal ideal atoms and further their combination to produce elements and the rest. Similarly here we can see the blending of mathematics and theology or religion and reason for the first time. This may have a great influence on Plato and Platonism and the archetypes and ideal world of Platonism is may be developed from Pythagoreans. Form the concept of the first unity which is beyond odd and even and souls as thoughts of God we can see Pythagoras had the correct concept of Absolute and his order and various disciplines and methods in these order prove beyond doubt that he is a  self realised soul and a mystic philosopher

Chapter:4:The Eleatics.

  The first real problem in the start of philosophy was that of becoming. Being persists and beings also change, This problem of being's both permanence and change gave rise to three philosophies. The Being of Eleatics, The Becoming of Heraclitus and the Atomistic system, idealistic in Pythagoras as ideal unity or number, materialistic in Democritus and Lucippus as material unity, atom, and dualistic in Anaxagoras. To monadists and atomists there exist both permanence and change, permanence in being ,perpetual change in their relations.

   Eleatics chose pure being as the basic principle. This is an abstraction of all material things-both quality and quantity. They also denied all changes, so non being and becoming. This undetermined changeless being is the ground of nature and the world. This is a form of Monism as everything reduced to pure being.. Eleatic philosophy has 3 periods-1-Xenophanes-foundation 2-Parmenides and Melissus-systemic formation 3-Zeno-completion.


He was a contemporary of Anaximander and Pythagoras. He was an Ionian and for reason unknown he escaped from his native town, colophon in Asia minor to Magna Garcia and settled in Elea- colony in Lucania.. In his old days he was so poor so that there was no means of burying his children and so done it with his own hands. He died around the age of 100.He wrote a book ‘on nature’ explaining his philosophy. His philosophy was developed and systematised by Parmenides and Melisses and later defended by Zeno by his dialectics.

    His philosophy is monotheism identifiable with pantheism. He criticised polytheism, anthropomorphism and anthropopathism (attribution of human passions). He advocated the unity of God.. He criticized the concept of God as born, having human voice and form. There is One God, neither comparable to God of homer nor to mortals, neither in form nor in thought .About Greek’s anthropomorphic and mythological concept of God he reacts like this; "Hesiod and Homer have attached to the gods all that which brings shame and censure to men; stealing, adultery, and mutual deceit' Mortals deem that gods are begotten as they are, and have clothes like theirs, and voice and form . . . yes, and if oxen and horses or lions had hands, and could paint with their hands, and produce works of art as men do, horses would paint the forms of gods like horses, and oxen like oxen, and make their bodies in the image of their several kinds. . . . The Ethiopians make their gods black and snub-nosed; the Thracians say theirs have blue eyes and red hair." In another anecdote he made fun of Pythagoras theory of transmigration:' Once they say, he (Pythagoras) was passing by when a dog was ill treated. Stop, he said, don't hit it, it is a soul of a friend! I know it when I heard it's voice".

. To him godhead is seeing, hearing, understanding, unmoved, undivided, not like man neither in form nor in understanding and rule over everything by his thought. To him ‘The all is One and God is implanted in all things; he is unchangeable, without beginning middle or end.’ he thinks everywhere ,sees everywhere, hear everywhere.’ One God ,is greatest amongst gods and men, neither like unto mortals in spirit or in form. This God is all eye, ear and thought and no different organs and faculties. It is immutable and immovable so he carry out all wishes by thought alone.  This infinite God has neither generation nor corruption, neither change nor origin.

   To him thought and reason are everything and eternal and denied the truth of origination and dissolution., change and movement. It is impossible for anything to arise either from like or from unlike. If from like there will be no distinction from begetting and begotten; if unlike non-being rise from being. The God is One ,this is because if there are more than one he won’t be the mightiest, he is everywhere alike. he sees hears and all other senses are also everywhere. Since God is everywhere alike he has a spherical form. He is eternal and neither limited nor unlimited. To be unlimited is nonbeing., to be limited means by another .since there is only one it is not limited. Like this he neither move himself nor unmoved. Unmoved means non being ,to be moved means several. So the one neither rests nor is it moved. He also believed everything made out of water and earth.


.    He was born at Elea, in the south of Italy around 504-501 B.C.. He was a student of xenophobes. One of the important thing in his life is journey to Athens with Zeno and meeting with Socrates. According to Plato Socrates in his youth had an interview with Parmenides (who was then old) and learned much from him He is the main philosopher of Eleatic school.. He was revered and admired by all. ’A life like Parmenides’ becomes a proverb in Greek. .He may be influenced by Pythagoras. He is associated with invention of logic. He furthered the monotheistic conception f Xenophanes. Since there is no change in God and He is everything change is an appearance or illusion and there is only Being. It is not a union of opposites since there is no opposites.

   Parmenides also believed there are two aspects of reality. One, the Real, permanent aspect, he called the doctrine of truth  and the other, illusionary aspect, doctrine of opinion or seemingly true. Truth corresponds to reason and opinion to and senses. While Heraclitus gave importance to change Parmenides stressed the permanent aspect. So he is known as an idealist.. The central philosophy of Parmenides is the opposition between being and non-being. He explained his philosophy in a poem called ‘on nature. The poem has two parts In the first part dedicated to truth he proves by arguments that our ideas of change, plurality and limitations are contrary to reason. The second part deals with what is illusory and explain nature from stand point of illusion.

     In first part he discuss the conception of being. This being is opposed to finite and changeable. This being excludes all becoming, departing, relation to space and time, divisibility and movement. The only positive determination of this infinite pure being is Thought. Being and Thought are identical. Now thinking about this pure being is true knowledge while phenomenal knowledge is deceptive. In the poem the goddess explains as developing everything from knowledge of truth and opinion. Goddess says’ understand, which are the two roads of knowledge. The one which is only being, and which is not non-being ,is the path of conviction, the truth is in it. The other that is not Being ,and which is necessarily non being  is ,I must tell you, a path quite devoid of reason, for you can neither knew, or attain to ,or express non-being.’ ‘It is necessary that saying and thinking should be being, for being is but nothing is not at all’. We cannot know non being. The finite and limitation is the forms of this nothing. To think that nothing is true is the way of error in which the ignorant mortals live. The truth is only the 'is' .This is neither begotten one nor transient, whole, unmoved, without end, it neither was nor will be. It is the all. ’Thought ,and that on account of which thought is ,are the same. For not without that which is ,in which it expresses itself will you find thought, seeing that it is nothing and will be nothing outside of that which is. The same thing exists fro thinking and for being. So thought produces itself and what is produced is a thought and thought identical with being. It is limited, determinate, and complete in itself. Being having perfection the spherical shape. So it is same and equal everywhere.

  Here beginning with the idea of being, he proves that, that which is cannot have become what it is, nor can it cease to be, nor become something else. If being has a beginning it must be from being or non being. In the former it is it's own product which is same as no origination so it is eternal. In the latter it is not possible for being to come out of non being. Similar is the case of it's change and death. In death it passes either into being or non being. If being is changed to being it does not change and to say it passes into nothing is same as it came from nothing. So being is eternal. It is also immovable. It can only move in space. Space is or is not. If space is it is identical with being and to say being move in space is same as being move in being, which means at rest. If space is nothing there cannot be any movement, as motion only takes place in space. So motion is an illusion or appearance. Being is a continuous and indivisible whole and there is no void any where so there is no atoms. If for argument sake we admit there is void-a break between parts, if this void is real, it is what being is, so it continues being instead of interrupting it, unite the bodies instead of dividing it. into parts. In this case all beings constitute one single being. Being is absolute and self sufficient. If it is relative it must depends on either another being or non being. If it depends on being it depends on itself and is independent, and if it depends on non being it is still independent, which exclude from it all desires, need and feeling. When one is everything there is no desire. Being is one, a second or third being is the continuation of the one so itself.. So Being is eternal, immutable, immovable, continuous, indivisible, infinite, unique. The Being that thinks and the being that is Thought are same thing. 'The thing that can be thought and that for the sake of which thought exists is the same; for you cannot find thought without something that is, as to which it is uttered.' When you think or speak a name it is always about something. Since we can think of something anytime we want, that means there is no change so becoming and passing away are illusion.

   Second part is about the phenomenal world so only opinion of mortal which depends on senses and is illusory. The universe which to reason is indivisible unity divided into two realms by senses. One is day, light, fire or heat. The other is night, darkness and cold. The universe which is eternal to reason has an origin and beginning to senses. This origin is the victory of light over darkness. Light is the father and night is the mother of all forms. Everything in the world consists of these two elements in constant proportions .The manifestations are due to mingling of these two basic elements warm and cold or fire and earth. According to Aristotle Parmenides united warmth with Being and cold with Not-being. There are two forms of opinion. one ,ethereal fire and light  is fine and right opinion. by this warm and soft and light expressed. The other belonging to night is thick and wrong and .this expresses cold. Parmenides thus make two principles in things light and night, warmth and cold. and everything is a mixture of both. Light ,warm is called the active and animate, cold the passive. Thought contain more light and warmth ad sensation contain more night and cold. The universe consist of a series of concentric spheres alternating with light and warm spheres with dark and cold spheres. The outermost sphere which enclose all is solid ,cold and dark, below is the fiery sphere of fixed stars. The central sphere is also solid and cold and surrounded by a sphere of light and life. This fiery sphere which surround the solid core of earth is the source of movement (which is illusion), hearth of universal life, seat of Divinity, Queen of world, Mother of love, Justice and Necessity.


     Zeno was born in in Elea in 500 B.C. and was a student of Parmenides. Parmenides was very fond of him and adapted him as son. He was respected as a teacher and was famous in Greece. Except the brief journey to Athens he remained in Elea. He freed a state from it’s Tyrant by sacrificing himself  so his death was celebrated. He was the first one to write in prose among Grecian philosophers. He wrote in dialogues. He is the father of dialectics and sophistry.

   He like his master believed in a single ,simple and unchangeable being and showed the contradiction in phenomenal being. He showed the inherent contradiction in the reality of motion and multiplicity.The One alone is conceivable, and extension, motion, magnitude and space cannot be conceived By proofs and dialectical method he showed the many ,the changing, that relate to time is not being. While Parmenides confirmed being Zeno denied appearance. Aristotle named him founder of dialectics. According to Zeno the many is not. Some of his reasoning is as follows. Firstly he says if the many is it must be either great or small. if great it must be infinite in number, but infinite is neither great nor many. If small so small to have no size ,then if it is added to another does not increase size and if taken away does not decrease size so it is nothing. Against the negation of motion and change he put 4 proofs and they are due to infinite divisibility of space an time.1-Movement cannot be conceived. We cannot traverse an infinite number of points in finite time. Line which separates staring point from rest composed of points, since point has no extension infinite number of points. So every distance even the smallest one is infinite and stopping point cannot be reached.2- However near the swift Achilles to the slow tortoise he will never be able to overtake it since he first have to pass one half of the distance and for this, one half of that half, and so onto infinity. By the time Achilles reaches the place from where tortoise stared tortoise will have got some way ahead. So motion has no truth. because what is in motion must first reach the middle of the space before arriving at the end. When two bodies move in the same direction and one in front and the other behind but moving quicker than the one in front, will not be able to overtake the one in front this is because the second one requires a certain space of time to reach the place from which the one in front started at the beginning of the given period.3. Arrow moving through air is an illusion. In order to reach destination it must pass over series of points in space. so it must successively occupy these spaces. This means rest so motion is an illusion. The flying arrow rests, and for the reason that what is in motion is always in the self-same Now and the self-same Here, in the indistinguishable;”4-similar bodies moving in opposite direction in the space beside a similar body, and with equal velocity, one from one end of the space the other from the middle. It necessarily results from this that half the time is equal to the double of it. Again motion only take place in space. If space is real, it must exist some where, in space ,this in turn in another space upto infinity. So motion is impossible.

   In Parmenides philosophy there is no connection between the doctrine of truth or being and doctrine of appearance. This contradiction resolved by Zeno saying that from the very conception of being the world of not being is dialectically dissolved. This method of showing the contradiction and nullity of the finite and the many hence the negation of change and motion Hegel calls the negative side of objective dialectics. Dialectics means the movement of thought in notions .Here objective means contradiction and nullity is not brought by the subject but arises from the thing itself and negative means here only negative side or nullity is proved but the positive or synthesis is not considered.


    The positive point of Eleatic philosophy is they identified Thought as the basic principle of the world. It is possible to assume from Xenophanes that he believed in a transcendent God. As the Being is devoid of both quality and quantity and is beyond opposites and beyond ordinary conception of mind and matter.  it is identical with our first plane of Absolute as Absolute Subject. As we have seen from this standpoint mind itself is nonbeing and nothing. We have seen that mind as  reflective mind or spiritual plane is the cause of the concept of origin, time ,space, motion and objective aspect of Absolute Spirit as essence of energy is the extension and magnitude aspect. We have also seen that what Parmenides call the realm of opinion is the plane Absolute Spirit whose subjective, consciousness aspect is light and objective aspect of essence of energy is darkness. We have also seen that when the subjective aspect is more there is soul and subtle plane and when objective aspect more material plane. The view of Parmenides looking at the Absolute only from the higher plane and denying all other plane as illusion is some what similar to the view of Sankar's Advaita Vedanta where only Brahman without qualities is real and Brahman with qualities including even personal God (Ishwara), plane of Mahat (Absolute Spirit) are considered as unreal and the effect of Maya (illusion). Here the difference is in Parmenides Being aspect is real and the spiritual plane of Absolute Spirit as the plane of subject with predicates is as eternal as Subject Itself and and unlike the Absolute World which is the becoming aspect, they as the plane of permanent spirits is the Being aspect. The defect of this philosophy is they reduced reality to Being and denied all changes, motion and becoming. They confined reality to the plane of Absolute Subject and Absolute Spirit  and deny Absolute World. This is the plane of becoming. As Ibn Arabi says complete perfection is only when there is both Being and Becoming-both Absolute and relative Knowledge. As we have seen everything is the gradation of One Essence, Hence they are not unreal but less real when compared with the Absolute Subject and they are called illusion in the sense that they are the mental projections and imaginations of the Subject who is beyond mind. But a deeper reading of Parmenides may reveal that they also completely deny becoming aspect but give more reality to the being aspect. This as we have seen is nearer to reality as permanent spirits of spiritual plane are the base and ultimate cause of manifested world. It is possible that Plato was greatly influenced in his idealism and plane of ideal world  by Eleatic philosophy..



     He was born at Epheses and lived around 500 B.C. He was often called The Mystic. He was a contemporary of Parmenides. He was the first one to withdraw from civil and social life and devote entirely to philosophy. He was hated by his people and in turn he also hated them. he said ’the Ephesians all deserve to have their necks broken as they grow up, so that the town should be left to minors'. When they asked him to take part in state administration he declined. His philosophical work named 'On nature' he deposited in the temple of Diana at Epheses. It is so difficult a book to understand that Socrates used to say about this book ”what I understood of it was excellent, and I had no doubt that what I did not understand is equally good .but the book requires an expert swimmer.’ He was called the obscure due to his love of paradox. His contempt of mankind made him think that only force will compel people to act for their own good. 'Every beast is driven to the pasture with blows', 'Asses would rather have straw than gold'. He also believed in war. 'War is the father of all and king of all; some he has made gods and some men, some bond some free, "We must know that war is common to all and strife is justice, and all things comes into being and pass away through strife'.

     Heraclitus believed there are two aspects of reality. The first he called logos which does not change and is permanent. It is the universal law, which matter obeys but which is above and beyond matter. The law of nature represented by fire comes into being due to this universal law or necessity. This is the form of fire or nature. Things come from fire through this logos. Truth is eternal and immutable and senses gives us only relative knowledge of becoming and passing away, so only reason gives us real knowledge, stable ,divine law, fixed point in flow of things. But human reason is as far from divine reason as ape is from human perfection. Logos is the unity in all things. "Wisdom is one thing. It is to know the thought by which all things are steered through all things." There is unity of opposites. Beyond changing fire as substratum unchanging logos. It is the law, intelligence and immaterial. Men are asleep when wake up enable them participate in logos which govern all and common to all things. We will be morally awake insofar as we are alive to the Logos; which is dry and fiery, insofar as we see the hidden harmony in the constant strife which is the universe.

     The second aspect is this material world represented by fire. He identified fire as the basic principle and to him time is the first corporeal existence. He calls world an ever living fire, which in certain stages extinguishes and rekindles itself. He says everything can be exchanged for fire and fire for everything. It may be possible that Heralitus mean fire represent the abiding power of transformation and transposition or the concept of life. So to Heraclitus fire is the symbol of becoming and also of motion. According to him things arise from opposition and partial extinction of fire. The product of extreme opposition is earth and other things lie intermediary. As a process fire has two sides, one the way upwards and the other downwards-one division due to opposites other unification of these opposites, one enmity and strife which is principle of origin of difference, other harmony and friend ship leading to combustion. So nature never rests always becoming or changing or in motion. It is the transition out of the one into the other, from division into unity and from unity into division. Fire condensed into moisture and when concrete it becomes water, water hardens into earth and this is the way downwards. Earth again becomes fluid, and from it moisture, from this evaporation of sea ,from which all else arises. This is the way upwards. Water divides into dark evaporation, becoming earth and into what is pure ,sparkling becoming fire and burning in the solar sphere, what is fiery becomes meteors, planets and stars. According to him thus the universe was made neither by god nor man, but it ever was and is ,and will be, a living fire, that which ,in accordance with it’s laws, kindles and goes out’. Fire is the fundamental substance. Everything like flame in a fire is born by the death of something else. 'Mortals are immortals. and immortals are mortals, the one living the others death and dying the others life. Everything derived from fire and eventually return to it so every being is transformed fire. Air and water are fire in the process of extinction or renewal. Earth and solid are extinguished fire and will be rekindled anew at a fixed hour by fate. According to immutable law fire of heavenly spheres is successively transformed to vapour, water and earth and return in the opposite direction again to fire. This condensation and descend and rarefaction and ascend continue ad infinitum.  This process has neither beginning nor end. There is end in the sense that everything returns to fire only to re arise from it.

     All things including souls come into existence from fire and into the fire they dissolve again. The basic character of fire or nature is constant change and motion or flow. The transformation of fire is the  sea. There is perpetual change and there is mingling of opposites. In strife opposites combine to produce motion which is harmony and so there is unity of world through diversity. Heraclitus stressed and give important to changing aspect over permanent aspect. Eleatics could not reconcile the infinite and finite, the one and many. Heraclitus  reconciled this by saying 'being and not being, one and many existed as becoming. Everything changes into its opposite and things comes into existence due to the conflict of opposites. So there is unity in opposites. To Heraclitus world is both being and not being or becoming. This is the principle of motion, the cause for change and manifestation. According to Heraclitus everything is in an eternal flow, constant movement and transformation or becoming and permanence of things are only an appearance. There is unity in the world ,but unity of opposites. Rest and being is an illusion of senses. In the eternal whirl non being transformed to being and being to non being. Being and non being, life and death, growth and decay are same other wise they cannot be transformed to one another. Becoming is a strife between opposite forces, one coming from above and try to transfer celestial fire into solid matter, while other re ascends to heaven trying to change earth back into fire. It is this continuous strife of opposites which produce vegetable, animal, and human life on earth. Everything arise from strife of opposites. organic life by male and female music by sharp and flat notes, sickness makes us value heath, without exertion no rest, without danger no courage, without evil no virtue. As fire lives the death of air, air death of fire, water death of air, earth the death of water, so is animal lives the death of vegetable, man the death of animals, gods the death of man, virtue the death of vice and vice the death of virtue. As good is a destroyed evil and evil is a vanished good so evil and good does not exist without the other. So evil is a relative good and god is a elative evil and like being and non being disappear in universal harmony. All things come out of one and one out of all things, but the many have less reality than the one, God. Sometimes he stresses on unity-'good and evil are one', 'to god all things are good, fair and right, but men holds some right and some wrong',' the way up and the way down is one and the same', One of his famous saying ’In to the same stream we descend, at the same time we do not descend; we are and we are not. For into the same stream we cannot possibly descend twice, since it is always scattering and collecting itself again, or rather it at the same time flows to us and from us’. All becoming is due to the synthesis of opposites as harmonious union of warring opposite determinations. His famous words are ‘Strife is the father of things’ and ‘The one setting itself at variance with itself, harmonises with itself, like the harmony of the bow and the viol’ ’Unite,the whole and the not whole, the coalescing and the not coalescing, the harmonious and the discordant, and thus we have the one becoming from the all, and the all from the one. ’He says ’being and non-being are the same ,everything is and yet  is not’. In another ‘everything is in a state of flux, nothing subsists nor does it ever remain the same’ Aristotle says he declares ’there is only one that remains, and from out of this all else is formed ,all except this one is not enduring’. This is becoming. Another Aristotle quote,' join together the complete whole and the incomplete, what coincides and what conflicts, what is harmonious and what discordant, and out of them all comes one, and from one all’.

      Heraclitus identifies fire also with the animating principle or soul. Soul is an emanation of celestial fire and can live only by remaining in contact with this source. It is constantly renewed by respiration and sensation. Generation is transformation of liquid seed into dry breath. So the latent fire of earth passes trough the liquid state and return to it's original condition in the human soul.

He regards soul as a mixture of fire and water,. fire noble part and water ignoble part. The soul that has more fire is dry soul and it is the wisest and best soul. Soul find pleasure in becoming wet by indulging in passions and sensual pleasures. Heraclitus value power by self mastery and despise passions that deviate from central aim of life. In death the soul gradually return to earthy element. According to him 'sensory knowledge has no reality, men’s eyes and ears are bad witnesses, for they have barbarous souls. Reason is the judge of truth, not the arbitrary but only the divine and universal judge’. The whole, the universal and divine understanding ,in unity with which we are logical is the essence of truth. He further says, ’The surrounding are reason ‘,and again ‘we do and think everything in that we participate in the divine understanding hence we must follow the universal understanding. but many lives as if they have an understanding of their own, this understanding is ,nothing but interpretation. Of the manner in which all is ordered. and in so far as we participate in the knowledge of it ,we are in the truth, but in so far as we are singular we are in error’. He further said “men are mortal gods, and gods immortal men; living in death to the former and dying is their life”. He also believed senses are the base of knowledge but only reason will leads to wisdom. An individual energy and knowledge depends on his communion with celestial fire, supremely intelligent and wise soul of the world.


     The positive point of this philosophy is it explains manifestation or motion. There is constant strife between opposites like being and non being etc and this cause becoming which is motion. So the cause of motion is the strife between the opposites. Becoming is an important aspect of reality. The defect of this philosophy is like Eleatics this is also mostly one sided. In considering  reality we have to see both Being and Becoming. The second point this does not really explain the cause of the becoming or motion. It is true that becoming is the result of strife between opposites like Being and mind which is the non being. But the cause of this strife is the love or desire of Being for perfection.  The logos of Heraclitus and the truth of Parmenides correspond to our eternal aspect as spiritual plane of Absolute Spirit while the fire of Heraclitus and opinion of Parmenides corresponds to  temporal manifested world. Fire also symbolise the objective aspect of Absolute Spirit as essence of energy and the objective aspect of universal subjective soul as supra light waves like cosmic, gamma,X-ray waves. We have told that permanence and change are two aspects of one and same reality. The ideal or spiritual existence is not apart from the world but they are the inner reality of the world; in other words world is the self expression of the ideal existence. There is no predominance of one over the other. The only thing is world of ideas are permanent while world of senses transient.



   He was born at Agrigentum in south coast of Sicily in 472 B.C. It is said that he worked miracles and controlled the wind. He gave life to a  women who was dead for 30 days. He was  considered as a god and magician .He was respected very much during life and a statue was erected to him in his native town after his death. He is Zeno’s fellow student and had Pythagoreans as students. He is known as a natural philosopher, physician, poet, seer and a miracle worker. He was younger than Parmenides and Heraclitus. He was a democratic politician and was later banished from his land. He is the first one to discovered air as separate substance and sex in plants. About evolution he says first there were creatures of different forms and the best forms survived. He discovered moon shine by reflected light and solar eclipse is by interposition of moon. He is also the founder of Italian school of medicine He died by jumping into the crater of Etna. Two of his philosophical poems which survived are 'on nature' and 'purifications'.

    He tried to unite the Eleatic being and the Heraclitus becoming. Matter is immutable but bodies constantly change. This is due to combination and separation of elements in different proportions. According to him there is no elementary unity and four elements and two immaterial principles are the fundamental ones. According to him these unchangeable being is four eternal basic elements which though divisible are independent and un derived from each other. These are fire, air, water, and earth. He is the originator of the four elements. These elements uncreated. The union and division of this elements is due to two forces, friendship or love and strife. Love unite and, strife separates them. Love is in the elements but strife external to them. These opposing divinities alternatively unite the elements. Love first unite them in to a spherical body. So at first the four elements were alike ,unmovable, living in a divine sphere united by love, until strife pressing from periphery to centre broke the union resulting in formation of world. This beginning of material world sphere is the golden age where love inside and strife outside, then gradually strife entered and expelled love until strife is fully inside and love outside, then after some period opposite movement takes place, golden age returns and this way the whole cycle repeated. These strife and love are the  modern forces of repulsion and attraction. Love and strife separate and unite elements and substance continuously and there are dominant periods of love and strife. When combine by love strife separate them, when separated by strife, love unite them. While Parmenides starting from one made love his principle and Heraclitus from many made strife and Empedocles combines these two. He is called an Eclectic who united the two theories of his predecessors. According to him world events have no purpose and it is only chance and necessity

    Man is the image of the original united spherical body. He represent all the four elements. Earth by solid parts of body, water by liquid parts, air by vital breath, fire by spirit. He is also affected by love and hate. His intellectual superiority is due to all cosmic elements are contained in him. He perceives everything because he is everything, he perceives solids because he is earth, liquids because he is water etc. We perceive what is out side us through the same thing within us. Within us there is earth, water, fire, air, love, strife etc and these meet the same outside. Objects give stream of particles which are picked by the same elements within us in sensation. So to know is to become what we know. Blood where the four elements are closely mingled is the seat of sensation and soul. Senses are accepted as a path to understanding, the openings through which reality can be known by us. Health of man depends on normal composition of blood and blood is sacred and must not be used as food.

   In his poem purifications he describe spiritual matters. According to him  like Heraclitus soul is a fiery substance. strife detached it from spherical body where it first existed with all other beings. Like all other things it eventually return. Life is the expiation of soul's desire for separate existence. Passing through stages of plant, animal. man, it raises by degrees, by abstinences, fasts, and continent living finally again return to God. According to him there are some men who become sinless after many incarnations achieve immortal bliss in the company of gods but at last they appear as prophets, poets, physicians and princes among men. According to this poem Empedocles and probably all men are fallen gods from blissful state of love, the state of unity and wholeness due to lapse and strife and incarnated as other animals in sea and land and also as man and must make purification for the return. Wisdom and knowledge of God cannot get from the objects through senses. God is not like anything in the world. God is a sacred and unutterable mind flashing through the whole world with rapid thoughts. It is man's misdeed which disrupt the unity and produce the present condition of man. When the soul has finished the forms of mortal life it once again passes in to love and unity. According to him propagation of human species is evil because it maintain that actual state of strife and delay return to unity. Empedocles also reduce these four elements and two principles into a higher unity-God. Love is the principle of principles, four elements are it's agents and strife is it's indispensable accomplice .This one is the invisible immaterial One God flashing through the whole world with rapid thoughts.


  The elements fire, air, water and earth as basic principles of this philosophy is only material things. Further we have seen that they all are not fundamental but air developed out of fire and water out of air etc. Even fire is not fundamental but as we mentioned they are the successive developments starting from supra light waves( cosmic, gamma,X-ray waves). Now this objective or material aspect is in reality mind in the form of universal subjective soul. Secondly love and strife as the immaterial principles which unite and divide them. We have seen that the cause of movement which manifest the world is Love, desire of relative perfection, both in becoming and relative knowledge. This is true upto manifestation of spirit which is self realisation. From this angle both attraction and repulsion, union and division are not opposition but form of love itself.


Chapter:7:The Atomist:- Democritus the materialist:

     The atomists were Leucippus and Democritus. Leucippus was born in Milius and lived around 440.B.C.He was influenced by Parmenides and Zeno. Democritus was born in Abdera of Thrace ,an Ionic colony, on the Aegean sea in 470 or 460 B.C. He lived in the time of Socrates and Sophists . He was rich and made journey to Egypt and the East like Persia.. He traveled extensively and left writings which contain his philosophy. For rhythm and elegance of language Cicero compared him with Plato. He was a friend and disciple of Leucippus. Democritus is known as the father of materialism. He died at the age of 100.

       The atomists Leucippus and Democritus also attempted a union of Eleatic and Heraclitic principles. Atomism also attempt mediation between monism of Parmenides and pluralism Empedocles. Democritus believed in two eternal realities, of atom and void. Atom and void, being and non being both exists.He is the founder of atomism. Atoms are eternal, immutable, innumerable, indivisible and in constant motion. There is difference in size, shape, position and order of atoms. Atoms also differ in heat, spherical atoms, which compose of fire is the hottest. Atoms have hooks to connect them with other atoms. These atoms are the basic substance and. they are without beginning and eternal. Atoms possess only physical properties. Qualities are supplied by the subjective mind. To atomists full and empty are the basic elements .Full is existent and it’s principle  is atoms, empty is nonexistent and example is vacuum. Atom is impenetrable and indivisible because there is no void in it.

 The full or atom is not simple but infinitely many and these many move in vacuum. Their combination brings origination of things and their disintegration and separation is passing away. In material things atoms are separated by vacuum. The diversity of things are due to the diverse nature of atoms in three ways, in figure (like A from B) or in order( like AB from BA) or in position (like N from Z). To Atomists the basic principle of manifestation is these unlimited number of atoms. Atoms are homogenous in quality but diverse in form. They are unchangeable, material, have extension so only have magnitude. As atoms are being without quality they are incapable of qualitative change or transformation so becoming is only a change of place. The world is the result of  the union of atoms in different form and combinations. The atoms as undivided and impenetrable are limited and separated from each other. The void is necessary to distinguish atoms hence for their existence and also for motion. It is the void space which makes them limited and separate. This is the objective form of the being and not being, in becoming of Heraclitus. The cause of the becoming was explained by atomists by explaining matter as the abiding being and force as the ground of motion. This forces are love and hate. . He reconciled the Being of Parmenides with becoming, motion and many of Heraclitus by stating atom and void. Void is non being and atoms being and  infinite and invisible atoms moving in void results in coming together or becoming and separating or passing away.

    As a result of collisions, collection of atom produce vortices, thus form bodies and worlds. The world is formed by the different variety of atoms in different combinations. Perpetual motion produce whirling movement and thus combine according to external affinities, like size and form, since chemically they are all same and neither attract nor repel each other. There are many such worlds, some growing, some decaying, some have no sun or moon and some have several of them. Every world has a beginning and end and a  world is destroyed by collision with a larger world. The heaviest atom move down wards in infinite space while the lightest form the atmosphere. some atoms have uneven, rough, sharp or hooked surfaces and these combines to form acid or bitter substances. Atoms with smooth surfaces form substances which are sweet or agreeable to senses. Souls are spherical atoms. Soul consists of finest ,smoothest and so most nimble atoms. When such atoms are alone or in small groups they are insensible and when joined in large quantity they acquire the faculty of sensation. They are scattered all over the body, but more in sense organs producing sensations in brain as seat of thought, in heart as seat of feelings and in liver as seat of desire. They explained that from things the surfaces detaching fly into the eyes and ears etc and this is the way feeling and sensations are produced. So sensations and perception is effluences comes from objects and enter sense organs producing sensations and entering brain produce images and ideas. Life developed out of primeval slime. First living species including man generated from mud or slime by chance.There is fire everywhere in the body but most in brain or heart. Thought is a kind of motion so able to cause motion elsewhere. Perception and thought are physical process, two kind of perceptions, one of senses, other of understanding. Perception of latter depends on things perceived and the former also on our senses and so may become deceptive. Like Locke Democritus also maintained that qualities like warmth, taste and colour are not in object but in the sense organ of subject while qualities like weight, density, hardness are in the object. Sensation only source of knowledge and there is nothing in thought that is not first in senses. Our ideas represent impressions of relation between ourself and external world and not exact reproductions of object themselves whose essence is unknowable. So Democritus believed that even though senses are the main source of knowledge, they present only a dim view of reality. Real knowledge is by the aid of reason, which present the essence of things.

    Human soul is also formed by soul atoms which are bound to the brain and which disperse at death to form another soul. So there is no after life. We are self conscious as long as soul atoms are intact in the body. When certain number of atoms escape there is loss of consciousness and sleep. When all of them except a few escape there is seeming death, and when all soul atom separated  from body at once there is death. death cannot destroy the atoms as they are indestructible, but destroy union in a body and individuality by such union. Since feeling does not belongs to isolated atoms but only combination of atoms in brain ad sense organ death ends feelings and personality.

   The gods are more powerful than men, and live much longer but they are not immortal as they also composed of soul atoms and eventually die by its separation. Since they are more powerful and wiser than us we should venerate them. Above the gods and above everything is the Necessity, the supreme, impersonal and impartial law which governs heavens and earth. This natural law which imposed on all beings we must submit with joy and our happiness depends on that. The cause of the initial motion of atom or the ultimate ground of becoming he placed in absolute necessity and this final ground or first necessity  is ‘chance’. So he argued that  everything happened through natural cause and necessity. Perpetual motion, not from outside but belongs to their essence and deny teleology and design and chance and apply necessity and laws. According to him the word chance is due to ignorance of real causes, nothing in nature happens without cause and al have reason and necessity. He was a Determinist, everything happen due to natural laws and necessity-not by chance or final cause, only mechanistic explanation. He was a materialist, to him soul is atom and thought  physical process and no teleological purpose in world as atom governed by mechanical laws. He had no belief in popular religion and denied nous of Anaxagoras.

   In ethics he considered cheerfulness and happiness the goal of life, and regarded moderation and culture as the best means to it. He disliked everything violent and passionate; he disapproved of sex, because,  it involved the overwhelming of consciousness by pleasure. He valued friendship, but thought ill of women, and did not desire children, because their education interferes with philosophy. He preferred democracy.

Some of his sayings are 'poverty in a democracy is as much to be preferred to what is called prosperity under despots as freedom is to slavery'; 'to be happy and not to suffer one must not seek pleasure in mortal things'; 'works of justice produce happiness'; 'man must concern himself with society, state ad public affairs'; 'one must not  quarrels contrary to right, nor acquire a power contrary to the common good'; 'The well-run State is the greatest protection, and contains all in itself; when this is safe, all is safe; when this is destroyed, all is destroyed'; 'one must respect one's own opinion than that of others and this must prevent him form doing wrong'; 'Courage is the beginning of action, but Fortune is the arbiter of the goal, but only fool are shaped by chance and more men become good through effort than by nature' ;'we must limit desires, strive for the possible and key to true pleasure is moderation'; 'one must be content with what is attainable and what one has, never envy and and look upon those who are higher in state but look upon who are less fortunate than us and this will bring content knowing how fortunate we are when compared with them ;'Those to whom their neighbors' misfortunes give pleasure do not understand that the blows of fate are common to all; and also they lack cause for personal joy."


This is a pure mechanical explanation of nature. Here the atoms and void which are the forms of mind is taken as reality and nature of mind is ignored. The defect of this philosophy is ground as some thing material and indivisible like atoms and to derive extension from that which has no extension. Another defect is necessity as cause and of chance as the ultimate cause which ignore all conception of design from nature.



   He was an Ionian and often mentioned as from Ionic school. He was the first to suggest mind as the primary cause of physical changes. Hermotimus was his teacher and it is said that he was also the student of Anaximines. He was born in Clazomenae in Lydia inv 500 B.C. and was contemporary of Democritus, Empedocles and Parmenides. Withdrawing from public life he devoted entirely to philosophy. He made numerous journeys and in the 45th year in 456 B.C. came to Athens after the Persian war and lived and taught there thirty years  from 462-432 B.C. Pericles ruled at this time and he become a friend of Pericles. When Pericles becomes old, his opponents began a campaign against Pericles by attacking his friends. They passed a law permitting impeachment for not practicing religion and teaching higher things. He was accused of despising and disrespecting gods like saying 'Sun is a red hot stone and sun moon earth and other stars are natural things and not gods' and was condemned to death by people. His death was avoided by Pericles by pleading for him and it is said that punishment reduced  to banishment and in other version  he escaped with the help of Pericles. Any way he returned to Ionia ,founded a school settled. He died around 72 in 428 B.C. at Lampsacus. It was during his time philosophy first flourished in Athens which later become the centre of philosophy. Through his relations with Pericles, Euripides, Themistocles, and Thucydides he made a great influence on the culture of the age. His well known written work was ‘concerning nature’

       Anaxagoras differ from Heraclitus mainly on two points-one he opposes his dynamism with mechanical cosmogony and secondly substitute dualism for monism-one is the unintelligent inert substance and the other is intelligent principle as the cause of the others motion. Like his predecessors Empedocles and Atomists he also deny the becoming. According to one of his sayings ’The becoming and departing the Greeks hold without foundation, for nothing can ever be said to become or depart; but ,since existing things may be compounded together and again divided, we should name the becoming more correctly a combination, and the departing a separation.

    According to him matter cannot be reduced to primary elements like air, fire etc that is transformed to other substances. It is inconceivable how a substance become another substance. Everything is  infinitely divisible and even  the smallest matter contain some of each element. This means everything contain fire or earth etc but we call fire that where the element fire  predominates. So there are infinite number of primary elements. These are infinite in number and infinitely small, uncreated, indestructible and unchangeable in essence. Their quantity is always same so nothing is added or destroyed. No change in quantity or quality, so nothing comes into being and nothing passes away and nothing is produced and nothing is lost. This first principle has homogenous parts which are infinitely many like principles and are eternal. All arise from union of these like particles and dissolve by separation of these like parts. As everything contain all elements change is only separation of some particles so original object appear different than before, like hot and cold exist together and when cold separated we notice hot.So gold arises by union of more gold particles than other particles etc. So things formed by their combination and disappear by their separation. So coming into being is mixture and passing away or death is separation. He also denied void. The constituent elements of things (homoiomeria) existed together originally in a chaotic state until with their separation and parting there is the formation of world. So manifestation is due to combination and dissolution is due to withdrawal of a moving force which is separate from the matter.

    So second principle and this moving force is world forming intelligence or mind (nous). Mind is the source of all motion . This is the end or good and acting with design.  This intelligence is free to dispose, separate from matter, ground of movement, itself unmoved ,everywhere active and the most refined and pure of all things. This has the attribute of mind and act consciously with design. This is the cause of motion. So Anaxagoras identified Nous or reason as the basic principle. He regard mind (nous) as a substance which enter into living beings and cause life. Everything contain everything except mind which only contain in some things and not in all things. Mind has power over everything that has life. It is infinite and self ruled and mix with nothing. Except mind everything contain opposites like hot and cold ,black and white etc. Motion is not inherent in the elements as they are inert and unintelligent. It is caused by mind (nous) which is the the intelligible element. It is simple and homogenous and distinct from the other and not mixed with them. Inert elements are passive and have no consciousness of their own while mind is active ,free and source of all movement in the world. It knows all things past, present and future. and arrange and organise everything with design and teleological purpose. It is the eternal governor of the world and more powerful than all the elements.

  In the beginning all was alike and unseperated and in chaos resting for infinite time. In the beginning inert, unintelligent elements were all together and in chaos. Here gold, Iron air ,earth are not separate but all together form an indeterminate and inert mass. This first mass identified as air or ether. At this stage only the intelligent principle have a life of it's own distinct from this chaos.  Nous brought movement and separation of likes and union of likes It entered the chaos disentangle it and make the cosmos out of it. The primary infinite elements being set in motion by Nous combined together and again separated according to inner affinities. From the point of motion in the chaos whirling motion gradually extends all over the world. It continues as proved by rotation of heavens till original chaos is completely separated. It causes a rotation which spreading trough out the world causes light things to the circumference and heaviest things to the center. Our earth is a cylindrical body composed of the heaviest primary elements and is carried towards the center of the world by original motion. The lighter elements which form water is deposited on this earth. Higher up atmosphere is formed by the more lighter elements as air. At last in the heavens most subtle elements, fiery ether mixed again. A second separation of elements take place, and by original motion from earth different solid, mineral, and other bodies parted and from water parted different liquids and this continues till  our world and earth has the present form. The stars are sold masses separated from earth by the it's original motion common with the universe and they were ignited by contact with celestial ether.

  The sun is a fiery mass ,moon's light is reflected light from sun and has mountains and valleys in it. He explained moon shine by reflected light. He made the correct theory of eclipse and also moon' position  is below the sun and moon is inhabited. Sun and stars are fiery stones and we do not feel the heat because of distance. All living things like plants, animals, men contain Nous and man is more intelligent only because his mind employ developed organs. So mind is uniform and same in animals as in man and differences in intelligences are due to bodily differences like hands in men. To him reason is the criterion of truth ,the senses cannot judge truth on account of their weakness. One of his saying ’the snow is black, for it is water, and water is black’. The Nous is moving self determined Thought .So Anaxagoras put first mind or intelligence superior to object or matter. Nous knows all things past, present and future before the organization of matter. So it has a transcendent aspect, having reason purpose, freedom, conscious of it's action. As it is present in all living things it has also an immanent aspect. So Nous is both  transcendence and immanence. As Nous is the cause of motion he rejected necessity and chance as cause of things. Socrates and  Aristotle criticise him for making nous only  as the initial cause of motion then leaving everything else to physical and mechanical causes. With Anaxagoras ends the realistic period of Grecian philosophy.


   The positive point of Anaxagoras is he put Nous or self determining mind as the basic principle. The primary defect of this philosophy is here Nous is not seen as the only reality of being or matter or matter as the form of nous but as something different and besides matter. This is supposing two principles  Nous and matter. Secondly as Socrates commented the doctrine has a mechanical character because the function of Nous is only to move matter.


Chapter:9:The Sophists.

     Sofistai means teacher of wisdom, but their laxity in morals and unbelief in polytheism stigmatised them as sophists.  They were not concerned with what things we can know but how can we know and gave rise to scepticism. Sophists are men who made a living by teaching  the young what is useful in practical life. Unlike other contemporary philosophers they found no school and no esoteric teaching for a few of the members apart from public teaching. They taught the art of arguing. They applied the Eleatic principle of negation of finite to all worldly objects and practical life and made the individual subjectivity the deciding factor. They were the first teachers of Greece and taught men wisdom, music, mathematics and philosophy. They instructed the wealthy youths. They were teachers of rhetoric or oratory. They teach individual to lead a good family life and become a good citizen of the state. According to sophists virtues can be taught. Sophists were wealthy and accumulated riches. They taught men to see duty ,justice and right only from the advantage of the individual or from particular subjective view and not from universal so they destroyed the belief in morality and religion. When there are equally valid various point of view the satisfaction of the individual made the ultimate aim..

     Sophists considered mind as above nature and different from nature. The objective world which was above subject before came below subject so they established the superiority of subjective thinking, but this was finite as empirical subjectivity. In sophistic philosophy the subject after recognizing himself as something higher than objective world-not only as above the laws of the state ,above customs and religious tradition and popular faith, but also attempted to prescribe subjective  laws for this objective world. They looked upon world as exanimated matter where he can exercise his will. Sophism is not philosophy in the normal sense but an intellectual movement of that age spreading across the moral, political and religious character of Athenian life. Sophist philosophy represented theoretically what Athenian life was during Peloponnesian war practically. In this philosophy the empirical subject is absolute,he can determine what is right and good and true. The public life had become full of passion and selfishness. Every one set up his own private interests above the common good of state and decided his own advantage the measure of all actions. Customs lost validity. State laws considered as agreement of majority, civil ordinances as arbitrary restrictions. Moral feeling, faith and piety all lost their validity. Sophist philosophy influenced every aspect of life in Athens  and was directed to the universal culture of man. Protagoras was teacher of virtues, Gorgias rhetorician and politician, Prodius grammarian and teacher of synonyms, Hippias astronomer, mathematician and made theory of mnemonics. They all taught for popularity, fame and money. They bartered their instructions for rich people. They advocated pleasure. Along with these negative points they contributed positively every department of life. They demanded investigations into the theory of knowledge, logic and language. They laid the foundation for methodical treatment of all branches of human knowledge thus partly started the intellectual activity in Athens at that age. In language they created and formed the Attic prose. They give language grammar ,syntax or philology. They made style a separate object of study and made investigations into number and the art of rhetorical representation. Athenian eloquence started with them. They are the fore runners of the science of logic. The most important sophists were Protagoras, Gorgias and Prodicus. Their criticism destroyed the mental foundation of polytheism and prepared for the religion of Socrates, Plato and Stoics,


    Protagoras was born at Abdera in 500 B.C. and lived around 440.B.C.He was a fellow countryman and friend of Democritus. He was older than Socrates. He is the first public speaker in Greece. He came to Athens and lived there with Pericles. He made a code of laws for the city of Thurii in 444 B.C-  He taught his entire adult life in Sicily and Athens for wages. He taught practical efficiency and higher mental culture to the wealthy youths. He was pampered by wealthy, cultured and sceptical  youth, and hated by traditional religious common folk. He was prosecuted and driven out of Athens for reviling gods and his books were burnt in public in 411 B.C. While on a journey to Sicily he was drowned at the age of 70 or 90 .Unlike other sophists he was esteemed by all due to his good personal character. He wrote a book named 'On the Gods'. One part of the book says ‘I can know nothing concerning the gods, whether they exist or not; for we are prevented from gaining such knowledge not only by the obscurity of the thing itself, but by the shortness of the human life.’ In another writing he develops his doctrine of knowing or not knowing. starting from Heraclitus’s everything is in constant flow, and applying this preeminently to the thinking subject. He taught that 'Man is the measure of all things, who determines in respect of being that it may be ,and of not being ,that it may not be'. This means in the constant movement of things and the subject himself what is true is that of perception and sensation. This mean individual subjective knowledge of sense objects and even moral judgments is all possible and may seem different to different individuals. According to him one opinion can be better and desirable than another, but not truer.

  The sensible world is in constant becoming so senses show things only that passes away and do not reveal immutable, necessary and universal. Reason is a better source but according to Democritus reflection only shows what is first in senses. So if sensation is changeable, uncertain and illusory and the only source of knowledge, there is only uncertain knowledge. Only those which we feel, sense and experience exist for us. Atoms of Democritus, primary elements of Anaxagoras, elements of Empedocles and primary principles of Milean school, all these  are hypothetical and cannot be demonstrated. There is no truth for man except in what he perceives, feels and experiences. The subject has no relation to the external world than sensuous apprehension and sensuous desire. Since perception and sensation are variable in different subjects and in the same subjects at different times and states this means nothing has objective truth and all claims are true and there cannot be error or contradiction. So there are as many truth as individuals and and man is the measure of truth and good. There are no universal truth or we have no criterion to assess such truth. Practical truth like theoretical truth is also relative depending on matter of taste, temperament and education. It is impossible to know the cause or ultimate nature of reality. He says ’truth is a manifestation for consciousness. Nothing is in and for itself one, but everything has a relative truth only’. As this is the case man must occupy with himself and his happiness which is the ultimate aim. Happiness consists in controlling one self and others. Control one's self mean to be virtuous and philosophy is the art of being virtuous. To govern others in a society which is fascinated by the beauties of language and give more importance to form than matter, one must be eloquent which means think and speak correctly. Philosophy is the art of thinking and speaking correctly. Philosophy consists of three branches-practical ethics, dialectics, rhetoric. This disbelief in objective truth make majority opinion practicable and so he also defends law, convention and  traditional morality.

B: Gorgias.

   He was born in leontium in Sicily and was a statesman.. He was a student of Empedocles. He came to Athens from Leontium during Peloponnesian war(426 B.C.) to get help for his native city against Syracuse. After this he lived some more time in Athens then shifted to Thessaly in the latter part of his life and died at almost the same time as Socrates at the age of 100..The pompous ostentation of his external appearance is often ridiculed by Plato in his dialogues. One of his book is ‘concerning not-being or nature’. In this discourses through poetical ornament, florid metaphors, uncommon words and unheard figure of speech he try to dazzle and delude the mind. He was an adherent of Eleatic Zeno and tried to prove through dialectics that universally nothing is, or if there could be being it would not be cognizable and if cognizable not communicable. This is by his dialectical arguments and it has three parts. In the first he proves objectively that ‘nothing exists’-if being is everlasting it is bound less, and if boundless no position, and if without position does not exist. If it is created it must comes either from being or non being both are impossible. If being is neither everlasting nor created it cannot be both so being does not exist. It cannot be one, if it exists ,it has size and infinitely divisible. If cannot be one neither can be many as many is plurality of one. So nothing exists, neither being, nor non being nor a mixture of the two. In the second part subjectively that assuming that being is ,it cannot be known -if we can think about non existent and imagined things which have no reality ,this means reality cannot be thought. We think about existent thing only because we perceive them. In third part both objectively and subjectively that were it to exist and knowable ,no communication of what is known would be possible-we communicate by speech and it is not the same as the subject of speech, the perceptibles, it is not speech which communicate perceptibles but they which create speech.

C: Later sophists.

   Famous among them were tyrant Critias and Polus, Callicles, Thrasymachus, Hippias,Antiphon and Prodicus.. They were free thinkers ,who ridiculed the religions laws and customs of the country. Callicles and Thrasymachus openly taught the right of the stronger as the law of nature, the unbridled satisfaction of the desire as natural right of the stronger, and the setting up of a restraining law as a crafty invention of the weaker. Critias in a poem described the faith in gods as an invention of crafty statesman. Hippias of Elias though having great knowledge and good character also was boastful and taught the same. Prodicus was famous and there is a proverb ‘as wise as Prodicus’. Plato and Aristophanes mention him with respect. His lectures concerning choice of a mode of life, external good and it’s use, about life and death were famous.


  The merit of sophism is it's form. It is in them for first time there is opposition of subject and object. Reality is not entirely external to the thinking and feeling subject. The thinking subject is coefficient in the production of phenomenon. That is subjectivity as the ultimate principle. we have seen that Absolute Spirit as human spirit is self conscious subject. The defect of this philosophy is it's content. Measure of everything as individual man .Here the content is that of finite ego. There is no objective content like that of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. We have seen that Human Spirit as Absolute Spirit has a universal character. So real subjectivity is not finite and confined to the limited interests of the individual ego but is universal and think and act from a universal perspective.

                                                                                                                               ii. Socratic Period.


     The philosophy of Socrates is same as his character .He was born in 469 B.C. The son of sophroniscus ,a sculptor, and Phanarete, a midwife.  In his youth he was trained as a sculptor by his father. Nothing definite is known about his education. Except one journey to a public festival he remained in Athens throughout his life. He followed his father’s profession in his youth but had great desire and love for philosophy. He was a student of Anaxagoras and after his expulsion from Athens, at the age of 37 of Archelaus, Anaxagoras's successor. He was also studied under sophists like Prodicus and other teachers of music and poetry. He also served the country in his youth. He made three campaign in the Peloponnesian war. He was not only  a brave soldier but also saved the life of others like his pupil Alcibiades and Xenophon. He also occupied various civil offices like  member in the council which is the representative of citizens of Athens  etc. He started teaching philosophy around 423 B.C. Delphic oracle, Pythia pronounced him as the wisest man. He was a critic of sophists and had contempt for metaphysics, natural science and mathematics .According to him study of moral men and one's duty is the main concern of education. His motto was know yourself which means subjectivity and must look within oneself to know the truth. He taught the youths by illustrating with common examples taken from everyday life. He was also occupied with getting competent men by training into positions of power.

He was praised by all his narrators. According to Xenophon he was 'just, the best and the happiest man possible’. Socrates was an example of the moral virtues of wisdom, discretion, temperance, moderation, justice, courage, inflexibility, firm sense of rectitude in relation to tyrants and people. He has neither cupidity nor despotism, he was indifferent to money. He was good in company and his relation with others were just, open and honourable. His main method was visiting the public Lyceum and discussing philosophical problems with men.

     Physically he was very ugly and had a crooked, turned up nose, projecting eyes, bald head large paunch and corpulent body. He dressed miserably, walked barefoot and he often stand still a long time rolling his eyes. He was indifferent to heat and cold, hunger and thirst. had mastery over bodily passions, and seldom drink alcohol. Aristophanes in Clouds criticise  Socrates as the sophist. After the fall of thirty tyrants in his 70th year he was brought to trial for neglecting the gods of the state, introducing new gods and corrupting the youth. In the trial of Socrates the two points of accusation were, one he did not believe in the gods of Athenians but introduced new gods. This new god is like his daemon, which he told that he had  revelations from god and this tell him what to do. Second he led the youths astray and told them not to obey their parents but him. After the Heliasts (jury) pronounced him guilty and pronounced death Socrates had the liberty of suggesting a penalty of either fine or banishment instead of death. Socrates refused this saying that it amounted to pleading guilty. After 30 days in prison he drank poison and died at the age of 69 in 399 B.C. His last words were 'The hour of departure has arrived, and we go our ways. I to die, you to live, which is better, God only knows'.

.   Socrates philosophy we get form two sources  One Xenophon’s Memorabilia and Plato’s Dialogues. Xenophon makes moral philosopher and supporter of natural religion. Plato's Socrates is a metaphysician. Socrates believed in a Daimon or oracle which reveal to him concealed knowledge. He used to hear the voice of this demon inside him .This genius (daemon) which can predict what should be done in a present situation and also divine future events. The philosophy of Socrates was opposed to all preceding natural philosophies and also sophist philosophy. In Socrates we the see the transition from natural morality to reflective or conscious morality. In Socrates human mind turned back to itself ,to it’s own being and conceived it as active moral spirit. His philosophy is mainly ethical –an enquiry into the nature of virtue. Scepticism of sophists is the starting point of Socrates philosophy .To him self knowledge is the starting point of all philosophy and knowledge. He declared that he excelled other man in wisdom only in this that he was conscious of his own ignorance All he knows is that he knows nothing. Certainty is impossible in physical science and cosmology. This scepticism does not extend to morals. Hence he believes there is something in the world that can be known and this is man, so know yourself. Knowing oneself is the meaning and aim of life and it is the highest good of soul and this knowledge is the only possible and also real and useful knowledge. So philosophy is ethics. Ethics is real,  certain and positive science resting on universal principles. So the second feature is his opposition to sophist philosophy. Like sophists he also believed all moral acts must be conscious acts but unlike sophists it is not as the limited ego or finite subjectivity but to Socrates, thinking is the activity of the universal principle, so free objective thought as the measure of all things .So instead of referring moral duties to fancy and caprice of individual it referred to true knowledge, to the essence of spirit.. To the Sophists the content is limited subjectivity and it’s interests,  Socrates grasped the content which is in and for itself or as universal. While sophists identify subjectivity with the individual opposed to the objective ,contingent and lawless limited will, Socrates see subjectivity as objective and universal in itself, the real existence as the universal ‘I’. This is also the truth, the good and the end. To him conscience as universal is within every one same and Socratic principle is that man has to find from within himself this universal truth, and good and also the end of his actions. So unlike Protagoras whose 'man as the measure of all things' means individual and particular men, here it is general human nature and universal principles and. not particular, changeable, accidental individual but immutable and necessary moral element common to all. Moral ideas have objective and absolute value. Goodness, justice and truth does not depend on individual taste, but hidden and concealed behind individual prejudices. When given proper education we discover the same ideas in all towards good truth, justice and beauty. This education is mainly giving words their exact meaning by making definitions and concepts. The earliest of platonic dialogues which are most Socratic, he is occupied mainly in search of definitions for ethical terms. The Charmades concerned with definition of moderation or temperance. Lysis with friendship, Laches with courage.

     In old history of philosophy it is said that Socrates introduced ethics to philosophy. Cicero says Socrates brought philosophy from heaven to earth-into the market place. Socrates replaced finite subjectivity with Absolute subjectivity. Spirit in the form of free moral will and thought as truth of all reality. Socrates made the absolute or ideal subjectivity instead of limited empirical subjectivity. He carried the principle of freedom and self consciousness to it’s truth. A true world of objective thought. The true measure of all thing is not individual opinion, fancy or will. What is true and good and right does not depend on my opinion or any one else’s opinion. It is the rational in one’s thinking  which decide this. My reason is not something exclusively of me but to every rational being. So reason is universal and so when I am rational my subjectivity is a universal one. Every rational thinking individual consciousness has conviction that what he hold as right, duty, good and evil has validity for others also so universal validity, so objectivity. This is the philosophy of objective thought. Here rational thinking led to the same results as faith and religion and customs  induced on ordinary man. So there is no conflict between reason and state. To Socrates universal man is the measure of all things.  Here according to Hegel Socrates put morality on ethical grounds instead of custom and habit. The logical condition for this objective ground of unconditional moral law is formation of concepts.

Socratic method.

    His method was go to the working place of people and talk to them about their interests as topic and from this particular he led them to universal and absolute truth and value His method was dialectics, this is seeking knowledge by questions and answers. It has two sides, a negative and a positive. The negative side is Socratic irony. He begins by playing ignorance and let the others bring out their conceptions and teach him. Here the philosopher take the attitude of ignorance and let the opponent teach him. But by putting questions he will show the contradictions in the teaching and make them agree they know nothing. The positive side is the so called obstetrics or intellectual midwifery. He then shows by dialectics that the opposite proposition is also true. This makes the listener confused and he agrees that he know nothing.-this is assisting others to produce new knowledge which is already contained in their consciousness. This new knowledge is the right and good in universal form. Here the teacher will help others to bring forth thoughts themselves instead of teacher teaching them. The means of this is by the method of induction.By inductive arguments arriving at universal definition.This is leading the representation to a conception. According to him moral ideas are fundamental to humanity. Every mind already contain truth so education create nothing that is already there but only awaken and develop the germs of knowledge. His chief delight in teaching hearers to discover the true definitions themselves by dialectical method and this is spiritual midwifery. Socrates teach them how to think correctly and to know the truth and the object not to make them learned but useful and happy citizens. Wisdom or knowledge is not an end in itself, but the indispensable  means of right living for private individual ,citizens and statesman. Aristotle says about Socrates that two merits of his philosophy are method of induction and forming logical definitions. Starting from individual concrete case, and finding most common notions about it and by removing what is individual hence contingent and accidental, bring out the essential ,universal truth and determinations-thus forming conceptions. So by forming conception of every virtue in this method means making conscious of these virtues. So every moral action start from conscious action, from this conception. This means it is not the individual things but this concepts or thoughts are the essence or real being of things. Platonic ideas are these universal conceptions posited as individual real existing things. So Aristotle compare the Socratic method with platonic doctrine of ideas saying 'Socrates does not posit the universal conceptions as separate, individual substances, while Plato does this, and names them ideas,’.

Doctrine of Virtue.

   The relation between knowledge and will constitute the fundamental principle of his philosophy. More a man thinks and knows better he will act. From this it follows that virtue is teachable and secondly it is one which means one cannot be virtuous in one thing without being so in all things-and thirdly evil is not voluntary but the result of ignorance. So to Socrates virtue is knowledge or perception. To Socrates virtue is a knowing so nothing is good which happens without discernment and nothing bad which is done with discernment. One who knowingly does wrong is better than one one who does it ignorant because in the former morality alone is wanting while in latter lacks both morality and knowledge. To him good action necessarily follows from the knowledge of good. Good is pleasure and evil pain. Form the view that virtue is a knowing has logical consequence of unity of virtue and practical aspect of teachability of it. Socrates is the first one to make a scientific ethical philosophy. The ethical system of Socrates is a mean between the idealism of Pythagoras and realism of materialistic Ionians. It aims the ideal but love to express this ideal in sensible forms, to reflect moral beauty in physical beauty. In religion he agrees with his predecessors and criticise myths and fables. He believes in superior beings who watch over nations and inspire individuals. He emphasise the universality of Providence and criticise the partcularism of Athenians thus paving the way for universal brother hood of Stoicism and Christianity.


.  Knowing oneself as the real knowledge is knowing one's spirit which is nothing but Absolute Spirit. As we explained when one is aware of one's spirit he thinks and act from the universal or cosmic perspective and not from the interests of limited particular individual point. This gives morality an objective character. As we explained in the first part of the book when one try to know oneself gradually the spirit reveal himself and at first it responds in the form of conscience. As this conscience is also the dim revealing of spirit it has also a universal validity. Secondly as virtue is this spiritual knowledge it has unity and evil is nothing but ignorance of the spirit. Only this spiritual knowledge gives rise to knowledge of good and only this knowledge will give rise to desire or inclination or will to do good. So Socrates is right in saying virtue is knowledge. Now here self knowledge means spiritual knowledge. It is apparent that by infallible inner sense or conscience Socrates means glimpses from spiritual plane which has universal and objective validity. As we earlier mentioned the realm of Socratic conceptions and Plato's ideas are the spiritual plane of spirits and this knowledge is spiritual knowledge which is infallible, objective and universal. Intellectual and rational knowledge is not enough for action from a universal perspective. Only spiritual knowledge produce spontaneous action. Virtue as this spiritual knowledge is teachable as all the schools and methods of mystics are developed only for this purpose.


Chapter:11:The Socratics

     To all Socratics determination of subject for which the absolute principle of good and true is the end or aim. All agree that subject himself is the end and reach this subjective end by cultivation of knowledge. The common character of Socratic school is taking Socrates as the ideal. According to them man should have one true aim-this they got from Socrates teaching. But about the nature of this aim there are mainly 3 views that of 1-Antisthenes or the Cynical,2-Aristippus or the Hedonist 3-Euclid the Megarian .

 A:Antisthenes and the Cynicism.

     Here the idealistic teaching of Socrates is exaggerated. Cynic define the principle of good in keeping conformity with nature and simple needs of nature. To them the content of good is the greatest independence of nature and slightest possible necessities. Antisthenes was a student of Gorgias in early life and was a teacher of sophistic philosophy. Later he become a student of Socrates and after his death found a school in cynosarges and his adherents are known as cynics. He associated with working class and dressed like them. He despised luxury and pleasures of senses.He believed in the return to nature philosophy in it's extreme. He taught against government, marriage, organised religions, private property. Like Socrates he also considered virtue as knowing and final cause of man and which can be instructed. But virtue was to him absence of every need and it is avoiding evil. His motto is virtue for virtue's sake and virtue as the final and only goal of all our actions-virtue is the highest good Wise man is to him is self sufficient, independent of everything, indifferent to family, civil and state life. This ideal is devoid of the Socratic dialectics. Some of the sayings of Antisthenes are ‘I had rather be mad than delighted'.Virtue is self-sufficing, and requires nothing more than a Socratic strength of character. The good is excellent, the bad discreditable. Virtue consists of works, and does not require many reasons or theories. The end of man is a virtuous life. The wise man is contended with himself, for he possess everything that others seem to possess. His own virtue satisfies him, he is at home all over the world. if he lacks fame this is not to be regarded as an evil, but as a good., etc' .According to him pleasure is evil and forthe sake of virtue renounce all material and intellectual pleasures. Cynics even reject mental culture and philosophy as evils, and despising even simple social pleasures they rebelled the rules and laws of society. Here civilisation is replaced by state of nature.

The later cynics like Diogenes of sinope advocated contempt for all knowledge and social customs. He rejected all conventions, religious, food, dressing, housing, decency. They found virtue in ‘the shortest way by a life according to nature and shutting out the outer social world completely. He sought virtue and moral freedom from in liberation from desire.  Diogenes says ’An easy life is assigned by the gods to that man who limits himself to his necessities, and this true philosophy may be attained by everyone through perseverance and the power of self denial’. Diogenes lived like a dog so called by the name cynic which means canine, The Dog. He confined to the barest necessities. He lived by begging. He proclaimed brother hood not only with whole human race but also with animals. It is told that he lived in a tub It is told that he threw away his cup when he saw a boy drinking water with his bare hands. He says ’To have no wants is divine, to have as few as possible is to come nearest to the divine’. It is related that one day while Diogenes was washing his greens Aristippus passed by. Diogenes told that if you knew how to wash your greens yourself ,you would not run after kings and Aristippus retorted that if you know how to associate with men, you would not wash greens, One day he walked in the beautiful and expensive carpet of Plato's house with dirty feet saying ’I tread on the pride of Plato’ and Plato replied ’yes,but with another pride’. When Alexander visited and asked him whether he need any favour his reply was 'only to stand out of my light'. So cynicism is the negative side of Socratic doctrine. The moral idealism of Cynics reappear in a new and purer form in Zeno and gave rise later to Stoicism

B:Aristippus and Hedonism.

.   The cyreniacs take knowledge in its subjective aspect and define good as pleasure of enjoyment and happiness. Aristippus of cyrene in Africa is the head of this school. He was a sensualist Sophist before joining Socrates and adhered to their theory. Like Protagoras he maintain that all our knowledge is subjective and we cannot know the real nature of things. He distinguishes thing in themself and our knowledge of it. His ethics is also more near to Protagoras than Socrates. His doctrine is called Hedonism. Socrates said virtue and happiness coordinately the highest end of man. From this Aristippus chose pleasure as  the ultimate end of life and the highest good. Like sophists they say the motive of all action is the desire for happiness and it's end is the pleasure. Here pleasure is not limited to individual sensual pleasure but sublime pleasures which extends whole life and he recommends knowledge, self control, temperance and intellectual culture as means for acquiring and preserving enjoyment. So he advocated not sensual pleasures but mental pleasures. He said we must have self control and be master of ourself in all circumstances. Mental pleasures, friendship, paternal and filial love, art and literature take precedence over fleeting sensual pleasures. Wise men should seek not the pleasure of the moment but lasting joys, permanent state of moral content. To them sensation is the criterion .Sensations are either pleasant or unpleasant or neither. Unpleasant feelings are bad and it’s end is pain and pleasant feelings are good and it’s end is happiness. Aristippus also has the same view of Protagoras in religion. They were free thinkers and criticised polytheism.

  A later cyreniac, Theodorus made joy and sorrow the end, joy found in understanding and sorrow lack of understanding. He defined good as understanding and justice and bad as opposite and enjoyment and pain indifferent. He is called the Atheist and in a book titled 'The Gods' he advocated atheism. Another Hedonist Euhemerus in a sensational treatise held that gods were heros, kings and distinguished men who had been deified after their death. The other leaders of this are Hegesias and Anniceris. Hegesias is a pessimist. He is reported to have said ’There is no perfect happiness. The body is troubled with manifold pains, and the soul suffers along with it It is hence a matter of indifference whether we choose life or death. In itself nothing is pleasant or unpleasant’. This development of pessimism is inevitable as for the hedonists aim of life is pleasure, for some  momentary pleasures and for others permanent happiness. But in real life there is more pain than pleasure and unalloyed happiness is only a dream. So the aim of life cannot be realised and life has no value. Here death becomes preferable to life. It at least give us negative happiness as suppression of pain. Later in Anniceris philosophy pessimism is again replaced by optimism. Further development of this school is in defining the nature of pleasure like, momentary sensation or enduring whole life, mental or sensual ,whether individual can posses it or only social life, whether it is positive or negative as absence of pain. This hedonism later given rise to Epicureanism where ethics of Aristippus and physics of Democritus combined.

C:Euclid and the Megarians.

   Union of ethical and dialectical is character of all Socratic schools. Here ethical is made to serve  the dialectical. Ehical is given metaphysical support. Here there is a combination of Socratic and Eleatic principles. From Parmenides teaching of being as one and Socrates reality of nous and moral principles he concluded mind or goodness is being, the only absolutely existing being.

 The idea of good on ethical side same as idea of being on physical. So Euclid called good pure being and not good not being. This gives rise to later Scepticism. The Megaric school held the good as simple and universal. They showed the contradictions in particular conceptions by dialectics. They maintained the Eleatic being as the good. One of Euclid's saying is ‘the good is one, and it alone is ,though passing under many names, sometimes it is called understanding, sometimes god, at another time thought, and so on, but what is opposed to the good does not exist'. This making of contradictions in speech and ideas are called Sophism. Eubuild who was the student of Euclid said because truth is simple, only simple answer is required. Another one Stilpo give prominence to universal as opposed to particular. According to him as the universal ideas in their separation is only the real, the individual which is a union or separation of universals have no truth or reality. Euclid's philosophy becomes the connecting link between Socrates and Plato


    True renunciation and asceticism is not avoiding all material comforts but dropping attachments so that mind is not affected neither when having it or with the lack of it. So Cynic's renunciation is not a true form of renunciation. This true renunciation is coined by Sufis as 'being in the world and not of it'. As hedonists say virtue is neither pleasure nor is it a means to happiness. We have seen that virtue is realisation of spiritual nature and it is an end in itself from which serenity and happiness follows as a natural consequence. Stilpo is right saying the universal is the true-which is what we called the Absolute Spirit but particular and individual is also true because the Absolute Spirit manifests only as particular spirits-plant spirit, animal spirit and human spirit.-and in humans every individual has a unique spirit. This is Unity in multiplicity. We have earlier explained that mind and matter is not two realities but mind itself and matter is only the objective form of mind. So Euclid is right in saying idea of good and idea of being as one.


Chapter 12: Plato

      Plato is the only student who represented the whole Socrates. He gave the philosophy a system. Plato was an Athenian born in 427 B. C in an aristocratic family.. His father was Ariston, of a noble family and his mother Perictione. He is a descendent of Codrus and Solon. Besides Socrates he also studied the philosophy of Heraclitus, Eleatics and Pythagoras. His first instruction was  from Cratylus, disciple of Heraclitus. He came to Socrates in his 20th year and remained with him 8 years. He was an intimate disciple of Socrates.  After Socrates death in 399B.C, in his 30th year fearing the mob he left Athens along with other Socratics to Euclid’s Megaric school at Megara. Euclid introduced him the study of Parmenides. From here he visited cyrene in Africa and studied mathematics under Theodorus., then also went to Egypt, Magna-Grecia and Sicily. In Magna –Grecia he came in contact with Pythagoreans and this also influenced his philosophy.. After 10 years he came back to Athens in his 40th year in 389 B.C. After return he found the academy which was a present from his friends and become the head as teacher. From 389 to close 348 he taught philosophy in the academy.. He made a second and third visit to Sicily in which his ideal state and philosopher king idea he tried to materialize in young Dionysius but which failed. He died at the age of 81.According to some he died while writing and others during a marriage feast in 348 B.C. and his remains was buried at Ceramicus. After the death of  Plato in the old academy, there was no progress but a gradual retrogression of platonic philosophy. Plato is the oldest Greek philosopher whose complete work is preserved. According to some his definite works are nine .1:The Pheadres-this opposes the selfish rhetoric of sophist with true eloquence of philosopher, whose object is knowledge of invisible world.2-Protagoras-this discusses the Socratic doctrine of virtue.3-Symposium-this is concerning different manifestations of Eros, form sensual love to philosophical love of beauty, truth and goodness as personified in socrates.4-Gorgias-explains true sage as opposed to Sophist.5-Republic-concerning state which realise the idea of justice.6-Timeas-concerning nature and origin of world.7-Theoetetes-concerning knowledge and ideas.8-Pheado-concerning immortality of soul. 9-Laws-partial retraction of republic and there is minor criticism about the authorship of 10-Apology and 11-Crito and.Doubtful origin are 12-Parmenides,13-Sophist,14-Cratylus and 15-Philebus.According to some others twenty-four dialogues are generally recognized as authentic works of Plato. These are: Apology, Crito, Euthyphron, Laches, Protagoras, Charmides, Lyris, Gorgias, Meno, Euthydemus, Hippias Maior, Cratylus, Symposium, Phaedo, Republic, Phaedrus, Theaetetus, Parmenides, Sophist, Statesman, Philebus, Timaeus, Critias, Laws and there seems to be insufficient reason to reject: Ion, Hippias Minor, Menexenus and Epinomis.

   . Plato is the product of Heraclitian, Socratic and Italian philosophy. So Plato’s philosophy has an inner development and it can be broadly divided into 3 periods. These are Socratic (discipline period, Anti-sophistic-ethic) Heraclitic- Eleatic (travel period, dialectic) and Pythagorean (instruction period, systematic) periods. The first period is an adherence to the method and principles of Socratic doctrine. . Here, in this period he is mainly concerned with analytical treatment of conceptions. The dialogues of this period, like Socratic doctrine attempt to determine the certainty of an absolute content (objective reality) to the good. In the works of Socratic period he treats Socratic themes in Socratic method. Charmides discuss temperance, Lysis friendship, Laches valor, lesser Hippias knowing and willful wrong-doing, first Alcibiades moral  and intellectual qualifications of statesman. Protagoras is a criticism of sophistic philosophy and discusses Socratic conception of virtue from different sides (as knowing, it’s unity and teachableness) The Georgias written after Socrates death criticizes the sophist negation of absolute moral standards and their identification of virtue with pleasure and good with the agreeable. These dialogues proves good is not the right of the stronger and thus arbitrariness of subject, but has independent reality and objective validity and and it alone is truly useful and so the measure of pleasure must follow the higher measure of good. From Socrates he learnt that though we cannot know the world completely, we can know ourselves and we can get knowledge of highest good through infallible inner sense. It is from Socrates he developed ethics and teleological cause. Second period shows Eleatic and Pythagorean influence and dialectic foundation for the doctrine of ideas. Here the Socratic method of forming conceptions is developed into a science of conceptions or doctrine of ideas. Theoetetes crticise the Protagorean theory of knowledge, against identification of thinking and sensible perception or against the claim of objective relativity of all knowledge. Contrary to this he maintains an independent being and objective reality for the logical conceptions which lie at the ground of all representation and thinking (ideas) or try to prove the objectivity of truth. These conceptions which have objective reality are those of  a species, likeness and unlikeness, identity and difference etc. In Sophist and the Philosopher, conception of appearance, not being and  being is discussed. They are directed to Eleatic doctrine. In this by dialectic development of Eleatic principle he shows that the one must be at the same time a totality ,organically connected and including multiplicity in itself. First in Sophist he shows being of appearance or non being and in Philosopher showing the one contains many. Like Heraclitus he believed visible world is constant becoming, senses are deceptive and cannot give truth, and immutable does not exist in sensible world but in world of ideas. As nothing is permanent in sensible world and when this combined with Parmenides's philosophy the out come was knowledge not to be derived from senses but from reason. Third period, unlike the other two there are  excess of mythical form due to influence of Pythagoreanism and internally apply the doctrine of ideas to to concrete sphere of nature, psychology and ethics. Ideas have objective reality and is the foundation of truth and the phenomenon are only copies of ideas was already established. So here the separate branches are united into a systemic whole and  also shows the inner application of Socratic doctrine to ethics , Eleatic for dialectics and Pythagorean for physics. Pheadrus and symposium criticizes the rhetorical theory and practice and show instead a true scientific principle attained only by basing everything on idea. Phaedron prove the immortality of soul from doctrine of ideas. Philebus shows the conception of pleasure and highest good, Republic the essence of state and Timaeus that of nature. In Italian Pythagorean and Eleatic system he found the inner sense not only as moral conscience and practical reason but also as theoretical reason revealing absolute, eternal and necessary essence of things. From Parmenides reality as eternal and change less, and all changes as illusory. From Pythagoras, religious trend ,immortality, otherworldiness, interest in mathematics ,intermingling of intellect and mysticism. Mathematics, especially geometry influenced him because as it is based on apriori intuitions. Lines, triangles, circles are intelligible realities and their properties does not change like sensible things which reflect them.

       Plato's philosophy is in the form of dialogues. Socrates is the chief speaker in most of them. Socrates asks the leading part. He starts from particular conceptions of individuals and the dialogues later becomes a systematic development of the main idea by a dialectical form of argument. Socrates begin the topic, lays his own views ,draws a conclusion all through dialectics. Large parts of the dialogues are presented in myths. It is difficult to systematise his teaching due to dialogues. He frequently employ myths and allegory and these assist in understanding abstract truths and also mislead fanatical democracy as to his religious convictions. Catholic mysticism  borrow heavily from Plato's theology. To Plato philosophy is man’s highest possession and true reality. Philosophy for Plato is vision of truth and love of wisdom. In Timaeas he says ’our knowledge of what is most excellent begins with the eyes. The distinction between the visible day and the night, the months and courses of the planets, have begotten a knowledge of time, and awakened a desire to know the nature of the whole. From this we then obtained philosophy, and no greater gift than this, given by God to man, has ever come or will come’. He says an ideal state or government is possible only when philosopher becomes kings. In republic he says ’when philosophers rule the states, or the so called kings and princes of the present time are truly and completely philosophers, when thus political greatness and philosophy meet in one ,and the many natures who now follow either side to the exclusion of the other ,come together, then and not till then, can there be an end ,dear Glaucon, either to the evils of the state or as I believe, to those of human rice’. In republic Plato speaks of the difference between philosophic knowledge and ordinary knowledge in his famous myth of the cave analogy. ’let us think of an underground den like a cave with  long entrance opening to the light. It’s inhabitants are chained so that they cannot move their necks, and can see only the back of the cave. Far behind their backs a torch burns above them. In the intervening space there is a raised way and also a low wall, and behind this wall towards the light  there are men who carry and raise above it all manner of statues of men and animals like puppets in a marionette show, sometimes talking to one another meanwhile ,and sometimes silent. Those who are chained would see only the shadows which fall on the opposite wall, and they would take this for reality. They would hear ,moreover by means of the echo ,what was said by those who moved the figures, and they would think that it was the voice of the shadows. Now if one of the prisoner were released ,and compelled to turn his neck so as to see things as they are ,he would think that what he now seeing was an illusive dream and that the shadows were the reality. And if any one were to take him out of the prison into the light itself, he would be dazzled by the light and could see nothing, and he would hate the person who brought him to the light, as having taken away what was to him the truth, and prepared only pain and evil in its place’. Platonic system can be broadly divided into 3 parts Logic (Dialectics),  Physics (Philosophy of nature) and Ethics (philosophy of mind). Mathematics hence does not include in philosophy but lies midway between opinion and philosophy.

Logic (platonic dialectics): .

     For everything that exists there are three classes of objects through which knowledge about it must come; the knowledge itself is a fourth; and we must put as a fifth entity the actual object of knowledge which is the true reality. We have, then, first, a name; second, a description; third, an image; and fourth, a knowledge of the object, this is the knowledge or concept of ideas and fifth is the ideas itself. There is three things, knowledge, opinion, ignorance which corresponds to forms or ideas, senses, and nonbeing. Plato is famous for his theory of ideas. Philosophy of Plato is the science of Ideas or forms. They are partly logical, partly metaphysical. Logical part is universal names like man or horse which is not any particular confined to space and time but eternal. Metaphysical part is the ideal form-ideal man or cat created by god and unique and the particular  partake of this ideal one only imperfectly. So the ideal one real, the particular only appearance. Ideas are laws of thought and morality. This is what Aristotle called categories which are general forms of things, which natural science calls types, species etc. Ideas are  all possible generalizations or common names. Common name designate ideas, proper name designate individual. Senses reveal particulars or natural objects, abstraction and generalisation gives ideas. Unlike sensualism ,according to Plato general concepts or notion also represent realities, and these realities, objects of our notions he call ideas. Ideas to our notion what natural objects are to senses. They are their objective cause. The ideas are self evident and necessary science like mathematics, they are the unchangeable form or eternal type of transient things, noumina or objects of true science as distinguished from phenomena or objects of sense and opinion. Objects of mathematics are intermediate because even though they are eternal and immutable like ideas but unlike ideas there are many alike. It is called dialectics due to it's new method. In 'Republic' he illustrates this as follows. A line has cut in to two unequal parts. The small part is visible and the large intelligible. Both are again divided into two unequal parts. The small visible part is images and reflections of visible things and relate to them as copy to reality. Knowledge of this is like opinion. The large visible part is all existing living and things and this knowledge is belief and science. The small intelligent part is mathematics, here mind uses figures from former visible to form images and arrive at hypothesis. The larger intelligible is the realm of forms and it goes to the principle without hypothesis not as first principles but only as s step and without use of images but proceeding in and through idea themselves. Concern with the forms, without recourse to sensible as mathematics is called dialectic. Here starting is from higher principle of ideas and moving among themselves. In response to what is the nature of knowledge he first deny knowledge is sensation saying senses itself is not knowledge but they are the means of knowledge, knowledge is not sense impression but reasoning about them. He also deny knowledge as true opinion and true opinion plus account.He believed in two realms of reality. One the realm of eternal forms or ideas. This he equated with being. The second the realm of matter which he equated with non-being. Sensible world is a combination of both so in an intermediate level. The world of ideas, the intelligible or ideal world is eternal, real, immutable, indivisible, irrelative and beyond time and space.  The world of sensible things or manifested world is mere appearance, temporal, mutable, divisible, relative and within time and space. Plato believed the sensible world is a faint and imperfect copy of the ideal world or the observed world as the reflection of the ideal world, which is the real world. Opinion differs among scholars whether Plato believed in two separate realities, means the world of ideas separate from the sensible world. Plato’s famous myth of the cave illustration in republic gives the impression that he believed ideal world as apart from sensible world. But his later references comparing ideal world with more cakeness and sunlight nearer the sun and the famous “third man argument” in “Parmenides” make it clear that Plato believed the ideal world as the inner reality of the sensible world. According to this sensible things are partial reality, because they participate in the reality of the ideas and not merely reflect them. To Plato ideal world is the real world and truth and eternal. This ideal world is the beauty itself while the sensory world is only shadows or images or copy of this ideal world. The knowledge of ideal world he calls true while the sensory  opinion. Opinion only participates in the ideal world. Thus there is a distinction between reality and appearance ,and knowledge and perception. Empirical knowledge is derived from perception while real knowledge is that of concepts. He criticise the view of knowledge as perception. As perceived is in constant change perception is of what becomes, and not what is. Perception is interaction between object and senses and as these always changing so there is change in perception. According to Plato we perceive through senses not with them. Some knowledge like comparison such as difference and opposites, like and unlike, and knowledge of existence and non existence, unity and number, qualities like good and bad ,all these mind know through itself while others like sense objects through bodily faculties. Only mind can reach existence, with senses we cannot know object's existence so knowledge consists in reflection and not impression or perception.

     So there is a supersensible world which is reason and knowledge and which  is and exists and certain. Senses give only opinion which is uncertain of things. It  is about something that is and is not at the same time. Sensible objects contain opposites, intermediate between being and non being. Particular beautiful thing is ugly also in some other aspect while knowledge or reason is concerned with beauty itself. So there is a world of intellect and a world of senses. Two kind of intellect are reason and understanding. Reason is higher kind, as it is concerned with ideas and it's method is dialectic. Understanding kind of intellect used in mathematics. It is inferior to reason as it uses hypothesis which it cannot test. Plato explain the difference between clear intellectual vision and senses by an analogy from sense of sight. Sight unlike other senses apart from eye and object also need light. We see clearly objects on which sun shines, in twilight we see confusedly, in darkness not at all. World of ideas is what we see when object is seen with sun, .world of senses twilight world, .eye compared to soul, sun, source of light to truth or goodness.

This distinction is also seen in simile of cave. Unphilsophical prisoner in cave can only look in one direction because they are bound. Fire behind them and wall in front. All they see is the shadows on the wall cast by fire from the objects outside the cave. They regard theses shadows as real and no notion of the real objects. We regard objects of sense as real while object of notion-ideas as shadows. But in reality ideas are more real than sensible objects. General ideas expressed by our concepts like, good, being, man are realities. Plato says we consider sense objects as real and ideas as unreal because our sense of ideas-reason is at fault. If we develop reason we see reality not in material existence but in ideas in intelligible world. We also consider ideas as mental copies of sensible real things but in reality ideas are the originals and sense objects the copies. Ideas are both our thoughts and the eternal object of these thoughts. They are the thoughts of God which no human can wholly reproduce and which are absolutely real. Sensible object has something of the idea , as they partake in the idea. Every thing in the senses like beauty etc is relative, transient and uncertain. while ideal is eternal, without beginning or end, immutable, without change in quality or quantity and absolute. Ideas are real, more real than sense objects and the only true reality. Sense objects have borrowed existence from the ideas, ideas are the eternal pattern after which things are made. Objects are images, imitations, imperfect copies, symbol, allegory of ideas. As sensible world is a copy of ideal world, ideal world like sensible world also forms a hierarchy. Ideas are joined together by ideas of higher order and this go on and the highest and at the top is the idea of Good which comprehends, contains or summarizes the entire system of ideal world. Ideas are in succession,. higher concepts or ideas include lower ones and. at the top of this succession is the idea of Good, the metaphysical God. This is the highest idea and the ultimate limit of all knowledge, the independent ground of all other ideas. According to Plato one can only have knowledge of ideas after reaching this form of Good, which is at the top of the ideal world.  The relation between all other ideas and idea of Good is similar to that of ideas and sense objects. Other ideas have self existence and are substances only when compared to their sensible copies. When compared to Idea of Good which is the absolute idea they are also only accidents and have no existence of their own but only modes of the idea of Good. Science and truth are only like Good, but Good is higher, Good is not essences like ideas, but far exceeds essences in dignity and power. Dialectics leads to the end of intellectual world in the perception of absolute Good. He says of this Good in republic. ’In the same manner as the sun is the cause of sight, and the cause not merely that objects are visible but also that they grow and are produced, so the Good is of such power and beauty, that it is not merely the cause of the science of the soul, but is also the cause of being and reality to whatever is the object of science, and as the sun is not itself sight or object of sight but presides over both, so the Good is not science and truth but is superior to both ,they being not the Good itself but of a goodly nature. The idea of Good excludes all presupposition. it is the ultimate ground at the same time of knowing and of being, of the perceiver and the perceived, of the subjective and the objective, of the ideal and real, though exalted above such a division' (Republic). Highest knowledge knowledge of Good. Knowledge and truth like Good, but Good highest. Idea of Good is the highest knowledge, and that all other things become useful and advantageous by this knowledge. Goodness is even beyond being. By an analogy with sight and its need for the sun by whose light the visible is seen, the Good is spoken of as that Form or Idea in terms of which all other Forms are intelligible.Hence ideas are both individual, self existent and at the same time members of a higher unity. The ideas of Plato form a unity or an organism. They live a common life. It is impossible to separate them from each other and to make distinct being of them. The home of the idea is ideal world or intelligible place or mind, idea as such. It has no place out side of itself. The idea as real is one and unextended so beyond space and time. Idea is also independent of our concepts in the mind. It neither goes nor comes. Our concept of the idea like sensible things is shadow copy of eternal ideas, only less shadowy than sense objects. What is concentrated in idea is distributed in space and time, over thousands of places and times so becoming as feebly copy. So the world is relative while idea is absolute. As ideas are in mind or ideal world they cannot come from without, from sensory world by sensations. They are the essence of mind. First they are latent in mind and we are not conscious of them. Senses only show us their feeble copies, but also remind us of the original existing in mind. So sensations only provoke ideas but does not produce them. Their function is to recollect to our mind the ideas we possess. besides senses are deceptive and instead of reveling the idea they conceal it. Reason is the only way to knowledge of ideas and reason comes from love. Love of truth is a particular form of universal love. To Plato Eros is divine madness and is the greatest happiness. It is a state of enthusiasm resulting from the knowledge of the ideal world.

    According to Plato creator is the eternal God, who create the world .He contemplates the eternal which is the idea of Good which serves as His model. Since some times Plato describe God as inferior to idea and other times superior to idea it is likely to infer that God is the idea of Good itself considered as an active, plastic, and creative principle. This also can be inferred from the attributes given to both the Good and God. The Absolute Idea (Good, One) is the lord of spiritual world, as sun is that of physical world. It even exceeds being and essence in dignity and power. It is the universal author of all things beautiful and right, parent of light, and lord of light in visible world, source of reason and truth in the intellectual. God of gods is the eternal cause of the good in the world, supreme wisdom compared to which human philosophy is imperfect, supreme justice, highest law and law giver, who rules the beginning. middle and end of things, the pure reason which has nothing to with matter or evil. As God is the idea of Good it does not mean it is not real. To Plato idea only is real so it is the highest reality.

    Plato differentiate logic or dialectics from physics The former is the knowledge of eternal and immutable while the latter is that of changing and becoming. It also differs from ethics in that in ethics is discussed not absolute good but good in the concrete in the form of morals and state, but logic deals with absolute good. Plato define dialectics as the art of developing knowledge by way of dialogues in questions and answers (republic) and also as the science which brings speech to a correct issue, and which combines or separates the species (eg: conceptions of things) correctly with one another (sophist). Dialectics has two divisions, one to know what can and what cannot be connected, second to know how division or combination can be. In short we can say that it is the knowledge of the ideas. The first part of dialectic shows the contradiction in the finite by showing opposite determinations in it and hence the dissolution of the particular and the second part tries to bring the universal into the consciousness. So this is the uniting of opposites in one thing and showing the unity. Dialectics is dealt in Sophist, Philebus and especially in Parmenides dialogues. Now the universal as true, beauty and good are abstract so they need determination and this determination is the unity of opposites as determinate idea. In Sophist Plato discusses both being and non being and unlike Eleatics shows non being is also real and makes the universal the unity of being and nothing, one and many etc. According to Plato true is the identity of the opposites. Through the unity of opposites like cold and warm, dry and moist, health arises. In the dialogues dealing with what is real knowledge first he shows it is opposed to sensation. Theataetus is a discussion of real knowledge in opposition to Protagorean sensualism. As we already discussed the protagorean view  that all knowledge consists in perception so both are one and the same thing. From this they further infer that things are as they appear and so perception or sensation is infallible. But perceptions are different in different individual and also in the same individual in different occasions So there is no objective reality. So we do not know the real nature of things and all concepts of quality and quantity are relative, so also conceptions of species and kind as the combinations of changing many are unstable and inconsistent. This theory Plato refutes by the following points. First if being and appearance ,knowledge and perception are one and the same the animals which have perception are also the measure of all things like man and if all perception are infallible then there is no need of instruction, scientific conclusion, refutation etc. Secondly, this doctrine is a logical contradiction since every one is correct, Protagorus is no more correct in a discussion than others ,so he must concedes the truth of others and every disputer. Thirdly Protagorus denies foresight. To know what is really profitable need a calculation of future and thus only the wise can have foresight. Fourthly the theory of Protagorus destroys perception. Perception according to him rests on the distinction of perceived object and perceiving subject and it is the common product of the two. But to him objects are in constant flow so all knowledge from sense-since there is identity between perception and knowledge –makes all knowledge impossible. Fifthly Protagorus denies apriori knowledge. Another factor dealt is the relation of knowledge to opinion. An incorrect opinion is not knowledge but a correct opinion, as it is same in matter but different in form is midway between knowledge and ignorance and participates in both. So knowledge and true opinion have similarity and differences. knowledge is knowledge of essences so cannot be mere names. Mind and true opinion differ as mind is implanted by instruction opinion by persuasion, mind is by true reason other not, mind is attribute of gods and only shared by very few men, opinion shared by all men.Another factor dealt is the relation of knowledge to thought. There are two sources of knowledge-sensation and rational thinking. Sensation refers to becoming and change and it is a source of dim, impure and uncertain knowledge. Thought on the other hand refers to abiding knowledge which neither becomes nor departs but remain the same. So true knowledge is thinking of true being or ideas ,the means to discover and to know the ideas is the dialectic-art of separating and combining conceptions and the object of dialectic are ideas.

     In Sophist Plato shows the reality of appearance or not being  and the relation of being and not being. The Eleatics deny all appearance saying they are not being, but false opinion is not- being so there is reality to non being. So after fixing reality to non being Plato discuss the relation between being and non being.-relations of conceptions generally in their combinations and differences. So every conception contain both being and non is a being in reference to itself, as self identical, but it is not-being in reference to other conceptions which can be referred to it ,but due to difference it can have nothing in common with them. Conception of same and different is a general form of antithesis. This reciprocal relation of conceptions as being and not being at the same time form the basis for dialectics .He illustrates this by taking being, motion and rest. The conception of motion and rest cannot be joined together but both may be joined to  the conception of rest as self identical being but in reference to motion not being. In Parmenides he proves that one is not conceivable in its complete singleness without the many, nor the many without the one. This is done in four antinomies. First antinomy shows that one is inconceivable as such since it  is apprehended in opposition to many. Second like this the many also alone inconceivable .Third shows that the one or the idea cannot be conceived as not being .Fourth shows that many cannot be conceived without the one or idea. The result of Parmenides is to show that one and many is Idea and phenomenal world and the phenomenal world has true being only so far it has the one or idea within it and the one or idea  must actually have many in unity to be able to be in phenomenal world. So the phenomenal world derives it’s whole existence from the ideal world which appear in it ,and has being only so far as it has an idea or concept for it’s content. Ideas may be defined in their historical connection as common in manifold, universal in particular, one in many, constant and abiding in changing. Subjectively they are principles of knowing which cannot be derived from experience and innate regulators of our knowledge. Objectively they are immutable principles of being and of phenomenal world, incorporeal and simple unities which have no relation to space and can be predicated of every individual thing. So idea is wherever universal conception of species or kind is found. There is an idea wherever there are many things characterized by a common name, to every class of being. The relation between ideal world and phenomenal world Plato describe as a participant or things the copies and adumbrations while ideas are the archetypes. In phaedo he says about ideas presence and participation in sensible things, that by beauty, beautiful things becomes beautiful.While he admit the reality of phenomenal world he affirms that ideas are the only actual. He consider phenomena only as subjective appearance, confused way of representing ideas. In this sense phenomena entirely depends on ideas, they are ideas in the form of non-being. The phenomenal world derives it’s whole existence from the ideal world which appear in it.

Physics (Philosophy of Nature).

    Nature is idea acting on matter as a plastic principle. The connection between physics and logic is the conception of becoming to that of real being. He deals extensively on physics in Timeaus. According to him God is the good and being free from jealousy he desired to make all things like himself and.this is the motive of creation  Because the world has to be visible corporeal and tangible, God first made fire and earth then air and water. World is spherical in form and it is in circular motion. Since God wished to make the world a god he gave it soul and placed it in the centre and diffused through the whole. There are three worlds. The first is the ideal or divine world, plane of forms or ideas. This is the pattern of other worlds and is the eternal world. This world is without origination and decay and is the invisible world. The second world is the copy of the ideal world  and is visible and originated. This is the heavenly spheres, plane of world soul. The third world is the world of matter or earthly spheres. Plato also describe the manifestation in detail. Here at the top is a creator as a moving and reflecting principle and on one side ideal world as immovable eternal archetype and on the other side, chaotic, formless, irregular, fluctuating mass, which contain in itself the germ of material world but without any determination. With these two the creator first makes the world soul which he distributes according to the relation of numbers and set it in definite and harmonious motion. This way the material world become actual through arrangement of the chaotic mass into four elements and completed by formation of organic world. So world soul is between the ideal world and the material world, so it denotes sensible world as  thought represented in the form of material existence. Platonic view of nature unlike earlier mechanical view is teleological and he conceives the world as the image of Good, as the work of divine munificence. As it is the image of the perfect one it is also one, it is spherical as it is the perfect form and it is in circular motion returning to itself like reason. In Timaeus he also discuss the derivation of four elements ,separation of seven planets according to musical scale, stars as immortal and heavenly substances, earth has an abiding position in the middle of the world, reference of all material figures to triangle as simplest plane, division of inanimate nature according to the four elements, into creatures of earth, water, and air. The fundamental idea is world  conceived as the image and work of reason, as an organism of order, harmony, and beauty, as the Good actualizing itself.

    Nature presupposes a second principle matter. God is good and life. Goodness must create good, life must create life. So idea must reproduce itself. As idea is the only reality and being, there is only nonbeing outside it. As it is also highest activity the being that communicates itself to nonbeing. so idea becomes a cause, creator, will or plastic principle for non being. so that non being becomes like being, and take part in the absolute existence of the idea. The non being becomes the first matter out of which idea in it's image forms world. Matter is not corporeal and becomes body only on impression of form by idea. Matter as such is unlimited itself, devoid of positive attributes, indeterminate, indefinable, formless, imperceptible. It is the receptacle, mother and receptacle of all also called universal nature. Matter means that origin of all things that Plato calls necessity, receptacle, womb, mother, and the locus of all generation; his students call it hyle, that is, building material (silva), while Plato himself called it prime matter. By action of idea it can receive all forms and determinations .It is the mother of sensible forms and universal recipient. Matter is not a creation of idea because firstly, being cannot produce non being and matter is non being, secondly creation is action-all action presupposes an object acted upon so divine activity presuppose matter and does not create it. It is co eternal with idea. Though eternal, matter as non being does not limit the idea as it is absolute being but it limits idea's operation in the universe. It is both it's condition of action and it's obstruction. Even if it is passive it's cooperation is in the form of resistance. It is formless and unlimited so oppose form, limitation and finish which eternal idea desire to give it. This resistance manifest itself as inertia, weight, disproportion, ugliness or stupidity. It is the primary cause of imperfection of things, physical and moral evil, their instability, constant change, what is uncertain perishable and mortal in them. While explaining being, motion, rest he concludes being contain both motion and reast, but motion and rest participate in being but also contain non being as motion is not same as being.Since God is Good he made the world after the pattern of the eternal and wished everything good. From the union of the ideal, paternal principle and material, maternal principle comes the cosmos the image of invisible divinity. This is the visible god whose relative perfection remind us of invisible God. This cosmos consists of a body governed by necessity and a rational content, a purpose, meaning, final goal and end to realise for which it is made, and a soul that link the contrary principles and it's function is to subordinate the material to the idea and adapt it to final purpose of creator. So He put intelligence or idea  in soul and soul in body. God made first soul then body. Soul is a compound of both unchangeable (idea) and changeable (matter), and is a third  intermediate kind of essence. The whole world a living organism having soul and intelligence. There is only one world.. One visible animal comprehending in itself all other animals. So the world is a visible animal-visible God, image of the invisible God. It's motion is circular which is the perfect motion. The four elements represented by number are in continued proportion-fire is to air as air is to water, etc. God used all elements to make the world so it is perfect and harmonised by proportion. The body of cosmos is spherical, most beautiful form and faithful image of archetype. It revolves around it's own axis and return to itself, the most perfect movement and symbolises the ideas immutability. It is perfect and not liable to decay or disease. The universe is not eternal like idea so God make it as eternal as possible so created endless time. The nous or mind of the universe, its final cause is the most possible realisation of the idea of Good. Soul of the world consists of number, which subjects chaotic matter to laws of harmony and proportion. So Plato take creation in a teleological point of view. He acknowledge physical causes but subordinate it to final causes. Elements explained theologically, fire as a means of vision, earth as a means of tactile perception, the other two intermediary between these two extremes and number four represent corporeality. Like the Eleatics he rejects the void. Since matter is identical with space and it is universally same substances composing it are not heterogeneous. Spaces considered apart from their content differs only in their outward form. There are two kind of causes in the world, one intelligent which endowed with mind, workers of fair and good (idea) ,and the other ,those moving others and moved by them by necessity and produce chance effects without order or design  (matter). Creation is mixed with both mind and necessity. Fire, air, water and earth are not primary elements ,or principles or numbers. They are not substance but state of substance. Space is something between world of essence and world of senses. It is eternal, cannot be destructed and home for created things, perceived by senses, and hardly real. True elements are two kind of right angled triangles, one is half square, other is half equilateral triangle. First everything was in chaos, then elements are arranged in order to form universe, then God fashioned them by form and number. These two triangles, which are the most beautiful, used to make four of the five regular solids, and each atom of one of four elements is a regular solid. Matter divided into homogenous corpuscles  of different shapes. These forms are not accidental like forms of atoms. They are absolutely geometrical, means ideal, final and providential. Solid elements composed of cubes, fire tetrahedral, water of icosahedrons, air of octahedrons and ether pyramids.

    The whole visible sphere  not at rest, but moving in irregular and disorderly fashion , God brought order.  When God saw the image of eternal heavenly gods living and moving he rejoiced and made the copy still more like eternal, original ideal one. While the ideal being is eternal, it is impossible to make world as eternal, so made a moving image of eternity, set in order heaven, eternal but moving according to number. This image we call time before that there was no day or nights Time and heavens came in the same instant. After fashioning first matter with a view to it's ultimate structure the creator made the stars, first fixed stars, then planets, then earth. These beings are created gods hence mortals, but God made them immortal. God made the sun so that animals can learn arithmetic. The sight of day and night, month and year created knowledge of number and conception of time., hence philosophy and .this is the greatest boon of sight. There are four kind of animals, gods, fishes, birds and land animals. The gods are mainly fire. The fixed stars are divine and eternal elements. These gods make the mortal part of all animals ,immortal part being made by creator. The creator made one soul for each star. Souls have sensations, love, fear, anger and if they overcome these they live righteously. God put some souls on earth ,some on moon, some on planets, some on star and left to gods to fashion body for them. At God's command these divinities especially earth produced organised beings, chief among them men the paragon of creation, and everything on earth was made for him. Plants made to nourish him, Animals serve as habitat for fallen human souls, Women is a degeneration of men, who is the first born son of earth. Man is the epitome of macrocosm.

    Human soul like world soul form which it emanated combine immortal elements (ideas) and mortal elements (matter). Intelligence or reason is the immortal part and sensuality which depends on body is the mortal part. will, energy or courage is the union of the two and is soul proper and it's individuality. So the soul consists of three parts. One the divine or rational or eternal ,second part is mortal body or irrational and perishable and third is spirit which partake of the qualities of both reason and body. This three fold nature of soul corresponds to anthropological division of reason, soul, body, and division of theoretical knowledge into science (thought), correct opinion (sense perception), and ignorance and metaphysical division of ideal world, mathematical relations and sensible world. This also furnishes ground for deriving the ethical division of virtue and political division of ranks. Soul as far as it participate in reason it is opposite to nature and have an independent nature and so immortal. So human soul is endowed with reason and is incorporated in a body. Head is the seat of reason, the immortal soul and is round as it is the perfect form. Other two are mortal souls Chest is the seat of noble passions and it is below the head so reason regulate passion. Coarser appetite is in abdomen and separated from noble passions by diaphragm. In the Phaedrus Plato describes the three parts of the soul in the following way: the rational part is a charioteer, the spirited and appetitive parts are two horses. Man's task is to bring the two steeds under the control of reason. Human body is thus constructed in view of the moral perfection soul. So there are two souls in man, immortal created by God, mortal by gods.  Mortal soul subject to irresistible affections, pleasure-incite to evil, pain-deter from good, anger and fear, these mingled with irrational sense and love, according to necessary laws to model man. Immortality of intelligent soul is due to many reasons like due to it's simplicity as only complex ones dissolves and soul is as simple, which makes decomposition impossible and from the goodness of create and it is the very principle of life and transition from being into non being impossible. immortality of intelligent soul is also proved by the philosophers desire to free from body and direct communion with ideal world, by the fact that life produce death and death life, pre existence of soul, relation between soul and ideas, as it conceives it soul must be similar to it and immortal like it and by the fact that it controls the body. Another argument is things having opposites are generated from opposites, as life and death are opposites each must generate the other. So soul of death men exist some where and come back in due course and another argument is knowledge is recollection. We have ideas such as absolute equality which cannot be derived from experience, so it must be from our earlier existence.. But immortality is to the intelligent or rational part of the soul even will has no part in it. According to Plato before incarnating in the body the soul was in the ideal world contemplating the ideas. After receiving physical body this ideal world is forgotten. Sensory knowledge will produce recollection of this knowledge of the ideal world. Senses have no role in ideal word but the need for acquiring this knowledge and this makes us awaken and recollect ideal world. The essence of things or ideal world can be reached when withdrawing of mind to itself-from senses. According to Plato as human soul contains all knowledge so every learning is only a recollection. This recollection will produce Eros means love or longing in the soul to return to the ideal world. The soul being eternal is at home in contemplation of eternal ideas but confused when engaged with sense objects. Contemplation of ideas is the result of this love and the way to return to ideal world. He also speaks of lower world, future rewards and punishments of good and evil, purifying punishments like purgatory in Hades, migration of human soul to human and animal forms etc. Fate of soul as good ones to heaven, bad to hell, and intermediate to purgatory. The soul of true philosopher who in life liberated from flesh after death depart to invisible world to live in bliss with gods. Impure soul, who loved body become ghost haunting sepulcher, or enter body of animal according to it's character. If a man lives righteously after death he happily goes to his star. a virtuous man, but unphilosophical become wild land animals, bee, wasp etc of social sort, if not in next life coward and unrighteous men becomes women , .if still not righteous she becomes a brute,, innocent ,ignorant ones become birds, , the stupidest flies and this further goes on and on till reason is reached.

     According to Plato philosopher does not fear death, but welcomes it, but they do not commit suicide as it is unlawful. He advocates not complete abstinence from sensual pleasures but moderation and not to become slave to them. He must seek pleasure only from the soul. Thought is best when mind is gathered to itself and not troubled by sensual or other things. For true knowledge body is a hindrance due it's requirements of food and it's disease and it fill us with love, lust etc. Purification is the separation of soul from body by death and true philosopher seek this release. The homesick soul living in exile in the world of sense longs to be united with the absolute, principle of light and truth. This desire seeks satisfaction in earthly emotions, friendship and aesthetics. This human embodiments or material forms of the idea do not satisfy it. Pure idea is obtained only by direct or immediate contemplation by pure thought. The enthusiasm of lover and artist is a feeble beginning enthusiasm felt by philosopher in the presence of unveiled truth, ideal beauty and absolute goodness. Philosopher must not boast of attained this ideal goal, for absolute truth is in God alone and love of truth is only possible if filled from light from high.

Ethics (Philosophy of Mind)

   Ethics is idea as final goal of nature or highest good so it is the science of the highest good. Plato developed ethics according to three sides ,first as good in individual will and action, secondly individual virtue in morality and thirdly classes in the ethical state. It is the conception of duty behind  ethics.

1-good and pleasure. As supreme good is unattainable by humans we can only follow different manifestation of this highest good which is good in becoming like knowledge, truth, beauty, virtue etc. He combines highest good with true pleasure. He make a balance between Hedonism (cyrenian theory that pleasure is the highest good) and cynicism (pleasure as absence of pain). He refutes Aristippus and hedonism by proving the indeterminacy and relativity of all pleasure and refute cynicism by showing necessary connection between true pleasure and virtue like enduring pleasure of reason found in possession of truth and goodness.

2-virtue:Man is the end of nature and idea is the end of man. Highest good is not pleasure but perfect likeness to God. Now God is Good or Absolute justice so we can resemble God only in justice. In earth there is always evil, but heaven is free from evil and mortal nature. Flying to heaven means resemble God. God is the most righteous and and the most righteous man resemble God. In virtue he follows Socrates. There are four cardinal virtues wisdom, courage, temperance, justice. Like Socrates he maintains virtue is knowing and there fore teachable and due to it’s unity it is one and also many. So there is union and connection of all virtues and he make justice comprising in itself all other virtues. Justice is the fundamental virtue, and mother of virtues belonging to each of three souls. Justice is everybody doing his own work without meddling with others. For intelligence, correctness of thought and wisdom is the justice of mind, for will, in courage and it is the justice of heart, for sensibility, in temperance and it is the justice for senses. piety is justice in our relation to deity. it is synonymous with general justice. In republic he elaborates and tries to derive the virtue from the three parts of soul. The virtue of reason is prudence or wisdom, directing or measuring virtue  in whose absence courage becomes brute impulse and calm endurance becomes stupid indifference, The virtue of spirit is valor, help mate of reason-it tries to preserve the intelligence against the sensual desires, The virtue of sensuous desires is temperance and the virtue which regulate and adjust the different parts of soul and constitute unity of these other virtue is justice. In justice all the moral qualities meet and the moral life of the person becomes one perfect whole. Plato defined justice as due proportionality. This is the effective co-ordination of the whole nature or having and doing what is one’s own nature in society. In individual case each soul faculties has its own virtue and justice is all three parts functioning harmoniously .Plato identified virtue with goodness. According to Plato every one naturally do what he consider good. Evil is not sin but ignorance. He also denied acrasia or weakness of will. According to him there is no such situation where one really want to do something but do the opposite due to weak will. According to Plato the aim of life is supreme good. This good is contemplation of true knowledge and the object of true knowledge is ideas. Sensible things are only the object of belief or opinion.

3-The state:Man must be educated to attain justice and resemble God. Virtue cannot realise in isolation, so justice is realised only in collective man or in the state. He describes ideal state in Republic .Republic consists of three parts. First section consists of construction of ideal common wealth, second section define philosopher, third section discuss various kind of actual constitutions and their merits and demerits. Nominal purpose of republic is to define justice. As it is easier to define justice in a state than in individual and a just state is the best state he outlines the character of just state. Plato also classified three types of people depending on the predominance of their natures. So Plato's ideal state comprise, like individual three classes. We have seen three forms of virtue like wisdom that of head, courage that of heart and temperance that of abdomen. According to Plato depending on predominance of one over the others God created men of three kinds, gold, silver and brass or iron. Hence citizens are divided into three classes of the state and three distinct groups, common man, soldiers and guardians ,the last fewer than other classes and only they have power. So the first is the legislative and administrative class and they are the governors and men of learning and wisdom, Second defense and the group of warriors and third the group providing individual wants by groups of husbandman ,handicraftsman etc. By this division of classes virtues and moral qualities are produced .There are mainly four cardinal virtues. First is wisdom which is realized in the governing class and who advice in state affairs accordingly. Second is courage and realized in warriors. Third is temperance and is specially concerned to the third class. The fourth is justice and it is realized in the state when each one do only the work proper to his constitution and nature and justice is the virtue which give rise to other three major virtues and also maintain it. In the individual subject his wants and desires and it’s satisfaction corresponds to third class, reason which has mastery over the temptations corresponds to rulers and the third is anger which allies either with desires or reason according to situation and corresponds to warriors and justice is here each part doing it’s duty and not interfering in others.

    First the guardians are selected by legislator, then they succeed by heredity. In exceptional cases a promising child of lower classes may be promoted to guardians and unpromising one of guardians may be degraded. First guardian group are people with predominance of reason or wisdom. They are truth loving or philosophers. They should rule the society and represented in the body by head. who constitute the legislative and executive power, intelligence and head of state, the ruling class Second ,soldier people with predominance of will or emotion. They are power loving people and represented by army in society and chest in the body. warriors, the heart of state, militant class. Third merchants, artisans, agriculturists, slaves, the servant class corresponds to sensuous soul, people with desire or appetite. They are possession loving people represented by workers and industry man in society and loin in the body. Wisdom belongs to ruling class, courage to military class. obedience to these two higher classes, who think and fight for them belongs to the labouring, commercial and serving classes. All humans contain these three natures and the classification is based on the predominance of one nature over others.

     Establishing and maintaining such a state is by giving education to the young. Those who are selected for rulers are specially given knowledge of philosophy and also music and gymnastics.. To ensure the guardians carry out the intensions of legislator there are various educational, economic, religious, biological proposals. State is the father of the children and also educate them. Children are taken away from the mothers after birth and care is taken not to recognise  each other and reared in a common place by nurses. Deformed and children of inferior parents taken away. Upto the age of three education consists of caring for the body. From three to six it's moral education is anticipated by narration of myths, from seven to ten gymnastics, from eleven to thirteen reading and writing, from fourteen to sixteen poetry and music, from sixteen to eighteen mathematics, from eighteen to twenty military exercises. At twentieth year state makes a selection from them for military and government and those qualified for government make a thorough study of different sciences till they reach thirty. Proper education is given to the young to become guardians and selected on intellectual and moral qualities, also who are just and gentle, fond of learning , having good memory and harmonious mind. Mainly four Pythagorean studies like arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and harmony. They were studied to prepare mind for vision of eternal things At thirty a second selection made and the least distinguished enter upon secondary position of administration. Others continue their study of dialectics for many ears and lastly ethics. After being introduced to the highest good they are ready for higher positions of state. He makes the oldest and the best of warriors to become rulers. They have given best education and the best among them selected at age 30 and given special training and from 35-50 some fills posts of public service and when he reaches age 50 some have vision of greatest good and the remaining in study and service in the highest delibrate council of state, he my become ruler  in his turn and spend the remaining time in philosophy  

    Education mainly divided into music and gymnastics. Girls same education as boys, like music, gymnastics and art of war. Women compete equality with men in all respects. Gravity ,decorum and courage are cultivated in education. In 'laws' Plato enjoins to include theology and belief in religion to the education of young. From early life there is a rigid censor on literature and music access to them. Mother and nurses tell them only authorized stories. Homer and Hesiod banned, because they represent gods sometimes behaving evilly ,but they must be taught the gods are the source of only good things. They also make children fear of death, but education must make people willing to die in battle. Then there are passages in tem that approve loud laugher, praising rich feasts, lust of gods which discourage temperance. There must be no story in which wicked are happy and good unhappy , so poets are condemned. He also argues against drama on similar grounds. In music Lydonian and Ionian harmonies forbidden because it is relaxed and express sorrow. Permissible rhythm must be simple as a the expressions of courageous and harmonious life. Training of body is very austere, no fish, only roasted meat, no sauces and confectionary. Upto a certain age young are not exposed to ugliness or vice. At suitable age they are exposed to enchantments, and to terror that must not terrify, and bad pleasures that do not seduce the will. Young boys should see war but not fight. Only after they resisted these they fit to be guardians. In economics social life is communism. Legislators selected some men and women for guardians. They have small houses and simple food and live in a commune, dining together. Sexual relation are not for the pleasure of the individual but to bring forth children for the state. Women are no private persons but like men can choose any class suited to her Women are common for men and no private property beyond absolutely necessary. Everything should be common including women and children. Gold and silver forbidden. Children by union without state sanction considered illegitimate. Reproductive age for women twenty to forty and men twenty five to fifty five. Outside this age sex free but abortion or infanticide compulsory. Marriage is arranged by state's choice not couple's choice. Lying is a prerogative of the government.

    In the state of Plato individual subjectivity and it’s freedom is sacrificed for the sake of the universal or state, so individual have no right to select the class. The class is selected by the elders of the state by considering natural abilities and talents. In Plato's republic private property is also abolished. All the classes are like one family and the products of their work is common to all. Everyone receives according to his requirement. He also abolishes marriage. .The main feature of Plato's state is the sacrifice of the individual to the state, reference of moral to political virtue. Since man can attain his complete development only as a member of the state individual purpose should conform to general aim, state must represent a perfect and harmonious unity ,a counterpart to the moral life of individual. In a perfect state everything must be common to all and this universality and unity can be actualized only when individuality and particularity is given up. Private property, domestic life (instead a community of goods and wives), duty of education, choice of rank and profession, arts and sciences all are subjected and placed under the control of the state. Individual can be happy only as a constituent of state. So Plato does not recognize the will and choice of the individual. He elaborates the features of the republic like teaching gymnastics and music, which forms the two means of culture of higher ranks, studying mathematics, philosophy etc, age of marriage, abandoning the deformed and denying food and shelter to the sick etc. The political institution of platonic state is aristocratic. He prefers an absolute monarchy and this ruler should be a philosopher. He says the state can attain it’s end only when philosopher becomes rulers. This absolute monarchy in 'Republic' he abandons in 'Laws' and recommend a mixed constitution of both aristocracy and monarchy. The other forms of government are less ideal. Thus, in what Plato calls the timocracy, where the spirited element takes the ascendancy and those who would be simple guardians occupy the highest rank, praise (time) becomes the object of action. A lower type of society, oligarchy, is the reflection on the level of government of the predominance of the acquisitive sense in the individual: oligarchy thus is plutocracy, government by those whose sole concern is wealth. The descent to democracy is to a condition where the state reflects the individual driven by all the baser appetites. The lowest type of government is the despotic or tyrannical where the tyrant balances on one end of the scale the philosopher king on the other. As we mentioned earlier he also make three division of ranks. First ruler corresponds to reason, warrior corresponds to spirit and crafts man corresponds sensual desires. Function of ruler is making law and caring for the general good, that of warrior is defending the country from external enemies and that of craftsman is care of separate interests and wants eg: agriculture, commerce etc. From ruler the state get the virtue of wisdom, from warrior bravery and from craftsman temperance. In the proper union of these virtues is found justice of the state, which is the sum of all virtues. According to Plato the craftsman exist in the state only as means and .it is not necessary to give them rights and laws. This is the way the state is raised to the unconditional rule of reason under the supremacy of the good. In order for the state to form a real unity individual interests merged in general interest, family absorbed in the state, individual cease to be the proprietor and children belongs to the state, which forms one large family. State is a pedagogical institution whose mission is to realise goodness and justice on earth so will not tolerate art for art sake except means of education and employed in the service of  good. In Aesthetics Plato considers the essence of beautiful as intellectual, the idea of reason. As the truth of the phenomena is idea so the truth of phenomenal beauty is also the idea. The essence of beauty is the idea present to the senses as a thing.


   Plato's Idea of Good which is at the top of the ideas and whose nature is not ideas or essences and which is also beyond all contraries like idea and matter is what we have explained as the first plane of Absolute Subject of unknowable essence. Plato’s ideal world and sensible world corresponds to our plane of Absolute Spirit  or spiritual world and manifested world. As we told earlier they are not two separate realities but two aspect of one reality. World is the external expression of the ideas and ideas are the internal reality of the world. Ideas are eternal while world is temporal and transient. Plato’s classification of human nature is similar to spiritual, rational and passionate nature. Plato’s supreme good as contemplation of ideal world is path of self realisation and definition of justice is perfection of one’s own nature. As he says in Parmenides one and many or ideal world and phenomenal world is what we called spiritual world and manifestations. As we explained spirit is the inner reality of the manifestations. They are the different planes or states of one subject, so subject is one but states different.

   Now Acrasia or weak will is a real situation. As we told earlier will depends on knowledge and knowledge on nature. When passionate nature predominates in essence it produce desire. By contemplation of self or by other self improving methods when rational nature start manifesting will interfere with desire. But until rational nature regulate passionate nature desire triumph’s over will and this is the situation of Acrasia or weak will. The doctrine of Plato that there is no Acrasia is true only if consider knowledge as spiritual knowledge or self realisation. As we explained at this stage activity is spontaneous. We have seen when dealing with Socrates that knowledge is virtue and here knowledge is spiritual knowledge and self realisation which is the sole aim of human life. Justice in all walks of life  is the natural out come of this self realisation

One of the main defect of Plato's he sometimes speaks as if there are two eternal realities, mind and matter and he identify evil with matter. We have explained that there is only mind and matter is nothing but objective aspect of mind so mind itself. What we call inertia, evil, ugliness is difference in predicates due to different states of mind as it becomes more concrete or most abstract. So evil is a form of good itself. Another point of Plato's philosophy is his abolition of the freedom of subjectivity by abolishing the rights of the individual and marriage and private property. He denies this in favour of the state. Problem of modern state is to unite individual and state-to bring the universal end and the particular end of the individual into harmony ,to reconcile the highest possible freedom of the conscious individual will, with the highest possible supremacy of the state.


Chapter:13: Aristotle

      Aristotle was born in 384 B.C. at Stagira ,a Greek colony in Thrace. His was a family of physicians.His father Nichomachus was also a physician. At a very early age he lost his parents. He began his study in 367, became a student of Plato at 17 and spent there 20 years. Due to his indomitable zeal for study Plato called him ‘The Teacher’. He was first pupil and later rival of Plato. After Plato's death Aristotle went with Xenocrates to Hermeas, the tyrant of Atrneus, and married his sister Pythias. After Hermeas was killed he fled with her to Mitylene and lived there some time. After her death he married his concubine, Herpyllis and had a son in her, Nicomachus. In 343 he was called by king Philip of Macedon, to educate his son Alexander. When Alexander went to Persia, Aristotle went to Athens and taught in the Lyceum from 334. From the shady walls of Lyceum, in which Aristotle used to walk and teach, the school received the name peripatetic. Aristotle used to teach in the mornings his most senior students, in profoundest questions of philosophy which is called acroamatic, and in the evening normal students on general and preparatory topics which is called  exoteric. He taught in Athens for 13 years and After the death of Alexander, when accused of disrespect towards gods ,atheism and Macedonianism, fled to chalcis, in Eubaes and died there in 322 B.C. at the age of 63.The school of Aristotle is called peripatetic school. After his death Theophrastus, Eudemus and Strato were it’s famous teachers.

     The general character of Aristotle's philosophy is it is realism or it makes experience the principle of knowledge. Plato’s dialogues are poetic and mythical but Aristotelian is prose, Plato’s thinking is intuitive while Aristotelian is discursive. Immediate beholding of reason in Plato becomes reflection and conception on Aristotle. Unlike the idea of Plato which is abstract actuality Aristotle sees idea in concrete actualization. So he devote to particular and give attention to the manifoldness of phenomenon. The method of Plato is dialectic and synthetic  while that of Aristotle is analytic and regressive course. So in the former from idea to concrete in the latter from concrete back to idea. This is the method of induction. (derivation of certain principles and maxims from a sum of given facts and phenomena). He is the father of logic, natural history, empirical psychology and science of natural rights.

  Philosophy is love of wisdom. Wisdom then is the knowledge of the first causes, the ultimate principles, in any given area, whether in the realm of production or in the realm of things, knowledge of which is sought for its own sake. He gives us a threefold division of knowledge: theoretical, practical and productive. Productive knowledge is like agriculture, carpentry etc. The end of theoretical knowledge is truth, that of practical knowledge action. The object of theory is absolute and changeless, practical changeable and relative. The principle of practical within the subject, theory within the object. The two characteristics of the theoretical object then are immateriality and unchangeability. Theoretical sciences which have truth for their object like mathematics, physics, theology or first philosophy;. practical sciences which treats the useful-ethics, politics etc and poetical sciences whose object is beautiful. So object of theory are sense object in it's universality like physics, mathematics which do not need sense object and metaphysics which neither need sense object or mathematical object.


     Aristotle’s logic is a history of finite thought.Logic is concerned with natural things from the point of view of what happens to them when we know then. The logic is contained in five books which is called Organon. It is the name given to the collection of categories, on interpretation, prior analytic, posterior analytic ,topics, and on sophistical refutations. Aristotle is the real founder of logic. What was rudimentary in Eleatics, Sophists and Socrates, Aristotle coordinated these elementary axioms, completed them and formulated them into a system of deductive logic. The problem of logical faculty and logic as a science is to form conclusions and through it to establish proof. Conclusions arise from propositions and this form conceptions. According to this Aristotle divided the content of logical and dialectical doctrines. So the first treatise in Organon is categories, which treat universal determination of being and concepts and this is a first attempt at an ontology. Ten categories are substance, quantity, quality, relation, place ,time, position, mode of being or state, activity and passivity. Substance is a primary thing to which predicate can be attributed."Substance, in the truest and primary and most definite sense of the word, is that which is neither predicable of a subject nor present in a subject; for instance, the individual man or horse."In the Categories, we find a distinction between complex and incomplex expressions. Examples of the former are "the man runs" and "the man wins," of the latter, "man," "ox," "runs" and "wins."The Categories is concerned with simple terms, the elements of assertions.The heart of the Categories is the discussion of substance , quantity , relation , quality  and action and passion .The second book is on interpretation and it is the doctrine of judgments and propositions which are either true or false.In the first chapter of On Interpretation we find a distinction made between thoughts which do not involve truth or falsity and those which must be either true or false. What are called simple or incomplex expressions in the Categories are not true or false; however, it is not just any complex expression which is either true or false, but only the enunciation or proposition. It is divided into three parts: antepredicaments, predicaments, postpredicaments. The first three chapters discuss things presupposed by the doctrine of categories: equivocity, univocity, denomination; the distinction of simple from complex expressions; the notion of predicability.  This treatise discuss speech as the expression of thought, doctrine of the parts of speech, propositions and judgments. Man alone is endowed with speech. Through language we designate things as we conceive them, we conceive them by reason as they are in themselves. General ways of designating things or parts of discourse (categories of language and grammar) correspond to different forms according to which we conceive them or the categories of understanding (ten categories above mentioned) and these in turn signify the mode of being of things themselves-that is the thing are in reality substances, qualities quantities etc. Analytics and subsequent works are concerned with reasoning or discourse. Third is on Analytic. There are two parts-the prior and the posterior. they deal with proof and syllogisms. In the Prior Analytics, the syllogism is defined as a discourse (logos) in which if certain things be maintained, something else necesssarily follows. This book shows how conclusions may be referred back to their principles and arranged in order of their antecedence. Most important work in logic is prior analytic which is the doctrine of syllogism. The syllogism is defined as a discourse (logos) in which if certain things be maintained, something else necessarily follows The first analytic contains in two books- the universal doctrine of the syllogism, conclusions are according to their content and end either apodictic, which possess a certain and incontrovertible truth, or dialectic, which may be disputed and is probable and finally sophistic which are announced deceptively as correct but they are not. The doctrine of apodictic conclusions and proof  given in two books .Argument consists of three parts, a major premise, a minor premise and a  conclusion. As an illustration below is a syllogism. All men are mortal (major premise), Socrates is man (minor premise), there fore Socrates is mortal (conclusion). There are four such syllogism which make first figure. Aristotle later added second and third figure. Some inferences can also be made from  single premises. From all men are mortal we infer some mortals are men. He also taught that all deductive inference is syllogistic. Setting all valid kind of syllogism and argument in syllogistic form we can avoid fallacy. Second analytic, that of dialectic ,is furnished in eight books of Topic and sophistic in treatise ’sophistical convictions’. This also discuss the trouble of deductive theory as to how first premises obtained and proved, and writes on definition. Definition is a things essential nature. Essence is those property which it cannot change without losing it's identity. Forth is The Topics. This treat of places-in this the point of view from which any thing can be considered discussed. Fifth book is on refutations.


    The term metaphysics was coined by commentators. Plato called it dialectics and Aristotle first philosophy while he called physics second philosophy. According to Aristotle philosophy is the science of universals. Special sciences are general theories of one or some system but philosophy proper or first philosophy is a separate science  coordinated with other sciences (second philosophy) having a distinct subject matter, which is being as such, Absolute, God. It is also universal science embracing all specialties, as God contain everything in principles and is the first cause of all. So the relation of metaphysics to other sciences is that while all other sciences investigate a determinate form of being, metaphysics enquire about being itself. If there is only physical substance physics would be the first philosophy, but if there is an immaterial and unmoved essence which is the ground of all being this is first philosophy and as this essence is God, he also call it theology. Unlike sophists and sceptics, Aristotle maintain the possibility of knowledge. Man is the only being that partake active intellect, of God, through him of knowledge of absolute. So the object of metaphysics is the chief of categories, substance. to which the rest are based and related. It inquire into nature of  being as such irrespective of time and place, absolute and necessary being, eternal essence of beings opposed to relative, contingent and accidental. In his metaphysics there are seven distinct groups.1-criticicm of previous philosophies in light of four Aristotelian principles.2-positing of apriories or philosophical preliminary questions.3-The principle of contradiction.4-definitions.5-Discussion of conception of essence and conceivable being  or conception of form and matter and which arise from the connection of these two.6-potentiality and actuality7-Divine spirit unmoved itself and moving all.8-polemic against Plato's ideas and numbers.

Form and Matter.: This is prime matter and substantial form. There are three substance; matter, form, compound of two. Matter potentiality, form actuality. Two type pf actuality possession of knowledge, use of knowledge. In metaphysics he discusses and distinguishes four metaphysical principles. In his theory of causation Aristotle identified four causes. First formal cause, which is due to its form, idea, essence or quality, second the material cause which is due to matter or substratum, third  is the efficient or moving  cause which is the real and first cause of the things motion or change or principle of motion and fourth principle of final cause or good, which is due to its final aim or purpose. As an illustration take a  painting. Here matter is canvas, paint, brush etc; form is the conception of image in mind; moving cause is the painter and end is finished painting. These principles are generative causes ,through the cooperation of these four principles the real being, whether art or living being is produced. These principles do not subsist as substances, but they always inhere in the particular thing. potential becomes actual only through efficient or motive force. These four causes can be reduced to the antithesis of form and matter. The moving cause can be reduced to form and end. Moving cause is that which make the transition from incomplete actuality or potentiality to complete actuality or becoming of matter to form. But in every movement of incomplete to complete the complete antedate in conception and is it’s motive. So the moving cause of matter is form. Like this the moving or efficient cause is also identical with final cause or end, because the end is the motive for all motion and becoming. Then form and end may be considered as one ,because both united in conception of actuality. So in the final analysis Idea is formal cause ,motive cause and final cause. So fundamentally there are only form and matter. So there are two causes the idea, which is the cause and aim, so this is the essential and proper cause, matter of which they are made, a conditionery and secondary cause. Since these two are necessary for all becoming, they cannot have produced themselves so they are eternal.

Potentiality and actuality: Pure matter or when abstracted from thought Aristotle consider as without predicate ,determination or distinction. It is the abiding which becomes, but in it’s own being different from all becoming. It is capable of all forms and is everything in possibility ,but nothing in actuality. There is a first matter which is at the basis of every determinate being.. With this Aristotle overcome the difficulty of explaining becoming. It is not out of not being absolutely but out of that which as to actuality is not being ,but which is possible or potential being anything becomes. So matter is positive substratum for Aristotle unlike Plato who treat it as not being. So matter coincide with potentiality and is antithesis to form which coincide with actuality. Like pure matter pure form is conception of being and no determinate being. Every existing thing is a combination of matter and form. The opposition between matter and form varies because in a table the wood is matter while in relation to unhewn tree it is form. According to Aristotle every substance becomes the matter for the higher form to evolve from it and this evolved substance, which contain both matter and form in its turn become the matter for still higher form. In this view existence is like a ladder whose lowest step is prime matter and highest step is pure form (absolute divine spirit), in between form and matter with increased proportion of form at every step. It is due to form ,matter is a definite thing and this is the substance of the thing. Form of a thing is it's essence and primary substance. Not everything has matter. There are eternal things and these have no matter, except those that move in space, things increase in actuality by acquiring form. Matter without form is only potentiality. Matter is potential form, all evolution is due to more and .more form ,hence more actual, God pure form ,pure actuality so no change. Idea and matter not opposed as they unite, cooperate and produce all. Non being and real matter are two different things. Matter is accidental non being. Matter is close to the notion of substance. It is potential being, possibility or capacity of being, the germ and the beginning of becoming. Concrete being is the development of this germ, realisation of possibility, potential actualised. Matter is the germ of form, potential form. The form or union of form and matter, which constitute particular thing is matter in actuality. So matter is the beginning and form is the goal of things. Matter is the imperfect state, form is the completion. Instead of opposing form, matter strives after it and desire it as female desire male. Matter and form are so correlative terms and each presupposes and supplement other. Motion is the term which mediate between them. Motion is the transition of matter into form. if matter is to form what potentiality to actuality all things are both potentiality and actuality, matter and form. Every being in the universal scale of being is idea or perfection when compared to the lower stages and matter or imperfection when compared to higher stages. So the matter in the final stage of development, last matter and form are same.So there are matter or potentiality and the other form or actuality also called entelechy or free activity which has end in itself and realize this end. Entelechy he defined as an inner purposefulness which resides in things and which convert the potential nature of the thing in to actuality Potentiality is unformed matter which can becomes all forms but not form itself. substance has potentiality and actuality or matter and form not separated from one another. The relation of matter to form ,logically apprehended is the relation of potentiality and actuality. If matter is potential form or reason becoming then there is no opposition between idea and phenomenal world, because there is then only one being which appear as matter at one time and form at another in different stages of development. The relation between potential and actual Aristotle explains by the relation of unfinished work to finished work, and one asleep to awake. Potentially the seed is tree, but the full grown tree is it’s actuality. Actuality or entelechy is the gained end ,completely actual. Plato consider the idea as being at rest ,independent in itself ,in opposition to the becoming and to motion, but to Aristotle idea (form) is as actuality or entelechy so joining form with motion and becoming. It is the eternal product of becoming, an eternal energy, an activity in complete activity, it is not perfect being, but being produced in every moment and eternally, through movement of potential to actual end. Opinion differs whether Aristotle believed in the reality of forms and innate ideas or he considered them as mere concept and nominal relation of things. There are references in his ‘Metaphysics’ where he says forms are eternal and after perishing of individual things they become the form of new things. He also believed in the immortality of the active reason. From this it is apparent that Aristotle also believed in the reality of ideas. What he stressed was there are no two separate worlds but one world of substance, which contain both form and matter. Aristotle describes three mode or kind of substances depending on the relation of form to matter or actuality to potentiality. In these three kind of substances first is sensuous and perishable substances. Here matter is distinguished from form so this is the realm of finite, plants and animals. Sensuous substances undergo four types of changes-first regard to what-causing origination and decay, second quality-causing further qualities, third quantity –causing increase or decrease and fourth regard to place –causing motion. Matter is permanent in these changes and these changes is from potential to actual existence. Second is sensible but not perishable. This is the higher kind of substance in which matter already contains form or actuality. This is soul or understanding and heavenly bodies whose content is the aim which it realizes through it’s activity. Third is neither sensible nor perishable and this is the highest form of substance where potentiality and actuality are united. This is Absolute Substance or Absolute Being or the unmoved mover and rational soul where there is no matter so potentiality same as actuality and as absolute activity.

Criticism of Plato's ideas and theory of universals:

      The main points of Aristotle against the Ideas are the following. First, he maintains that the essences of material things cannot be separate from them, essence of a thing and a thing is one and same.; secondly, that Ideas are unnecessary to explain the coming into being of material things; Ideas are neither efficient nor exemplar causes; finally, as Plato speaks of them, the Ideas cannot be substances. Aristotle unlike Plato identified individual things as substance and primary reality. Assuming Plato believed in two separate worlds Aristotle contended that substance contain both form and matter. To Aristotle form and matter are inseparable. There is neither matter less form nor formless matter. The individual things contain the ideas. Forms exist in things. Aristotle denied separate existence of forms. According to him form or idea is the character or nature of substance and matter is its receptive element. This is the base of his criticism of platonic ideas. To Plato idea is the only actual so it is unable to explain the being and becoming of the sensible which stand against the idea. In Aristotle's view relation between idea or mind and phenomenon is actual to possible ,form to matter. He consider mind as the absolute actuality of matter ,and matter ,as the potentially mind. According to Aristotle Plato provide no proof for the objective and independent reality of  ideas. For true knowledge Plato posit certain substances independent of sensible and uninfluenced by it’s change but this he derives from the individual thing so he gave this individual a universal form and call this idea. So this idea cannot be separated from the individual sensory objects which participate in them. In other words ideal duality and empirical duality is one and the same content. Ideas differs from sensible only by appending per se to the names, expressing the ideas .So there is only formal change and the finite content is not removed but characterized as eternal. This objection that in doctrine of ideas we have only the sensible posited as non sensible and endowed with immutability Aristotle calls ‘immortalised things of sense’. Secondly doctrine of ideas cannot explain being. The idea give no aid to the knowledge of the individual things participating in them, since the ideas are not immanent in these things, but separate from them. The ideas cannot also explain becoming, the arising and departing of sensory things, no motion no causality, even though Plato in Phaedron says ideas are the cause of being and becoming ,nothing becomes with out motion. To overcome this indifferent relation of ideas to actual becoming Aristotle makes the categories of potentiality and actuality. To him ideas are potential and only possibility and essentiality because they are wanting in actuality. According to Aristotle the inner contradiction of ideas is it posits an individual immediately as a universal, and at the same time makes the universal, the species, as numerically an individual, and also on one side ideas are made separate individual substances, and on the other side as participant, and therefore as universal. Plato has left the relation between ideas and individual objects obscure. He calls the ideas archetypes and says the objects participate in them. It is impossible to conceive how and why matter participates in ideas. In order to explain this we need a higher principle which contain both and which is the moving principle. So to Aristotle nothing universal, kind or species exists besides and separate from the individual. a thing and it’s conception cannot be separated from each other. Strongest argument against Plato is third man argument. if a man is a man because he resembles the ideal man, there must be more ideal man to whom both ordinary and the first ideal man are similar. According to Aristotle in language proper names like moon, sun, India etc refer only to particular things while cat, man, animal apply to many things so universal, also adjectives like white, round etc .Proper name is substance, adjective or class name is universal., indicates sort of thing, not particular thing. Universal is not substance as.substance is not predicable of subject, but universal is.Universality is something that happens to what Socrates is as a result of our knowing that whatness. It is a relation between the nature as grasped by our mind and the individuals whose nature it is, e.g., Socrates. This relation of predicability is something following upon our knowing a thing, not part of what is known, the concept which terminates the mental act.So universal cannot exist itself but only in particular things. Plato is right in regarding knowledge as that of real being instead of appearance ,.but he is wrong in conceiving the ideas as real beings existing apart form the individuals which express them. It only add to the real world a world of useless homonyms. Separate ideas do no contribute towards the production, preservation or knowledge of things. Plato's words like 'ideas are patterns and things participate in them' is vain words and poetic metaphor. If idea is the substance of particulars or essence of things it cannot exist outside and along side of particulars. So ideas considered apart from things are not real beings. Aristotle does not deny the objective existence of idea. For him also idea is the essence of particular. What he denies is idea existing apart from things. Idea is inherent or immanent in thing. It is it's form and cannot be separated except by abstraction. It is the essence of the particular and constitute the indivisible whole. Mere matter has also no reality without form. Matter without idea is also an abstraction like idea without particular things which realise it. Motion also has no independent existence as it presupposes a substratum. So neither idea, nor matter, nor motion has alone any real or substantial existence. Reality is concrete and particular thing consists of the whole these taken together. Only thought abstract it's constitutive elements. But most important of these is idea or form, identical with essence or soul. Form is more real than matter. Matter is only it's support, but indispensable support.

The Absolute Divine Spirit:. This is the unmoved first mover. He deduce it from the following points.

a-The cosmological form: The actual is prior to potential not only in conception but also in time. This leads to the first mover which shall be pure activity. Secondly there is motion and becoming and causality only because there is a mover or principle of motion. This mover must be actuality since that in possibility cannot alone itself becomes actual and cannot be principle of motion. All becoming postulates a being who is unmoved and which moves .

b-The ontological form-The necessary and eternal being cannot be potential, potentiality can either be or not be but  not be is temporal, so absolutely permanent is actual.

c-Moral form-potentiality has a possibility of opposite. Who has the possibility of well has also the possibility of sick,. but in actuality no one is well and sick at the same time. So actuality better than potential and it belongs to the absolute.

d-If the relation of potentiality to actuality is identical with matter and form then the the supposition of pure or absolute matter without form also suppose Absolute form without matter.

So the concept of form contain three determinations- moving cause, concept and end. So the absolute being is principle of motion (first mover), absolute intelligence and absolute end. All other predicates of the absolute follows from these premises. Unity because he is without matter and matter is the cause of many, he is immovable and eternal. Only this supreme being is form without matter. As matter is the antecedent to development and higher perfection, since supreme being is absolute perfection he contain no matter so immaterial. This eternal actual being is the motive, form and final cause of things. The first mover itself immovable. Motion always caused by higher motive force, this from still higher and this ends in first mover. First cause act always so motion is eternal. So universe has no beginning or end in time although limited in space. Matter has a desire for eternal idea, God and God is the first cause of this desire. God's object of desire and object of thought cause motion. Motion with out being moved is caused by love. So matter is moved by Absolute Being without slightest motion on first mover's part. As supreme being is immaterial it can have no impressions, sensations, appetites, will in the sense of desire, feelings in the sense of passions, all these things depends on matter, the passive receptive female principle of form. God is pure intelligence. The divine mind has an immediate, intuitive knowledge of essence of things. Absolute thought is identical with it's object. Since nothing is higher than God and thought of God has the highest possible object, God is the object of his own thought. God is pure thought, as thought is the best. Life also belongs to God, actuality of thought is life and god is that actuality. It is on itself divine thought thinks. So divine thinking is a thinking on thinking. He is life as active self end and actuality, He is intelligible and intelligence, He is self contemplating intelligence and absolute actuality, so he only thinks of himself and attain actuality within himself .Aristotle define absolute as ‘the thought of thought’-unity of thinking and thought, knowing and known, absolute subject object.As the final cause and highest good God is the immanent essence of things and also transcendent. God is both the law and law giver, the order and orderer of things. Unity in the world proves the unity of God, .on this absolute depends both heaven and nature. All living things are more or less aware of God and moved to action by admiration and love of God. God is the final cause of all activity. Change consists in giving form to matter.

Physics (philosophy of nature):

    Aristotle call physics ,second philosophy. This is mainly explained in books 'physics' and 'on the heavens' .Physics is concerned with nature and nature of a thing is it's end, for the sake of which it exists. So there is teleology in nature. Some things exist by nature, some form other causes. Animals, plants, elements exist by nature, they have an internal motion or purpose. Nature is a source of being moved or at rest. A being's nature is it's essential attributes. A being's nature is in form rather than in matter, so motion is making potential actual. In the idea of nature Aristotle emphases on two determinations, the conception of end (final cause) and the conception of necessity (efficient cause). He teaches a conception of end as the inward determination of natural things. This is inward immanent end and necessity is for this an external condition. This corresponds to form and matter. Necessity is in matter but end is in form ,so matter and it’s movement is necessary in natural things, but end or form is the higher principle. Sky is the perfect sphere and earth is at it's center. Nature is everything within this sphere subject to motion or rest. Physics is a theory of motion. It inquire into immovable principle (divine),imperishable moving power (heavens) and perishable world of sublunary nature. There are many kind of motions like categories of being. One motion that affects substance, origin and decay; other motion that affect quality, alteration; motion that affect quantity, addition or substraction, local movement or change of place. Motion, change, entelechy is the realisation of the potential, but not a substance and does not exist apart from things that exists. Aristotle consider heavens as neither have beginning nor end This is designated as ether and the eternal matter. The fundamental elements are four and they proceed from one another First there is fire out of this Air then water and lastly earth. Nature is the becoming of matter into form. It pass through living being to individual soul. Becoming culminate in end and end is form and absolute form is spirit. Aristotle consider human male as this form. Other elements and kingdom of nature is the attempt to produce male human and which fail this aim he calls abortion. Everything in nature, animals and even females are imperfect in comparison to male. This imperfection is due the working of nature with unconscious impulse.

   The universal condition of nature like motion, matter, space, time he discuss in physics. These are reduced to potentiality and actuality. Motion is defined as activity of being potentially so a mean between mere potential and complete actual., space is the possibility of motion so possess potentially the property of infinite divisibility., time is also the infinitely divisible, expressing measure of motion in number and is the number of motion according to before and after, all three are infinite potentially. From this conception of motion he derives the view of collective universe. The perfect motion is circular since it is uniform and return into itself. The world is conditioned by circular motion and has spherical form. Since motion which return to itself is better in this spherical form the better spheres are in the periphery where circular motion is perfect and the inferior one will be in the centre of the universe, the former heaven and the latter earth and in between are planets. Heaven is the scene of unchangeable order, stand nearest to absolute and is under it’s immediate influence. It is the abode of divine. It’s parts, the fixed stars are passionless and eternal essences which attained it’s end, in tireless activity and is more divine than man. Lower to fixed star is planets. Besides the five known planets (Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Venus) he counts sun and moon among them. These are less perfect than the higher region. Instead of moving from right to left like fixed stars they move in contrary direction and oblique orbits. They serve the fixed stars and ruled by their motion.

     Below God, other separated substances arranged in a hierarchy answering to the various spheres within the supposed ultimate sphere of the universe. These lesser immaterial movers are ordered to the Prime Mover in much the same way as the lesser motions are to the first. The separated substances which are as final causes of lesser spheres seem to be related, given their function, in terms of degree of power and knowledge. "That the movers are substances, then, and that one of these is first and another second according to the same order as the movements of the stars is evident." .The immaterial substances are hierarchically arranged, ordered to the first, and this not by chance.  Aristotle believed that everything is in constant motion. This is initiated by God who is the unmoved mover. According to Aristotle God is the unmoved mover or the first cause. He identifies this with both thinking reason and heavenly bodies.. The second cause is heavens which are moved and also cause movement. The motion of heavens are spherical or circular which is the perfect form of motion and it’s centre point represent the Absolute being which causes movement but itself unmoved. Heaven consists of fixed stars and then planets. The third is sublunar world which are moved by heavens but does not cause movement. The first manifestation of Absolute substance is motion which produce space and time. space is like a substance, it is not the material out of which bodies are made as Plato says. it is the limit between the surrounding and surrounded body, between the content and container. He rejects void. Motion does not imply the existence of void, it is a change of place of different bodies. condensation of a body presupposes rarefaction of surrounding body and vice versa, .so there is no void in the body or outside of them. Since space cannot be conceived with out movement the immovable (divine) is not in space and also as space is the limit between the contained and container and since universe not contained in anything but contain all so cannot occupy space. Hence universe, the whole of things not move. It's parts only move. The whole only revolve upon itself. Certain portions of heaven moves, not upwards or downwards but in circle and only denser or lighter particles carried downwards or upwards. Like space time exists only as a condition of motion. It is the measure or number of motion.. There always was motion as time, the uncreated cannot exist without motion. So unlike Plato's opinion it is potentially infinite like motion and this distinguish it from space which is limited. As time is measure of motion, it is a number and supposes a person so cannot exist without a numbering soul. .

       In different kind of motion most important is change of place. It has different forms. The first and perfect motion is circular which is endless, simple and uniform. The unmoved mover first causes circular motion, this is the primary kind, continuous and infinite. Rectilinear cannot be constant, so less perfect. Circular and rectilinear motion upwards and downwards are the motion in world. The former belongs to highest heavens ,the solid vaults which support fixed stars. the rectilinear moves the central or lower part of universe. the eternal revolution of the outermost heavens on it's axis is caused by unmoved mover who moves other parts indirectly and by means of fixed stars. These lower spheres which are around fifty revolve around the centre of earth, which is also centre of the world. Earth is placed under direct influence of planets and indirectly fixed stars. it does revolve around its own axis but mainly upwards and downward movement. Things that move downwards from periphery to centre are heavy, that move form center to periphery are light. Heavy and light is same as cold and warm. Heavy and cold matter form earthy elements ,light and warm fire. Water or wet and air or dry forms intermediate elements whose purpose is to reconcile contrary extremes. Elements are successive transformation of one and same matter as fre into air, air into water etc. The difference in the elements of earth is due it's peculiar motion so not found in heavens. Heaven contain ether which is not a fifth element but neutral substance and substratum of the four elements. There are no various elements there as no contrast between heavy and light, warm and cold. It is in direct communion with first mover who is in outer most heaven and are ever happy and immortal and, of all beings they most resemble God. The more reason a being has less arbitrary it's action but more regular. Upper heaven more divine than lower The planets which are inferior to fixed stars are also immortal and uncreated, endowed with life ad activity. The movers of planet produce motion opposite to perfect and divine motion of fixed stars making independence of planets and hostility to universal order. This is the beginning of evil but when compared to earth they have divine, perfect and happy existence. Things below moon are subject to generation and decay, above moon everything ungenerated and indestructible. Operation of four elements and the resulting motion and change is confined to earth and sublunar region, sphere of becoming, birth and death. The earthy atmosphere consist two regions, one is wet and cold and surround earth and oceans , the other formed of an element warmer and lighter than air and extends to the vault of heavens. In the highest are comets and milky way, the lower produce wind, storms, rain bows and meteors.

    Earth is in the centre of the universe, farthest from the first mover, so containing smallest degree of  divinity .So there are three kinds of being showing three stages of perfection,. first Absolute spirit unmoved mover and immaterial being,. second super terrestrial region of heavens, a being which is moved and which moves and though with matter is eternal and unchangeable and lastly those of earth ,changeful being, which is only passively moved. Organic world is the domain of final causes. What distinguishes art form nature is while artist's aim exist in mind as clear idea while in nature it exists as instinct. Monsters of nature is an error. Nature desire the best without always able to achieve it. Here inability is due to matter not to idea. There is teleology in nature. The end or purpose is the principle that makes nature act, and pre exists in the organisms produced by her. Nature is a constant and progressive transition of elementary to the vegetative and vegetative to animal world. Lowest step is the inanimate bodies which are simple products of elements mingling together and their entelechy only in determinate combination of elements and resting when they reach a fitting place in the world. But in living things it is not such an external entelechy., within them there is a motion as organizing principle by which they become actual, this is called soul which is the entelechy of organic body. In plants soul is as preserving and nourishing energy, in animals besides this soul is as sensitive and moving energy. the human soul is nutritive, sensitive and cognitive. So organisms differ from inorganic bodies in that they are driven by an inner principle, which employ multiple organs to realise it. Vegetable kingdom is not an end in itself, animals which lives on plant is it's end, .so the vegetable soul has only the function of assimilation and reproduction. The animal soul has also faculty of feeling, and in higher animals, capacity to retain sense impressions. The five senses meet in common senses which synthesize them and constitute rudimentary form of inner apperception. Soul of animal susceptible to pleasure and pain and they strive for what is agreeable and shun the opposite (active faculty or will). Man in addition also contain the faculty of knowledge or reason. So man is the most perfect organic being. He is the final goal to which nature strives and the failures are due to resistance of matter. So gradually after much attempts this final goal is reached. So organic world form an ascending scale.Animal kingdom is divided into two classes-one contain sanguineous animals; mammals, fishes ,amphibia; second insects, crustaceans, testaceans, mollusks. Relative perfection of animal depends on it's heat in the body as warmth is inseparable form life.


   Essential feature of soul ,in virtue of it as form of body is, it make the body organic whole, having purpose as unit. Organisation confers substantiality Soul is the first grade of actuality (possess knowledge) of a natural body having life potential in it. Living natural bodies are substances in the sense of compound of matter and form. Soul is the substantial form of a living body so body is described as that which has life potentially. Soul moves the body and perceive things. It is characterized by self nutrition, sensation, thinking and motivity. Soul is the substance and essence of the body. The relation between soul and body is same as form and matter, potentiality ad actuality. capacity and function. Body is potentiality or capacity and soul it's energy or function. Soul is also potentiality or sum of capacities, capacities of perceiving ,willing, feeling of which perception, volition and sensations are action or energies. Hence soul is the entelechy or primary functions of the body and it's manifestations are the secondary functions or energies of the body. Body exist and lives for the soul which is it's aim or final purpose. But soul also is a realty only as far as it animates something, energy of an organism. without body soul may exist potentially, but not in actuality or reality. It is impossible to feel, will, desire without the corresponding corporeal organs. Constitutive functions of soul are inseparable from body. Since soul is the sum of th body's functions, it is evident that it's manifestations or soul itself determined by the nature and special organisation of the body it animates. So metempsychosis is not correct, human soul does not animate other animals.

    The soul in one aspect is independent of the body as in thinking and in another aspect dependent or united with the body as in emotions. The soul has three elements one the matter ,the second form which gives it individuality and the third the union of form and matter, where matter is potentiality and form entelechy or actuality. There are three forms of soul, vegetable or plant soul, sensitive or animal soul and intelligent or Human soul. The nutrient soul when alone belongs to plants, when developed to include sense perception becomes animal soul and further developing intelligence human soul. So man contain all the three natures. So he believed man consist of matter, psyche and form or vegetative soul, animal soul and rational soul. Different matter is responsible for making people different. Soul has rational and irrational parts. Irrational two fold, vegetative soul found in plants and appetitive or animal soul found in animals. According to Aristotle this irrational soul is bound up with body and he ridicules Pythagorean theory of transmigration. Certain parts of soul, irrational part are inseparable from body. Intellective soul is independent of body.Like the division of matter and form he also divide intellect or reason into active and passive. Passive reason is the  capacity to become all things and also the faculty of sense perception and imagination  while active reason is the capacity of creating all things. Psyche or animal soul he identified with passive memory, which is personal and perish at death. As far as soul is sensation, imagination, memory and will it is perishable. Intellect has a mortal part and an immortal or divine part. Mortal part is the sum of ideas determined by bodily impressions. This passive intellect is mortal.  There is only one universal form or rational soul for all humans, which survive death and is eternal and immortal. To the reasoning soul pictorial conception take the place of sense perception and when reason affirms or denies something to be good or bad, it desires or avoids it’s object. The active intellect, reason which conceive universal and divine is immortal. It alone cannot be a function of the body. It is essentially different and separable form the body while passive intellect cannot be separated form body. Active intellect is not a capacity, but an actual being. It is not a product of nature or development of soul like imagination, sensation, memory etc. It is not a product, effect or creature but an absolute principle that existed before the soul as well as the body and united with it mechanically. This active intellect is immaterial, impassive, imperishable and eternal, without it the passive and mortal intellect cannot think. it is substantial. The active reason is absolute and not influenced from out side. Rational part or Mind is higher than soul and less bound to body. Mind is independent and cannot be destroyed. It is capable of existence apart from other faculties and eternal. . Mind has higher function of thinking and no relation to body or senses. Life of rational soul is contemplation. Mind in another sense means two intellect, both active and passive separable from body .His passage about the separation and immortality of intellect is interpreted differently by others. Some interpret  both active intellect (actual knowledge making all things) and passive intellect (potential knowledge becoming all things) are immortal while others only active intellect immortal.

    Man as the end of all, contain all steps of development seen in nature ,as we have seen the soul of man contain nutritive faculty, sensitive faculty and moving faculty. In the developmental steps of human soul the antecedent forming first and soul is the union of these faculties of an organic body in one common end, as the entelechy of the organic body. The forth step thought or reason added to the others constitute the peculiarity of the human soul It forms an exception from this law because it is not the product of the lower faculties of soul and not related to them as a higher stage of development, not as soul to body, end to instrument, actuality to potentiality and form to matter. It is a pure intellectual activity, it completes itself without any bodily mediation, as it comes to body from without and so it is also separate from body and no connection with bodily function. About sense perception Aristotle says the first impulse comes from external but after perception the content becomes knowledge or one’s own. Human understanding not the creator but recipient of ideas. By nature it is devoid of any content and like a white page. Ideas exist in the mind not actually but potentially. So mind possess no ready made ideas but only the faculty of forming them .In perception, only the form is taken not the object or matter .His famous words ‘sense perception is the receiving of sensible forms without matter, as wax receives only the impress of the golden signet ring, not the gold itself, but merely it’s form. ’About thinking he says it is a state of receptivity and and it always refers to an object other than itself but make the object itself. His famous quotes ‘nihil est intellectu quod non fuerit in sensu-there is nothing in reason which is not first in the senses'. He further says ’Reason is like a book upon whose pages nothing is actually written (Tabula rasa). This may means soul contain everything only potentially but becomes actual only through experience. .  Soul is an unwritten tablet ,this means knowledge belongs to soul potentially only, reason have in itself universal conceptions as it has the capacity to form them, but not actually and not in determined form, but this passivity presupposes activity, if in actuality it becomes knowledge ,then thought constitute itself that which it becomes ,so this passivity rests on active intelligence which exist as self actualizing possibility and pure actuality. This is independent of body and it’s entelechy not in body but in itself ,so survive the death of body and lives on as universal reason ,eternal and immortal.. So human spirit cannot enter the life of sense .

Ethics (Philosophy of Mind).

   Aristotle discus ethics mainly in Nichomachean ethics, and also in Magna Moralia and Eudemean ethics and eight books of politics. Aristotle consider ethics as a branch of politics. Aristotle defines the principle of morality or the highest good as happiness. This  happiness is an activity of soul .Happiness having been defined as an activity of soul in accordance with virtue

So Unlike Plato Aristotle thought that the aim of life is not goodness but happiness. The good is having it’s end in itself, is not desired for the sake of anything else but for it’s own sake. For happiness rational insight is necessary so sensuous desires or lack of freedom is not happiness. Knowledge is the perfect rational activity so it is divine happiness. When dealing with virtue Aristotle divide the soul into two parts ,rational and irrational side.-the irrational is only reason potentially and and this is the seat of feelings ,passions and affections. Rational side is the seat of understanding, wisdom, knowledge and discretion. Seeking knowledge is relevant to and for the sake of action. Virtue is the unity of the rational and irrational side. Involuntary acts are either by compulsion or due to ignorance so they are neither virtue nor vice. When desire and inclinations are related to reason and  they carry out it’s orders this is called virtue. The incontinent man is distinguished from the virtuous man because he does not have his passions disciplined and under control. So virtue is the unity of knowledge and desire. Since the good activity of reason will be one kind of virtue, the good activity of the irrational part of the soul as it is brought under the persuasion of reason, another kind. Let us call these intellectual and moral virtues respectively. Intellectual virtue can be gotten from a teacher but moral virtue is the result of habituation. Active intellect make man intermediate between animal and God. In sensibility, perception, memory it resembles animal, in reason God. This dual aspect constitute it's originality as moral being. As morality is uniqueness the aim of human life is complete and harmonious expansion of our dual nature The appetitive or animal part is some degree rational, when the good it seeks are approved by reason. This is essential for virtue as reason alone as contemplative, without help of appetite does not lead to any practical activity. Two kind of virtues corresponding to two parts of soul, intellectual and